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'ilftij I'liini 

C I  H  C I  H  HA  II I 







History  Fees 

,„ Cornell  University  Library 


History  of  Cincinnati    Ohio, 

3   1924  032   193  520 


Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 

1  7 : ;  9 






Illustrations  and  Biographical  Sketches. 


Henry  A.  Ford,  A.M.,  and  Mrs.  Kate  B.  Ford. 

L.  A.  WILLIAMS  &  CO., 



cod  turn 

Id    I  I 7        ;     ,      .     ,  —  I I--J 

3~  ■'  ■'  -<v 


Prefatory  Note, 

The  reader  looks  forward  to  this,  the  first  history  of 
Cincinnati  that  has  yet  found  itself  in  print.  The 
writers  look  back  across  its  half-century  of  chapters  and 
the  century  of  years  embraced  by  its  annals,  and  have, 
chiefest  of  all,  to  regret  many  unavoidable  errors,  both 
of  omission  and  commission.  The  more  important  of 
these,  it  is  hoped,  will  appear  in  our  page  of  errata;  but 
there  are  still  many,  doubtless,  that  have  escaped  the 
compilers'  attention.  In  a  few  cases,  discrepancies 
appear  between  their  statements  and  those  of  an  extract 
immediately  following.     In  those  instances   they  must 

assure  the  reader  that  the  former  rest  upon  an  authority 
believed  to  be  superior  to  the  other  in  regard  to  the  mat- 
ter in  hand;  but  time  and  space  could  not  always  be 
taken  for  the  discussion  and  settlement  of  points  con- 
cerning which  there  are  variant  reports.  In  all  really 
important  matters,  they  believe  the  history  will  be  found 
quite  trustworthy,  especially  when  corrected  from  the 
page  of  errata. 

For  the  biographical  feature  of  the  work,  except  so 
much  of  it  as  is  embodied  in  the  chapters  before  the 
Lth,  the  writers  have  not,  in  general,  any  responsibility. 




I. — A  Brief  Description  of  Cincinnati 
II. — Ancient  Works  Upon  the  City's  Site 
III.— The  Site  of  Losantiville 
IV. — Before  Losantiville 
V. — Losantiville 
VI. — Fort  Washington 
VII. — Cincinnati's  First  Decade 
VIII. — Cincinnati  Township 
IX. — Cincinnati's  Second  Decade     . 

X. — Cincinnati's  Third  Decade 
XI. — Cincinnati's  Fourth  Decade     . 
XII. — Cincinnati's  Fifth  Decade 
XIII. — Cincinnati's  Sixth  Decade 
XIV. — Cincinnati's  Seventh  Decade 
XV. — Cincinnati's  Eighth  Decade 
XVI. — Cincinnati  in  the  War 
XVII. —The  Siege  of  Cincinnati 
XVIII. — Cincinnati's  Ninth  Decade 
XIX. — The  German  Element  in  Cincinnati    . 
XX. — Religion  in  Cincinnati 
XXI.— Education         . 
XXII.— Public  Charities      . 
XXII. — Benevolent  and  other  Societies 
XXIV.— Science 
XXV.— Art 
XXVI.— Music         .... 






















































-Bookselling  and  Publication 

'.. — Medicine  .... 

-The  Rench  and  Bar 
— Manufacturing 
—The  Industrial  Exposition 
'. — Commerce  and  Navigation 
—Banking — Finance — Insurance 
—The  Post  Office      . 

—The  Local  Militia — The  First  Appointments 
—The  City:  Government 
—The  Fire  Department 
—The  Water-works 
-Penal  Institutions 
-The  Police — Board  of  Health 
-Markets  .  ... 

-Streets — Street  Railroads — Bridges — Parks,  etc. 
-Annexations  and  Suburbs 
-Biographical  Sketches 
-Personal  Notes 















Baum,  Martin      .... 


Burkhalter,  Christian 


Burnet,  Jacob     .... 


Burnet,  Dr.  William 


Blackburn,  Dr.  John 


Bramble,  Dr.  David  D. 


Buckner,  Dr.  James  H. 


Bailey,  Samuel,  jr.     . 


Bouscaren,  Louis  G.  F. 


Cists,  the       . 


Cary  Sisters,  the 


Cramer,  Dr.  John      .            .            .            . 


Cox,  Hon.  Joseph 


Cappeller,  Hon.  W.  S. 


Carey,  Milton  Thompson 


Chickering,  J.  B. 


Covington,  Hon.  S.  F. 


Denman,  Matthias 


Drakes,  the 

.  204 

Drake,  Dr.  Daniel     .            .            .            . 


Dunlevy,  Hon.  A.  H.     . 


Davis,  William  Bramwell 


Duckworth,  George  K. 


Dodson,  William  Beal 


Eshelby,  E.  O 


Eaton,  Morton  Monroe 


Eells,  Samuel      .... 


Filson,  John               .            .            .            . 


Frankensteins,  the          . 


Flint,  Rev.  Timothy 


Findlay,  Samuel .... 


Fox,  Charles  . 

Force,  Hon.  Manning  F. 

Follett,  Hon.  John  F. 

Fishburn,  Cyrus  D. 

Fehrenbatch,  Hon.  John 

Guilford,  Nathan 

Goforth,  Dr.  William 

Goudy,  Thomas . 

Hemann,  Joseph  Anton 

Hofer,  Nikolaus 

Herron,  Joseph 

Hole,  Dr.  John    . 

Hammond,  Charles 

Hunt,  Samuel  F. 

Hickenlooper,  Andrew 

Harper,  Professor  George  W.    . 

Hunt,  Colonel  C.  B. 

Johnston,  Campbell  and  family 

Klauprecht,  Emil 

Kautz,  August  V. 

Kron,  Pastor 

King,  Rufus 

Ludlow,  Colonel  Isaac 

Lewis,  Samuel    . 

Molitor,  Stephan 

Moor,  August 

McGuffey,  Dr.  William  H. 

Mansfield,  Edward  D. 

Morrell,  Dr.  Calvin   . 

McClure,  Dr.  Robert 

McMillan,  William   . 



Matthews,  Hon.  Stanley' 
Mussey,  Dr.  Reuben  D. 
Mussey,  Dr.  W.  H. 
Miles, 'Dr.  A.  J. 
Muscroft,  Dr.  C.  S 
Maley,  Dr.  P.  F 
McClung,  Colonel  David 
Nast,  Wilhelm 
Patterson,  Colonel  Robert,   . 
Pulte,  Joseph  H., 
Pike,  S.  N.     . 
Picket,  Albert 
Powers,  Benjamin  F., 
Reese,  Rev.  Dr.  Friedrich 
Rodter,  Heinrich, 
Rumelin,  Karl  Gustav, 
Rattermann,  Heinrich  A.,     . 
Rentz,  August,     . 
Roelker,  Dr.  Friedrich, 
Rehfuss,  Ludwig, 
Ray,  Dr.  Joseph 
Ramsay,  Dr.  Samuel 
Riddle,  Colonel  John 
Ramp,  Samuel  W.         ' 
Symmes,  John  Cleve, 
Stallos,  Theodore, 
Stowe,  Calvin, E., 



Stites,  Dr.  John, 


Symmes,  Daniel, 


Short,  John  Cleves, 


Smith,  Hon.  Amor, 


Staley,  L.  A., 


Sadler,  L.  L., 


Stowe,  James  G. , 


Santmeyer,  Captain  C.  A. , 


Steele,  Charles  McDonald, 


Skaats,  Hon.  George  W. , 


Starbuck,  Calvin  W., 


Smith,  Samuel  Sherwood, 


Underhill,  Dr.  J.  W.,     . 


Von  Stein,  Albert,      . 


Von  Masters,  Heinrich,  . 


Varwig,  Henry, 


Voight,  Captain  Lewis,  . 


Von  Seggern,  Christopher, 


Walker,  George 


Weitzel,  General  Gottfried 


Wright,  Dr.  Marmaduke  B 


Wild,  John  S 


Ward,  General  Durbin 


Wright,  Dr.  C.  O 


Wulsin,  Drausin 


White,  James  S 


Zinn,  Major  Peter 








The  Cincinnati  Music  Hall 


Portrait  of  Colonel  David  W.  McClung 

facing  192 

Portrait  0 

Judge  J.  C.  Symmes 



"          Amor  Smith,  jr. 

facing  200 

Fort  Washington 



L.  A.  Staley 

facing  208 


in  1802 


Hon.  W.  S.  Cappeller 

facing  216 

Plan  of  Cincinnati  in  1815 



Samuel  F.  Hunt 

facing  224 

The  Trollope  Bazaar    . 



Samuel  W.  Ramp 

facing  232 

The  Church  of  the  Pioneers 


Samuel  Bailey,  jr, 

facing  240 

The  First  Cincinnati  College  Building 



E.  O.  Eshelby 

facing  248 

The  Tyler 

Davidson  Fountain 

between  404  and 


"           L.  L.  Sadler 

facing  256 

Portrait  0: 

John  Cleves  Short 



James  G.  Stowe 

facing  264 


Hon.  Stanley  Matthews 



Prof.  J.  B.  Chickering 

facing  272 


Alonzo  Taft 



"           Alice  Cary 

between  272  and  273 


Colonel  John  Riddle    . 



"           Phcebe  Cary 

between  272  and  273 


Dr.  Reuben  D.  Mussey 



"           Professor  G.  W.  Harper 

facing  280 


Dr.  W.  H.  Mussey 



"           Captain  C.  A.  Santmeyer  . 

facing  288 


Major  Peter  Zinn    . 



"           Murat  Halstead 

facing  291 


General  Rees  E.  Price 



"           Hon.  George  W.  Skaats 

facing  296 


General  Durbin  Ward 



"           Drausin  V, 

facing  304 


Hon.  Manning  F.  Force 



James  S.  W  wite 

facing  312 


Hon.  Joseph  Cox 



S.  F.  Covington            „ 

facing  320 


Hon.  John  F.  Follett 



"           Charles  McDonald  Steele 

facing  328 


David  D.  Bramble 



Colonel  C.  B.  Hunt      . 

facing  336 


Dr.  A.  J.  Mills 



"           Louis  G.  F.  Bouscaren 

facing  344 


Dr.  J.  W.  Underhill 



"           Hon.  John  Fehrenbatch 

facing  352 


William  Bramwell  Davis 



George  K.  Duckworth 

facing  360 


Dr.  James  H.  Buckner 



"           Morton  Monroe  Eaton,  M.  D. 

facing  368 


Dr.  C.  S.  Muscroft 



Henry  Varwig 

facing  376 


Dr.  Cyrus  D.  Fishburn 



"           Captain  Lewis  Voight 

facing  384 


Dr.  C.  O.  Wright 



William  Henry  Cook,  M.  D. 

facing  392 


P.  F.  Maley 

facing  176 

"           Christopher  Von  Seggern 

facing  400 


General  A.  Hickenlooper 



W.  H.  Bristol 

facing  408 






Cincinnati,  Ohio. 



How  blest  is  he  whose  doom  it  is 

A  wanderer  to  roam, 
Who  even  in  memory  can  return 

To  such  a  lovely  home. 
Oh,  were  I  in  the  fairest  clime 

That  smiles  beneath  the  sky, 
Here  would  my  spirit  long  to  come — 

If  not  to  live,  to  die. 
As  yearns  the  weary  child  at  night 

To  gain  its  mother's  breast, 
So,  weary  with  my  wanderings, 

Here  would  I  long  to  rest. 

"To  the  Queen  City,"  by  Charles  A  Jones. 

Where  grand  Ohio  rolls  his  silver  floods 

Through  verdant  fields  and  darkly  waving  woods,  ^ 

Beholding  oft,  in  flowery  verdure  drest,  . 

The  green  isle  swelling  from  his  placid  breast ; 

Here  where  so  late  the  Indian's  lone  canoe, 

Swift  o'er  the  wave,  in  fearless  triumph  flew, 

Behold  the  stately  steam-borne  vessel  glide, 

With  eager  swiftness,  o'er  the  yielding  tide ; 

And  where  so  late  its  shelter,  rude  and  low, 

The  wigwam  reared,  beneath  the  forest  bough, 

Lo !  cities  spring  before  the  wondering  eyes, 

And  domes  of  grandeur  swell  into  the  skies. 

[Lines  prefixed  to  Bullock's  Sketch  of  a  Journey,  1827.] 

To  the  Queen  of  the  West, 
In  her  garlands  dressed, 
On  the  banks  of  the  Beautiful  River. 

H.  W.  Longfellow. 

Cincinnati  is  situated  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river 
Ohio,  the  part  of  it  first  settled  being  opposite  the  mouth 
of  the  Licking  river,  upon  the  site  of  the  original  village 
of  Losantiville.  Its  latitude  is  thirty-nine  degrees  six 
minutes  north;  longitude  eighty-four  degrees  twenty- 
seven  minutes  west.  It  is  three  hundred  and  ninety 
miles  west  of  Washington  city;  four  hundred  and  sixty- 
six  miles  by  the  river,  or  two  hundred  and  fifty  miles  in  a 
direct  line,  southwest  of  Pittsburgh;  one  hundred  and 
twenty  miles  southwest  of  Columbus,  and  two  hundred 
and  fifty-five  from  Cleveland;  and  five  hundred  miles  by 
river,  or  two  hundred  and  ninety  directly,  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Ohio  at  Cairo.  (The  city  is  built  upon  three  ter- 
races, The  first,  or  that  next  the  river,  has  an  average 
height,  above  low  water  in  the  river,  of  sixty  feet;  the  sec- 
ond of  one  hundred  and  twelve  feet;  and  the  third,  or 

the  general  level  of  the  hills,  rises  to  commanding  heights 
varying  from  three  hundred  and  ninety-six  feet  on  Mount 
Adams  to  four  hundred  and  sixty  feet  on  Mount  Harri- 
son, west  of  Mill  creek.  /The  first  terrace  was  found  by 
the  early  settlers  to  extend  from  a  gravelly  hill  or  bluff 
near  the  present  line  of  Third  street,  between  Broadway 
and  a  point  west  of  John  street,  to  an  abrupt  but  not 
very  high  bank  about  one  hundred  feet  south  of  the  hill, 
which  was  penetrated  here  and  there  by  small  coves. 
Between  this  bank  and  the  river  was  a  low  but  sloping 
shore,  always  flooded  in  time  of  high  water.  All  this  has 
been  changed,  including  the  disappearance  of  the  bank 
and  bluffs,  by  the  progress  of  improvement  in  the  older 
part  of  the  city.  The  second  terrace  stretched  from  the 
general  line  of  Third  street  in  a  gentle  rise,  as  .now,  back 
to  the  hills.  From  this  the  ascent  to  the  third  plateau, 
or  the  summit  of  the  hills,  is  in  many  places  exceedingly 
abrupft  and  is  surmounted  in  part  by  graded  and  macad- 
amized roads  up  the  ravines  between  the  spurs,  and  in 
part  by  four  inclined  places — at  Mount  Adams,  at  the 
head  of  Main  street,  at  a  slope  on  Mount  Auburn,  near 
the  head  of  Elm  street,  and  at  Price's  hill,  near  the  west 
end  of  the  city,  up  all  of  which  cars  are  pulled  by  powerful 
steam  engines.  These  hills,  with  the  popular  resorts  and 
places  of  amusement  thereon,  constitute  the  chief  attrac- 
tion of  the  city,  and  are  almost  world  renowned  in  their 
fame.  Mr.  John  R.  Chamberlain,  writer  of  the  valuable 
article  on  Cincinnati  in  the  American  Cyclopaedia,  says 
they  form  "one  of  the  most  beautiful  natural  amphithea- 
tres on  the  continent,  from  whose  hilltops  may  be  seen 
the  splendid  panorama  of  the  cities  below  and  the  wind- 
ing Ohio.  No  other  large  city  of  the  United  States  af- 
fords such  a  variety  of  position  and  beauty."  They  are 
described  as  having  been  exceedingly  attractive  in  their 
pristine  loveliness.  Mr.  J.  P.  Foote,  in  his  "Schools  of 
Cincinnati,"  writing  of  the  hills  as  they  appeared  in  the 
early  day,  says;  "At  that  period  they  formed  a  border 
of  such  surpassing  beauty,  around  the  plain  on  which 
Cincinnati  stood,  as  to  cause  us,  who  remember  them  in 
their  beauty,  almost  to  regret  the  progress  of  improve- 
which  has  taken  from  us  what  it  can  never  restore."  The 
names  of  the  principal  eminences,  from  east  to  west  of 
the  city,  are  Mount  Lookout,  the  Walnut  Hills,  Mount 
Adams,    Mount   Auburn,    Clifton    Heights,  Fairmount, 


Mount  Harrison,  Mount  Hope,  Price's  Hill,  and  Mount 
Echo.  The  average  height  of  the  hills  above  tidewater 
at  Albany  is  eight  hundred  and  fifty  feet,  and  of  the 
second  terrace  five  hundred  and  forty  feet;  it  being 
twenty-five  feet  below  the  level  of  Lake  Erie.  Low  water 
mark  in  the  river  at  Cincinnati  in  four  hundred  and 
thirty-two  feet  above  the  sea,  and  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
three  below  Lake  Erie.  The  descent  from  the  upper 
plane  of  Cincinnati  below  the  hills  to  low  water  is  there- 
fore one  hundred  and  eight  feet. 

The  major  part  of  the  city,  for  population  and  busi-" 
ness,  though  by  far  the  smallest  in  territorial  extent,  lies 
upon  the  first  and  second  terraces.  They  are  part  of  a 
beautiful  and  fertile  plain,  lying  in  an  irregular  circle, 
and  extending  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  about  twelve 
miles  in  circumference.  It  is  cut  into  unequal  parts 
by  the  course  of  the  river,  which  here  makes  several 
curves,  but  has  a  general  northeast  to  southwest  direc- 
tion. On  two  sides  of  the  northern  section  of  the  plain, 
which  is  the  smaller,  the  city  is  built  along  the  narrow 
spaces  between  the  hills  and  the  river,  and  to  some  ex- 
tent on  the  hills  themselves.  On  the  northeast,  for  four 
and  a  half  miles,  or  to  and  including  Columbia,  now  a 
part  of  the  city,  this  belt  is  but  about  five  hundred  yards 
wide;  on  the  southwest  the  width  is  only  three  hundred 
yards  to  the  city  limits,  a  mile  and  three-quarters  beyond 
the  point  where  the  hills,  after  curving  around  this  part 
of  the  plateau,  return  to  the  river,  about  three  miles  from 
the  point  at  which  they  left  it  on  the  other  side.  The 
city  has  thus  a  very  extensive  water-front — about  eleven 
miles,  allowing  for  the  curvatures  of  the  river,  and  taking 
in,  among  the  annexations  of  the  last  ten  years,  the  old 
village  of  Columbia  on  the  one  side  and  the  former  su- 
burb of  Sedamsville  on  the  other.  The  average  width  of 
the  city  site  is  three  miles,  although  up  the  valley  of 
Mill  creek,  since  the  annexation  of  Cumminsville  in 
1873,  the  extreme  breadth  is  five  and  one-half  miles. 
The  total  area  enclosed  by  the  corporation  lines  is  fifteen 
thousand  two  hundred  and  sixty  acres,  or  very  nearly 
twenty-four  square  miles — an  increase  of  seventeen  square 
miles  since  1870  (when  it  comprised  but  four  thousand 
four  hundred  and  eighty  acres),  by  the  successive  and 
rapid  annexation  of  suburbs.  The  older  part  of  the  city 
is  intersected  by  the  valley  of  Deer  creek  on  the  east, 
which  is  now  dry  except  after  heavy  rains,  and  is  partly 
occupied  by  the  great  Eggleston  avenue  sewer;  and  by 
the  Mill  creek  valley  on  the  west,'  which  is  broad  and 
fertile,  and  comparatively  level  for  many  miles  to  the 
northward.  Beyond  Mill  creek  the  hills  are  cut  through 
by  the  narrower  valley  of  Lick  run.  The  former  con- 
tains a  good  sized  stream,  which  has  been  greatly  service- 
able for  mills  and  other  purposes,  since  an  early  period 
in  the  history  of  the  place. 

The  main  body  of  the  city,  including  the  business  portion  and  the 
densest  population,  borders  on  the  river  between  the  mouth  of  Deer 
creek  on  the  east  and  that  of  Mill  creek  on  the  west,  a  distance  of  two 
and  one-half  miles.  North  of  East  Liberty  street  and  the  Hamilton 
road,  the  hillsides  from  Deer  creek  to  Mill  creek  are  terraced  with 
streets,  and  [in  places]  covered  with  dwellings  to  their  summits.  Mount 
Adams,  overlooking  the  southeast  corner  of  the  plateau,  has  streets 
thickly  lined  with  dwellings  on  its  summit  and  west  and  south  sides. 
The   remainder  of  the  city,    including    the  narrow  valleys  along  the 


river,  above  and  below  the  city  proper,  the  village  of  Cumminsville, 
next  the  northern  corporation  line  in  Mill  creek  valley,  and  the  several 
table-iand  villages  from  Woodburn  on  the  east  to  Fairmount  on  the 
west,  is  irregularly  built.  In  the  northwest  part  are  native  forests  and 
cultivated  farms.  On  the  western  hills  are  vineyards  and  gardens.  Be- 
tween Harrison  avenue  and  the  Twenty-fifth  ward  (Cumminsville)  are 
many  vegetable  gardens.  * 


A  number  of  villages,  formerly  suburbs,  are  now  in- 
cluded in  the  city.  The  principal  of  these,  beginning  on 
the  east,  are  Columbia,  Walnut  Hills,  Mount  Auburn,  and 
Cumminsville.  Fairmount  is  a  residence  quarter  west  of 
Mill  Creek  valley,  and  Sedamsville  is  mainly  a  manufact- 
uring district,  lying  south  of  the  western  range  of  hills, 
between  it  and  the  river,  about  three  and  a  half  miles 
from  Fountain  Square.  Fulton  is  a  part  of  the  city  at 
the  base  of  the  hills  on  the  other  side  of  the  plain,  be- 
ginning beyond  the  Little  Miami  railway  depot  and  run- 
ning in  a  narrow  tract  northeast  to  Pendleton  village, 
which  lies  between  it  and  Columbia.  Northeast  of 
Columbia  the  city  includes  a  part  of  Tusculum.  Due 
north  of  it,  at  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of  the  city,  is 
Mount  Lookout,  a  small  but  attractive  suburb,  in  part 
outside  the  corporation  limits,  and  the  seat  of  the  Cincin- 
nati observatory;  about  north  of  the  dividing  line  between 
Fulton  and  Pendleton,  and  on  the  hills,  is  the  little  plat 
known  as  O'Bryonville,  between  which  and  Walnut  Hills 
is  Woodburn,  an  extensive  and  well-built  area;  and  west 
of  Walnut  Hills,  between  Mount  Auburn  and  the  north 
corporation  line,  is  Corryville,  a  residence  and  business 
quarter,  on  the  \«est  of  which  is  the  spacious  and  beauti- 
ful Burnet  Woods  Park,  and  on  the  north,  just  outside 
the  eity,  in  the  southwest  part  of  Avondale,  the  famous 
zoological  gardens.  Camp  Washington  occupies  a  lim- 
ited space  between  the  Miami  canal  and  Mill  creek,  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  workhouse  and  the  house  of  refuge. 
Brighton  is  not  marked  as  a  district  quarter  upon  the 
latest  maps,  but  is  that  part  of  the  city  reaching  from  the 
junction  of  Freeman  street  and  Central  avenue  west  to 
Mill  Creek,  and  takes  its  name  from  the  former  existence 
of  the  city  stockyards  there.  Barrsville,  Forbusville, 
Peterstown,  and  Lick  Run  are  hamlets  adjoining  or  not 
far  from  Fairmount,  on  the  heights  west  of  Mill  Creek; 
and  Weaversburgh  is  a  station  on  the  Westwood  Narrow 
Gauge  railroad  west  of  Fairmount,  and  close  to  the  cor- 
poration line.  These  highlands,  between  Fairmount  and 
the  Ohio,  are  as  yet  occupied  to  but  a  limited  extent, 
from  the  difficulty  with  which  most  parts  of  them  are 
still  reached  from  the  city.  "The  outer  highland  belt  of 
the  city  commands  distant  views  of  hills  in  Kentucky 
and  Ohio,  and  of  the  valleys  of  Mill  Creek,  the  Licking, 
and  the  Ohio.  It  is  beautified  by  elegant  residences  in 
the  midst  of  extensive  and  highly  cultivated  landscape 
lawns,  whose  shrubbery  is  often  the  native  forest,  and  is 
traversed  by  winding  avenues.  From  the  eastern  corpo- 
ration line,  through  East  Walnut  Hills  and  Woodburn  to 
West  Walnut  Hills,  mansions  occupy  grounds  of  from 
three  to  seventy-five  acres.  The  blue  limestone  of  the 
hills  is  used  in  the  construction  of  the  finest  buildings; 
[and  .some  of   them  have  been  erected  from   material 

*  American  Cyclopaedia,  article  Cincinnati. 


quarried  upon  the  very  grounds  they  occupy.]  West 
Walnut.  Hills  and  Mount  Auburn,  though  in  parts  quite 
compactly  built,  abound  in -elegant  and  costly  residences, 
each  having  from  one  to  four  acres  of  grounds."* 

Outside  the  city,  but  in  immediate  proximity  to  it,  are 
several  lovely  suburbs.  Prominent  among  these  is  Clif- 
ton, between  Cumminsville  and  Avondale,  with  the  Bur- 
net Woods  park  cornering  upon  it  at  the  southeast.  It 
is  described  as  "a  most  beautiful  suburb,  and  an  almost 
continuous  landscape  garden."f  It  has  many  fine  groves 
and  costly  residences.  The  grounds  about  them  occupy 
areas  of  ten  to  eighty  acres.  Avondale,  next  east  of 
Clifton,  and  north  of  Corryville  and  Walnut  Hills,  com- 
prises about  eight  hundred  acres  of  territory,  and  is  also 
superbly  built.  Its  views  include  the  neighboring  hills, 
which,  however,  shut  out  the  river  scenery  from  the  den- 
izens of  this  suburb.  East  and  northeast  of  this  are 
Norwood,  Oakley,  Madisonville,  and  other  places  of 
suburban  residence;  and  between  the  last  named  and 
Columbia  is  Linwood,  a  small  place  near  the  Little  Mi- 
ami railroad,  six  and  a  half  miles  from  the  court  house 
in  Cincinnati.  College  Hill,  away  to  the  northwestward, 
about  eight  miles  from  Fountain  Square,  occupies  the 
highest  ground  in  the  county,' on  the  heights  west  of  Mill 
Creek.  Glendale  is  another  famous  suburb  in  this  direc- 
tion; also  Carthage,  eight  miles  out,  near  which  are  the 
Longview  and  the  Colored  insane  asylums,  and  the  city 
and  county  infirmaries.  North  and  northeast  of  the  city 
are  also  Bond  Hill  and  Hartwell;  Mount  Washington  and 
California  are  eastward,  beyond  the  left  bank  of  the  Little 
Miami;  Riverside,  a  suburb  of  two  and  one-half  miles 
length  along  the  river,  adjoins  Sedamsville  on  the  extreme 
southwest  of  the  city,  and  beyond  it  are  Delhi  and  other 
suburban  villages  scattered  along  the  shore.  In  all  direc- 
tions from  the  city,  but  particularly  to  the  north,  north- 
westward, and  northeastward,  a  score  of  miles,  are  many 
other  places  which  may  properly  be  reckoned  suburbs 
of  Cincinnati.  On  the  Kentucky  side  are  Covington, 
west  of  the  Licking  river,  now  a  considerable  city,  the 
largest  in  Kentucky  except  Louisville,  with  West  Cov- 
ington, Ludlow,  and  Bromley  as  suburban  places  for 
itself  and  Cincinnati,  along  the  river  to  the  west,  and 
Latonia  Springs,  five  miles  out,  on  the  Lexington  pike, 
as  a  favorite  place  of  resort  and  residence.  On  the 
other  side  of  the  Licking,  opposite  Cincinnati,  is  New- 
port, with  the  United  States  barracks  and  a  considerable 
population;  and  northeast  of  it,  also  on  the  Ohio  river, 
are  the  villages  of  East  Newport,  Bellevue,  and  Dayton. 
Newport  is  connected  with  Covington  by  a  suspension 
bridge  across  the  Licking,  and  with  Cincinnati  by  the 
Louisville  Short  Line  railroad  bridge,  which  is  also  used 
for  street-cars  and  other  vehicles,  and  for  foot  passengers. 
The  Cincinnati  Southern  railway  bridge  connects  Cincin- 
nati and  Ludlow ;  but  it  is  used  only  for  the  purpose  of 
the  railroad.  Between  these  two  bridges  is  the  main 
artery  of  communication  between  the  two  sides  of  the 
Ohio  in  this  region — the  renowned  suspension  bridge,  a 

*  American  Cyclopaedia. 
•(•King's  Pocket-book  of  Cincinnati. 

mile  from  the  former  and  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the 
latter,  and  connecting  Cincinnati  from  near  the  foot  of 
Walnut  and  Vine  streets  with  Covington.  It  is  not  used 
for  any  steam  railroad,  but  all  the  Covington  lines  of 
street-cars,  with  one  line  of  the  Newport  horse-cars,  cross 
it,  with  other  vehicles  and  foot  passengers  in  vast  num- 
bers. Three  ferries  also  connect  Cincinnati  with  Cov- 
ington, Newport,  and  Ludlow,  respectively;  and  the 
abundant  facilities  of  access,  with  other  inducements, 
have  led  to  the  residence  of  large  numbers  of  Cincinnat- 
ians  in  the  Kentucky  suburbs.  In  the  vicinity  of  the 
city  and  suburbs,  on  both  sides  of  the  Ohio,  are  many 
beautiful  drives. 

THE    OLD    CITY. 

This  part  of  Cincinnati — that  on  the  plain — is  laid  out 
quite  regularly,  somewhat  on  the  Philadelphia  plan,  and 
with  a  number  of  the  Philadelphia  street  names.  The 
streets  are  generally  from  one  and  a  half  to  two  and  a  half 
miles  long,  and  fifty  to  one  hundred  feet  wide.  The  lat- 
ter is  the  common  width.  "West  of  Central  avenue  they 
run  north  from  the  river  and  east  from  Mill  creek,  while 
east  of  that  avenue  their  direction  from  the  river  is 
slightly  west  of  north.  The  streets  and  avenues  are 
generally  paved  or  macadamized,  many  of  them  being 
adorned  with  shade  trees.  The  buildings  are  substantial, 
and  chiefly  of  brick.  A  grayish  buff  freestone,  for  fronts, 
is  universally  used  for  large  business  houses  and  the 
finest  residences  in  the  city  proper,  though  many  of  the 
residences  on  the  hills  are  of  wood.  The  prevailing 
height  of  business  buildings  is  five  stories,  though  many 
are  six.  Dwellings  are  generally  high  and  narrow,  and 
seldom  have  front  yards.  The  chief  mercantile  quarter 
covers  about  three  hundred  acres,  and  lies  between  Fifth 
street  and  the  river,  and  Broadway  and  Smith  street. 
Business  is  not  concentrated  as  in  other  cities.  Manu- 
factories are  scattered  through  all  parts  of  the  city  and  its 
suburbs.  Pearl  street,  which  contains  nearly  all  the 
wholesale  boot  and  shoe  and  dry  goods  houses,  is  noted 
for  its  splendid  row  of  lofty,  uniform  stone  fronts,  between 
Vine  and  Race  streets.  Fourth  street,  the  fashionable 
promenade,  and  the  most  select  retail  business  street 
between  Broadway  and  Central  avenue,  a  mile  in  extent, 
is  noted  for  its  splendid  stone-front  buildings.  Third 
street,  between  Main  and  Vine,  contains  the  banking, 
brokerage  and  insurance  establishments,  and  the  at- 
torney's offices;  and  west  of  Vine  the  large  clothing 
houses.  Within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  custom  house 
and  post  office  are  most  of  the  chief  theatres,  newspaper 
offices  and  libraries.  In  Pike  street,  in  Fourth  street 
from  Pike  to  Broadway,  and  in  Broadway  between  Third 
and  Fifth  streets,  are  the  mansions  of  the  'East  End'; 
in  Fourth  street,  west  of  Smith  street,  in  Dayton  street, 
and  in  Court  street,  between  Freeman  and  Baymiller 
streets,  those  of  the  'West  End.'  The  large  district 
north  of  the  Miami  canal,  which  enters  the  city  from  the 
northwest,  and  extends  south  to  the  Ohio  river,  is  known 
as  'Over  the  Rhine.'  It  is  densely  populated,  almost 
exclusively  by  Germans;  has  numerous  beer  gardens, 
saloons  and  concert  halls,  and  is  thoroughly  German  in 
its  characteristics.     In  this  vicinity  are  all  the  great  brew- 


eries  of  Cincinnati. "  *  About  twenty-five  thousand  per- 
sons occupy  this  populous  district.  Some  of  the  beer 
and  wine  cellars  of  the  quarter  will  hold  half  a  million 
gallons  of  liquor.  It  furnishes  many  famous  places  of 
resort,  especially  for  Germans  and  on  Sunday.  The 
superb  Music  hall  and  Exposition  buildings  are  situated 
here,  on  the  block  bounded  by  Elm,  Plum,  Fourteenth 
and  Grant  streets ;  also  Washington  park,  opposite  Music 
hall,  occupying  four  and  one-third  acres,  and  containing 
a  bronze  bust,  heroic  size,  of  Colonel  Robert  L.  McCook, 
one  of  Cincinnati's  dead  in  the  late  war.  West  of 
Music  hall,  on  the  other  side  of  the  canal,  is  the  im- 
mense Cincinnati  hospital — eight  buildings  in  one,  oc- 
cupying nearly  two  squares.  #n  the  old  city  are,  of 
course,  all  the  leading  hotels,  among  which  the  Burnet, 
the  Gibson,  the  Grand  and  the  Emery  are  conspicuous; 
also  the  more  costly  and  elegant  church  edifices,  as  St. 
Peter's  (Catholic)  cathedral,  with  its  peculiarly  graceful 
spire,  its  colonnade  of  Corinthian  columns,  and  its  musical 
chimes,  several  of  the  Presbyterian  churches,  St.  Paul's 
Methodist,  St.  John's  Episcopal  church,  the  Hebrew 
temples,  and  many  others;  the  buildings  of  St.  Xavier's, 
the  Wesleyan  Female,  the  Cincinnati,  and  the  several 
medical  colleges;  the  Mechanics'  institute,  the  Public 
library  and  others  ;  the  great  Government  building  going 
up  on  Fifth  street,  near  Fountain  square;  the  City  build- 
ing and  the  County  Courthouse;  the  singular  Trollopean 
Bazaar,  on  Third,  near  Broadway;!  several  fine  club 
houses ;  Pike's,  Robinson's,  and  the  Grand  Opera  houses, 
and  the  Mclodeon  and  Mozart  halls;  and  a  number  of 
small  parks,  as  the  Washington,  the  Lincoln,  the  Eighth- 
street,  the  City  building,  and  the  Water-works  parks,  all 
small;  Fountain  square,  with  the  magnificent  Tyler- 
Davidson  fountain,  the  most  notable  work  of  art  in  the 
city,  forty-five  feet  high,  costing,  with  .the  spacious  es- 
planade on  which  on  which  it  stands,  over  two  hundred 
thousand  dollars;  the  Masonic  temple,  an  imposing  free- 
stone-front building  in  the  Byzantine  style;  the  Hughes 
and  Woodward  high  schools,  and  most  of  the  other  pub- 
lic school  buildings;  and  many  more  interesting  and  ele- 
gant structures.  Most  sites  of  historic  interest  are  in 
this  part  of  the  city,  as  the  site  of  Fort  Washington,  on 
and  near  the  junction  of  Third  street  and  Broadway, 
and  others. 


Outside  the  older  city,  however,  is  Camp  Washington, 
a  place  of  rendezvous  and  equipment  for  troops  in  the 
Mexican  war;  beyond  it  is  Cumminsville,  where  "Lud- 
low's Station"  was  situated  during  the  early  years  of  white 
settlement  here;  and  at  the  extreme  eastern  part  of  the 
city  is  Columbia,  where  the  first  settlement  in  the  Miami 
country  was  made.  Upon  the  Camp  Washington  tract 
are  the  enormous  buildings  occupied  by  the  Cincinnati 
Workhouse  and  House  of  Refuge ;  upon  the  hillside  at 
Fairmount,  to  the  southwest,  is  the  former  Baptist  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  now  the  "Schutzenplatz,''  a  German 
club-house,  commanding  a  superb  view  of  the  Mill  Creek, 

*  American  Cyclopaedia, 
f  Torn  down  in  February,  1881. 

Lick  Run  and  Ohio  valleys;  and  adjoining  Cumminsville 
are  the  Wesleyan  and  Spring  Grove  cemeteries,  the  lat- 
ter of  six  hundred  acres,  the  largest  and  otherwise  one 
of  the  finest  cemeteries  of  the  country,  considered  by 
some  the  most  picturesque  large  cemetery  in  the  world. 
Cumminsville  has  also  the  Catholic  orphan  asylum.     On 
the  hills  are  the  various  large  buildings  and  gardens,  con- 
stituting the  famous  hill-top  resorts,  one  at  the  head  of 
each  inclined  plane.      Many  schools  of  note  are  on  or 
near  these  heights — as  the   Cincinnati    University,   the 
Mount  Auburn  young  ladies'  seminary,  Mount  St.  Mary 
seminary,  Mount  St.  Vincent  young  ladies'  seminary,  and 
Lane  theological  seminary;    charitable  institutions — the 
Cincinnati  orphan  asylum,   German    protestant  orphan 
asylum,  the  Widows'  and  Old  Men's  home,  and  others ; 
some  fine  churches;  the  Zoological  gardens,  just  beyond 
the  city  limits;  one  small  park — Hopkins — on  Mount 
Auburn,  and  the  two  great  parks  of  the  city — Burnet 
woods,   containing  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven  acres, 
nearly,  with  a  lake  of  about  three  acres,  and  famous  for 
its  grand  concerts  of  summer   afternoons — also    Eden 
park,  east  of  the  old  town,  largest  of  all  the  city's  parks, 
comprising  two  hundred  and  six  acres,  on  which  are  lo- 
cated the  large  reservoirs  of  the  city  water  works,  and  a 
neat  stone  building  called  the  Casino  or  Shelter  House, 
from  which,  as  well  as  from  other  spots  in   the  park, 
many  charming  views  may  be  had.     At  the  further  end 
of  Pendleton,  on  the   bank  of  the  river,  is  a  pleasant, 
finely-improved  tract  of  twelve  acres — private  property, 
but  used  much  by  picnics  and  pleasure  parties — which  was 
formerly  known  as  East  End  garden,  but  is  now  called 
Woodland  park. 


makes  a  great  bend  and  two  small  ones  in  front  of  the 
city,  and  thus  affords  a  very  extensive  river  front.  Most 
of  this  is  private  property,  and  is  considerably  occupied, 
not  only  for  steamboats,  but  for  coal-boats,  barges,  log- 
rafts,  and  other  water-craft.  The  city  owns  the  landing 
from  near  the  water-works,  east  of  the  Little  Miami  de- 
pot, to  Mill  creek,  and  leases  the  larger  part  to  steamboat 
lines,  ferry  companies,  and  other  parties.  The  Public 
Landing,  so-called,  which  has  been  such  from  the  earliest 
period  of  the  city's  history,  extends  from  the  foot  of 
Broadway  to  the  foot  of  Main  street;  and  it  is  here  most 
of  the  river  steamers,  some  of  them  very  large  and  ele- 
gantly appointed,  are  to  be  found  moored.  A  wharf 
master  and  wharf  register  collect  dues  from  vessels  for 
the  privileges  of  this  landing,  and  otherwise  look  after 
the  city's  interests  on  the  river.  'The  Ohio  is  liable  to 
great  and  sudden  freshets,  particularly  in  the  spring,  when 
it  has  sometimes  risen  fifty  to  fifty-five  feet  above  low- 
water  mark,  and  formerly  did  immense  mischief.  The 
flood  of  1832  marked  sixty-two  and  a  half  feet,  and  that 
of  1848  fifty-seven  feet  above  low-water.  These  were 
very  destructive,  and  are  memorable  in  the  annals  of  the 
city.  About  twelve  hundred  acres  in  the  Mill  creek  val- 
ley were  formerly  subject  to  inundation ;  but  that  tract 
has  been  considerably  narrowed  by  "making  land"  above 
high-water  mark  for  manufactories,  dwellings,  and  other 
improvements  demanded  by  the  growth  of  the  city.    The 



bottom-lands  are  rendered  highly  fertile  by  the  annual 
overflows,  and  are  in  great  request,  so  far  as  they  are  still 
available,  for  market  gardening;  also,  in  the  lowest  spots, 
for  brickmaking.  The  deposit  of  fine  clay  in  these 
places  from  a  single  inundation  is  sometimes  four  inches 
deep,  is  very  smoothly  laid,  and  when  removed  is  almost 
ready,  without  further  preparation,  for  the  mold.  The 
river  has  been,  as  will  be  shown  further  in  this  volume, 
an  extremely  important  factor  in  the  growth  of  the  city. 


The  Miami  &  Erie  cana-l  was  one  of  the  first  projects 
of  the  kind  to  be  executed  in  the  State.  Its  history  has 
been  detailed  in  the  first  division  of  this  book.  It  enters 
the  city  at  Cumminsville,  on  the  east  side  of  Mill  creek 
and  some  distance  from  it,  and  proceeds  in  a  winding 
but  generally  southeasterly  course,  with  a  right  angle  at 
the  intersection  of  Canal  street,  to  the  basin  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Canal  and  Sycamore  streets.  From  this  point  to 
the  river,  just  east  of  the  Little  Miami  depot,  it  has  been 
abandoned,  or  rather  converted  into  a  huge  closed  sewer 
called  Eggleston  avenue  sewer,  which  occupies  in  part 
the  bed  of  the  former  Deer  creek,  and  discharges  through 
a  spacious  tunnel  into  the  river  at  the  point  named. 
The  remainder  of  the  canal,  extending  to  Toledo,  is  still 
in  use. 

The  excavation  and  abandonment  of  the  Whitewater 
canal,  the  only  other  canal  which  Cincinnati  has  had, 
have  been  related  in  the  history  of  Hamilton  county. 


The  railway  connections  of  Cincinnati  are  exceedingly 
numerous,  far-reaching,  and  important,  as  has  been  seen 
in  the  chapter  on  this  subject  in  the  previous  part  of  this 
work.  The  railways  entering  this  city  upon  their  own 
or  others'  tracks,  are  the  New  York,  Pennsylvania  & 
Ohio  (formerly  the  Atlantic  &  Great  Western),  the  Balti- 
more &  Ohio,  the  Cincinnati  Southern,  the  Cleveland, 
Columbus,  Cincinnati,  &  Indianapolis  (popularly  known 
as  the  "Bee  Line"),  the  Cincinnati,  Hamilton,  &  Day- 
ton, the  Marietta  &  Cincinnati,  the  Cincinnati  &  Muskin- 
gum Valley,  the  Cincinnati,  Hamilton,  &  Indianapolis, 
the  Cleveland,  Mt.  Vernon,  &  Columbus,  the  Dayton 
Short  Line,  the  Louisville  Short  Line,  the  Little  Miami, 
or  Pittsburgh,  Cincinnati,  &  St.  Louis  ("Pan  Handle"), 
the  Ohio  &  Mississippi,  the  Whitewater  Valley,  the  Fort 
Wayne,  Muncie,  &  Cincinnati,  the  Cincinnati,  Wabash, 
&  Michigan,  the  Cincinnati,  Richmond,  &  Chicago,  the 
Grand  Rapids  &  Indiana,  and  the  Indianapolis,  Cincin- 
nati, &  Lafayette;  besides  the  narrow-gauge  roads — the 
Cincinnati  &  Eastern,  the  Cincinnati  &  Portsmouth,  the 
Cincinnati  &  Westwood,  and  the  College  Hill  railways. 
All  of  these,  except  the  railways  from  the  south,  come 
in  by  the  narrow  strips  of  land  left  in  the  Ohio  valley  on 
each  side  of  the  old  city,  or  by  the  Mill  Creek  valley; 
and  most  of  them  enter  three  depots— the  Plum  street, 
the  "C,  H.,  &  D.,"  at  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  Hoadly 
streets,  and  the  Little  Miami,  at  the  corner  of  Front  and 
Kilgour.  The  Cincinnati  Southern  has  its  own  depot, 
at  the  corner  of  McLean  avenue  and  Gest  street.  All 
the  depots  are  near  "the  river,  and  those  in  the  eastern 

and  western  parts  of  the  city  proper  are  connected  by  a 
track  for  limited  use  in  transferring  freight.  The  Ken- 
tucky Central,  which  has  its  northern  terminus  in  Cov- 
ington, may  also  be  considered  as  in  the  Cincinnati 


These  include  four  lines  to  Covington,  one  of  them 
through  Newport;  another  Newport  line;  the  Elm  street 
and  the  Vine  street  lines,  connecting  with  the  Clifton 
line  by  the  inclined  plane  near  the  head  of  Elm  street; 
the  Main  street  line,  using  another  incline  at  the  head  of 
Main  street  to  reach  its  track  to  the  Zoological  gardens; 
the  Baymiller  street  line,  connecting  at  the  foot  of  Mt. 
Adams  with  an  incline  to  the  summit,  up  which  cars, 
horses  and  passengers  are  taken  as  they  drive  upon  its 
carriage  from  the  street,  and  at  the  top  connecting  with 
the  Eden  Park,  Walnut  Hills  and  Avondale  line;  the 
Eighth  street  line,  connecting  with  the  inclined  railway 
at  Price's  Hill;  the  Cumminsville  and  Spring  Grove  line, 
which  has  recently  been  extended  to  Fountain  Square, 
furnishing  the  longest  ride  in  the  city,  between  five  and 
six  miles,  for  a  single  fare;  the  Walnut  Hills  line  up  Gil- 
bert avenue;  the  Third  street  line;  the  Seventh  street 
line;  the  John  street  line,  and  the  Riverside  and  Sedams- 
ville  line.  A  recent  extension  on  Liberty  street  gives  a 
new  line  to  Brighton  by  Fourth  and  Main  streets.  The 
Elm  street  line,  at'  its  eastern  terminus  in  Pendleton, 
connects  with  steam  dummy  lines  for  Columbia  and 
Mount  Lookout.  The  direct  Newport  line  makes  con- 
nection with  a  dummy  line  for  Bellevue  and  Dayton. 
All  the  down-town  horse  railways  start  from  or  near 
Fountain  Square.  Most  of  the  lines  are  consolidated, 
so  that  tickets  sold  by  one  line  are  usable  upon  others. 


of  transportation  are  abundant.  A  number  of  omni- 
buses and  stage  lines  run  to  points  in  the  country  from 
five  to  thirty  miles  distant,  not  reached  by  the  steam  or 
horse  railways,  and  several  lines  of  river  steamers  ply 
between  Cincinnati  and  other  points  on  the  Ohio,  Cum- 
berland, Mississippi,  Arkansas,  White  and  Red  rivers. 
The  bridges  and  ferries  also  supply  great  public  needs 
nearer  home.  The  Miami  stockyards,  on  Eggleston 
avenue,  covering  three  acres,  and  furnishing  accommo- 
dations for  ten  thousand  animals,  facilitate  the  delivery 
of  cattle,  hogs,  and  sheep  to  several  of  the  railroads. 
The  United  Railroads  Stockyard  company  occupies  a 
larger  tract,  fifty  acres  on  Spring  Grove  avenue  and  Mill 
creek,  near  Cumminsville,  where  the  land  and  improve- 
ments, affording  accommodations  for  five  thousand  cat- 
tle, ten  thousand  sheep,  and  twenty-five  thousand  hogs, 
have  cost  over  three-quarters  of  a  million  of  dollars. 

The  completion  of  the  canal  at  Louisville  around  the 
falls  of  the  Ohio,  some  years  ago,  now  allows  the  largest 
Mississippi  river  steamers  to  come  up  to  this  city. 


These  are  sufficiently  numerous  for  all  public  and  pri- 
vate needs.  The  Western  Union  and  the  Atlantic  & 
Pacific  undertake  the  far-away  communications;  the  city 
and  suburban  telegraph  association,  the  board  of  trade 



telegraph,  the  police  and  fire  telegraphs,  have  important 
local  uses;  as  also  the  Bell  telephonic  exchange,  with 
which  the  former  Edison  telephone  exchange  has  been 


We  have  aimed  in  this  opening  chapter  of  the  history 
of  Cincinnati  to  present  mainly  the  things  which  appear 
outwardly,  to  give  a  bird's-eye  view  of  the  city.  Other 
and  less  apparent  matters,  as  the  city  government,  the 
police  and  fire  departments,  the  water  and  gas  works,  the 
manufactures,  trade  and  commerce  of  the  city,  its  re- 
ligious, educational,  literary  and  charitable  institutions, 
its  newspapers  and  periodicals,  the  public  libraries,  and 
many  other  subjects,  will  be  set  forth  under  their  appro- 
priate heads  hereafter. 



Lonely  and  sad  it  stands; 

The  trace  of  ruthless  hands 
Is  on  its  sides  and  summit,  and  around 
The  dwellings  of  the  white  man  pile  the  ground; 

And,  curling  in  the  air, 
The  smoke  of  twice  a  thousand  hearths  is  there; 

Without,  all  speaks  of  life,  within, 

Deaf  to  the  city's  echoing  din, 
Sleep  well  the  tenants  of  that  silent  mound, 
Their  names  forgot,  their  memories  uncrowned. 

Upon  its  top  I  tread, 

And  see  around  me  spread 
Temples  and  mansions,  and  the  hoary  hills, 
Bleak  with  the  labor  that  the  coffer  fills, 

But  mars  their  bloom  the  while, 
And  steals  from  Nature's  face  its  joyous  smile; 

And  here  and  there,  below, 

The  stream's  meandering  flow 
Breaks  on  the  view;  and  westward  in  the  sky 
The  gorgeous  clouds  in  crimson  masses  lie. 

The  hammer's  clang  rings  out 

Where  late  the  Indian's  shout 
Startled  the  wild  fowl  from  its  sedgy  nest, 
And  broke  the  wild  deer's  and  the  panther's  rest. 

The  lordly  oaks  went  down 
Before  the  ax — the  canebiake  is  a  town; 

The  bark  canoe  no  more 

Glides  noiseless  from  the  shore; 
And  sole  memorial  of  a  nation's  doom, 
Amid  the  works  of  art  rises  this  lonely  tomb. 

It,  too,  must  pass  away; 

Barbaric  hands  will  lay 
Its  holy  ruins  level  with  the  plain, 
And  rear  upon  its  site  some  goodly  fane. 

It  seemeth  to  upbraid 
The  white  man  for  the  ruin  he  hath  made. 

And  soon  the  spade  and  mattock  must 

Invade  the  sleepers'  buried  dust, 
And  bare  their  bones  to  sacrilegious  eyes, 
And  send  them  forth  some  joke-collector's  prize. 
—  "To  the  Old  Mound,"  by  Charles  A.  Jones,   son  of  an  old  Cincin- 
nati family,  who  died  at  Cumminsville  in  1851. 


The  settlers  of  Losantiville,  and  afterwards  the  immi- 
grants to  Cincinnati  for  more  than  a  generation  and  a 

half,  found  the  plainest  indications  that  a  numerous  and 
intelligent  people  had  been  here  before  them.  The  red 
man  had  left  few  tokens  of  his  occupancy,  and  those  of 
but  the  most  insignificant  character;  but  beneath  the 
deep  shades  of  the  luxuriant  forest,  overgrown  by  trees 
of  centuries'  growth,  upon  both  the  upper  and  lower  ter- 
races, it  is  said,  were  the  unmistakable  remains  of  struct- 
ures erected  there  by  a  strange,  mysterious  race,  whose 
very  name,  to  say  nothing  of  their  history  and  tribal 
relations,  had  long  been  covered  by  the  dust  of  oblivion. 
As  Professor  Short  remarks,  in  his  North  Americans  of 
Antiquity : 

The  same  sagacity  which  chose  the  neighborhood  of  St.  Louis  for 
these  works,  covered  the  site  of  Cincinnati  with  an  extensive  system  of 
circumvallations  and  mounds.  Almost  the  entire  space  now  occupied 
by  the  city  was  utilized  by  the  mysterious  Builders,  in  the  construction 
of  embankments  and  tumuli  built  upon  the  most  accurate  geometrical 
principles,  and  evincing  keen  military  foresight. 


Almost  every  one  of  the  leading  classes  of  Mound 
Builders'  remains  was  represented  in  the  Cincinnati 
works.  The  chief  work  was  probably  a  sacred  enclosure, 
since  it  had  no  ditch,  and  occupied  a  position  offering 
no  special  advantages  for  defence.  It  was  an  earth  wall 
or  embankment,  encircling  the  entire  blocks  now  bound- 
ed by  Fourth  and  Fifth,  Race  arid  Walnut  streets,  and 
including  some  fractions  of  adjoining  blocks.  Its  figure 
was  not  mathematically  exact,  and  was  probably  not 
intended  to  be  so.  It  was  a  very  broad  ellipsis,  eight 
hundred  feet  in  diameter  from  east  to  west,  and  about 
six  hundred  and  sixty  from  north  to  south.  An  opening 
or  gateway  ninety  feet  wide  appeared  on  the  east  side  of 
the  wall,  upon  or  near  the  line  of  Fourth  street.  The 
height  of  the  work,  as  found  by  the  pioneers,  was  scarcely 
a  yard,  but  the  base  of  the  embankment  averaged  ten- 
yards  in  thickness.  It  was  heaped  up  with  loam  similar 
to  that  found  in  its  immediate  vicinity,  and  was  of  quite 
uniform  composition  throughout,  as  discovered  by  subse- 
quent excavation  and  removal.  Nothing  found  inside 
the  main  work  indicated  that  manual  labor  had  been 
expended  therein,  the  ground  being  somewhat  irregular 
and  uneven,  and  evidently  left  by  the  Builders  pretty 
nearly  in  a  state  of  nature.  There  was  no  ditch  within 
or  without  the  walls.  From  each  side  of  the  gateway, 
and  exterior  but  contiguous  to  the  wall,  stretched  away  a 
broad  elevation  or  parapet,  of  somewhat  indeterminate 
figure.  From  that  on  the  line  of  Fourth  street  could  be 
traced  a  bank  of  only  twelve  inches  height,  but  with  a 
nine-foot  base.  It  extended  southward  fifty  to  seventy- 
five  yards,  until  within  a  few  yards  of  the  edge  of  the 
upper  plain,  or  the  "hill,"  as  it  was  then  called,  when  it 
turned  to  the  east,  and  ended  in  a  mound  at  the  present 
junction  of  Main  and  Third  streets,  about  five  hundred 
feet  distant  from  the  point  of  departure.  No  similar 
wall  from  the  other  side  of  the  gateway  was  observable  • 
but  at  a  short  remove  north  of  it  were  two  other  eleva- 
tions, isolated  though  near  each  other,  over  six  feet  high, 
and  probably  artificial,  though  of  shapeless  form. 

More  than  four  hundred  yards  east  of  the  work  just 
described,  between  Broadway  and  Sycamore  streets,  was 



a  bank  of  about  the  same  dimensions  as  to  height  and 
thickness,  which  reached  in  a  slight  curve  from  Sixth 
nearly  to  Third.  The  circle  of  which  it  was  a  segment, 
whether  ideal  or  embodied  in  earthwork,  was  an  im- 
mense one.  "It  was  evidently,"  says  Judge  Burnet,  in 
his  Notes,  from  which  many  of  these  facts  are  derived, 
"a  segment  of  a  very  large  circle,  with  its  centre  just 
south  of  the  other  work  described."  The  remainder  had 
been  left  unfinished,  or  was  leveled  after  construction. 
From  a  point_near  the  south  end  of  the  segment  formed 
a  low  wall  could  be  traced  to  the  river,  and  was  found  to 
correspond  in  a  remarkable  way,  in  height,  extent,  and 
direction,  with  another  embankment,  about  half  a  mile 
distant,  in  the  western  part  of  the  village  site.  Both  of 
these  had  disappeared  by  the  year  1815. 

Mr.  Robert  Clarke,  in  his  pamphlet  on  the  Pre-historic 
Remains  at  Cincinnati,  printed  in  1876,  is  not  inclined 
to  give  credence  to  the  story  of  this  extension  to  the 
river,  "as  it  would  extend  the  works  to  the  bottom-land, 
on  which  Mound  Builder's  works  are  seldom  anywhere 
found.  It  is  more  probable  that  this  embankment 
turned  westward  and  joined  the  other  embankment  at 
the  mound." 

Upon  the  present  track  of  Fifth  street,  still  east  of  all 
the  works  mentioned,  and  about  four  hundred  feet  from 
the  segment,  was  a  circular  enclosure  of  sixty  feet  diam- 
eter, bearing  evidence  of  construction  by  heaping  up 
earth  from  the  ground  within.  It  was,  when  found,  but 
one  foot  high,  on  a  twelve  to  fifteen-foot  base. 

In  the  north  part  of  the  old  town,  between  Elm  and 
Vine  streets,  and  six  hundred  yards  from  the  great  ellip- 
sis (now  between  the  canal  and  Fourth  streets),  were  two 
extensive  earth  walls,  also  of  convex  shape,  but  not  con- 
stituting an  enclosure.  They  were  each  seven  hundred 
and  sixty  feet  long,  about  two  feet  high,  and  ran  in  exact 
parallels  in  a  general  east  and  west  direction,  forty-six 
feet  apart,  measuring  from  the  middle  of  the  embank- 
ment, for  two-thirds  of  the  way,  when  they  converged 
slightly  to  forty  feet  width,  and  so  continued  to  the  end. 
At  about  the  point  where  the  convergence  began,  there 
was  an  opening  of  thirty  feet  in  the  southern  bank. 

Many  other  inequalities  of  surface,  upon  sites  more  or 
less  irregular,  were  observable  in  the  early  day ;  but  by 
the  time  the  attention  of  antiquaries  had  been  much  di- 
rected to  them,  twenty-five  to  thirty  years  after  settlement, 
they  had  become  too  obscure  and  ill-defined  to  warrant 
detailed  description.  Strange  to  say,  the  plains  on  the 
other  side  of  the  river,  in  Kentucky,  did  not  present,  ac- 
cording to  Judge  Burnet,  the  slightest  vestige  of. ancient 


Upon  the  upper  plain  on  which  the  principal  part  of 
Cincinnati  is  located,  were  found  several  large  mounds  or 
pyramids.  The  largest  of  these  was  due  west  of  the  great 
ellipsis,  and  five  hundred  yards  distant  from  it.  It  was 
situated  just  where  the  alley  between  Fifth  and  Long- 
worth  streets  intersects  the  west  side  of  Mound  street, 
to  which  it  gave  the  name ;  and  was  formed,  it  is  believed 
from  its  composition,  simply  by  scooping  earth  from  the 
surrounding  surface  and  heaping  it  up  smoothly.     The 

composition  and  structure  of  the  mound  were  thus  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  John  S.  Williams,  editor  of  the  American 
Pioneer,  in  volume  II  of  that  magazine: 

The  earth  of  the  mound  is  composed  of  light  and  dark  colored  lay- 
ers, as  if  it  had  been  raised,  at  successive  periods,  by  piling  earth  of 
different  colors  on  the  top.  This  appearance  might  have  been  pro- 
duced by  successive  layers  of  vegetation  and  freezings,  which  were 
allowed  to  act  on  each  layer  before  the  mound  received  a  second  addi- 
tion to  its  height.  In  some  parts  the  layers  are  completely  separated 
by  what  appears  to  have  been  decayed  vegetable  matter,  such  as  leaves 
and  grass,  as  the  earth  is  in  complete  contact,  except  a  very  thin  divis- 
ion by  some  such  substance.  In  some  places  through  the  mound  there 
are  vacancies,  evidently  occasioned  by  the  decay  of  sticks  of  wood, 
leaving  a  most  beautiful,  impalpable  powder.  Throughout  the  mound 
there  are  spots  of  charcoal,  and  in  some  places  it  is  in  beds.  In  one  or 
two  places  which  we  observed,  the  action  of  fire  upon  the  clay  had  left 
marks  of  considerable  intensity. 

The  shape  of  its  base  was  that  of  a  regular  ellipsis, 
with  diameters  about  in  the  ratio  of  two  to  one,  and  the 
longer  diameter  in  a  line  about  seventeen  degrees  east  of 
north.  It  is  described  by  one  of  the  early  local  writers 
as  "a  considerable  mound  of  great  beauty,  about  fifty  [?] 
feet  high,  constructed  with  great  exactness,  and  standing 
upon  a  base  unusually  small  compared  with  its  height." 
The  long  diameter  of  the  base  was  about  seventy  feet; 
the  shorter  thirty-five.  Its  circumference  was  four  hun- 
dred and  forty  feet,  and  its  height  was  twenty-seven 
feet  so  lately  as  1815,  though  about  eight  feet  had 
been  cut  from  the  top  of  it  in  1794  by  General  Wayne, 
who  posted  a  sentinel,  with  a  sentry-box,  upon  it,  while 
his  army  was  encamped  in  the  Mill  Creek  valley. 
From  its  summit,  it  is  said,  a  view  of  the  entire  plain 
could  be  commanded;  and  it  is  a  very  interesting  fact — 
wholly  u«ique,  so  far  as  we  know,  in  the  history  of  the 
mounds — that  this  order  of  General  Wayne  restored  the 
structure  for  a  time  to  what  was  doubtless  its  ancient 
character  and  use  in  part,  as  a  mound  of  observation. 
Some  superficial  excavations  were  early  made  in  this 
mound,  resulting  in  the  finding  of  a  few  scattered  human 
bones,  probably  from  intrusive  burials,  a  branch  of  deer's 
horn,  and  a  piece  of  earthenware  containing  muscle  shell. 
Long  afterwards  (1841)  the  removal  of  the  mound  in  the 
grading  of  the  street  and  alley,  brought  to  light  one  of 
the  most  interesting  memorials  of  antiquity  ever  discov- 
ered, which  willl  be  noticed  at  some  length  below.  The 
lines  "To  the  Old  Mound,"  quoted  at  length  at 
the  beginning  of  this  chapter,  were  addressed  to  this 
ancient  remain.  Three  smaller  mounds  stood  in  the 
close  neighborhood  of  this,  also  containing  human 
remains.  Five  hundred  feet  north  and  somewhat 
eastward  of  this  work,  near  the  northeast  corner  of 
Mound  and  Seventh  streets,  was  another,  a  platform 
mound,  probably  about  nine  feet  high,  circular,  and 
nearly  flat  on  top.  In  this  were  found  a  few  fragments 
of  human  skeletons  and  a  handful  of  copper  beads  that 
had  formerly  been  strung  on  a  cord  of  lint. 

Northeast  of  this  eminence,  and  several  hundred  yards 
distant,  on  the  east  of  Central  avenue,  opposite  Rich- 
mond street,  near  Court,  was  another  circular  mound  but 
three  feet  high,  from  which  were  taken  unfinished  spear- 
and  arrow-heads  of  chert  or  flint. 

But  the  most  remarkable  of  this  class  of  the  Cincin- 
nati works  which  did  not  long  survive  the  advent  of  the 



white  man,  was  the  mound  at  the  intersection  of  Third 
and  Main  streets,  near  the  site  of  the  older  as  well  as  the 
later  First  Presbyterian  churches.  It  was  the  mound 
formerly  mentioned  as  terminating  the  wall  from  the 
great  ellipsis,  and  was  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long, 
sixty  feet  broad  and  eight  feet  high,  of  an  oval  figure, 
with  its  diameters  nearly  on  lines  connecting  the  oppo- 
site cardinal  points  of  the  compass.  It  was  gradually 
destroyed  at  an  early  day  by  the  necessity  of  grading 
Main  street  to  reduce  the  difficulty  of  ascent  from  the 
lower  plain  to  the  higher.  The  strata  of  which  it  was 
composed,  proceeding  from  without,  were:  First,  a  layer 
of  loam  or  soil  like  that  upon  the  adjacent  natural  sur- 
face. The  articles  found  in  the  tumulus  were  a  little  be- 
low this  stratum.  Second,  a  layer  of  large  pebbles,  con- 
vex, like  the  outer  one,  and  of  uniform  thickness.  Lastly, 
gravel,  considerably  heaped  up  in  the  centre,  and  contain- 
ing no  remains.  Many  interesting  articles  were  found  in 
the  process  of  excavation  and  removal — pieces  of  jasper, 
rock  crystal,  granite,  porphyry,  and  other  rocks,  mostly 
cylindrical  at  the  extremes  and  increasing  in  diameter 
toward  the  middle,  with  an  annular  groove  near  one  end, 
and  all  evincing  much  skill  of  the  Builders  in  cutting 
and  polishing  the  hardest  rocks.  Numerous  other  arti- 
cles, made  of  cannel  coal,  argillaceous  earth,  and  bone, 
including  the  sculptured  head  of  a  bird,  supposed  to  be 
intended  to  represent  that  of  an  eagle;  bits  of  isinglass 
or  mica,  lead  ore,  and  sheet  copper,  all  supposed  to  be 
used  partly  for  ornament  and  partly  in  religious  observ- 
ances; with  beads  of  bone  or  shell,  the  teeth  of  some 
carniverous  animal,  probably  the  bear,  and  several  large 
marine  shells;  also  a  quantity  of  human  bones,  appar- 
ently belonging  to  twenty  or  thirty  skeletons,  were  found 
in  this  work.  The  last  mentioned  remains  were  generally 
surrounded  by  ashes  and  charcoal,  and  sometimes  were 
found  enclosed  in  rude  stone  cists  or  coffins.  The  stra- 
tum above  these  seemed  to  be  undisturbed,  and  had  evi- 
dently been  laid  after  the  precious  deposits  were  made. 
One  of  the  old  writers  also  mentions  among  the  discov- 
eries in  this  mound  certain  other  articles,  "most  proba- 
bly deposited  in  it  after  Europeans  began  to  visit  here" — 
as  pieces  of  hard  brown  earthenware;  the  small  image  of 
a  female  holding  an  infant  in  her  arms  and  supposed  to 
represent  the  Virgin  Mary,  finely  wrought  in  ivory  but 
somewhat  mutilated;  and  a  small,  complex  instrument 
of  iron,  greatly  corroded,  and  supposed  to  be  used  for 
weighing  light  articles."  The  last  two  statements  are  de- 
cidedly apocryphal,  though  Judge  Burnet  apparently 
gives  credence  to  them  and  repeats  them  in  his  Notes. 

This  ancient  work  was  noticed  very  early  by  Colonel 
Sargent,  secretary  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  in  a  letter 
from  Cincinnati,  dated  September  8,  1794,  and  enclos- 
ing drawings  of  relics  exhumed  from  a  grove  near  the 
mound.  His  correspondent,  Dr.  Benjamin  S.  Barton,  of 
Philadelphia,  made  them  the  theme  of  an  elaborate  let- 
ter to  Rev.  Joseph  Priestly,  the  famous  Indian  theo- 
logian, philosopher  and  scientist;  and  the  correspondence 
was  published,  with  illustrations,  in  volumes  four  and 
five,  of  the  transactions  of  one  of  the  learned  societies 
of  the  Quaker  city. 


In  1874  Dr.  H.  H.  Hill  discovered  a  cluster  of  an- 
cient graves  on  the  extreme  point  of  Brighton  Hill,  at 
the  west  end  of  the  range  of  hills  north  of  the  old  city, 
which  Mr.  Clarke  thinks  were  once  covered  by  a  mound 
that  has  been  in  the  course  of  the  ages  washed  away  by 
the  rainfalls  to  or  near  the  level  of  the  original  surface. 
Many  loose  stones,  in  groups  or  piles,  had  been  long  ob- 
served at  this  spot,  and  had  been  conjectured  to  be  the 
remains  of  an  ancient  stone  work.  The  human  remains 
were  included  within  a  circular  spot  about  forty  feet  in 
diameter,  and  the  bones  were  so  greatly  decomposed 
that  they  soon  fell  to  dust.  From  some  indications  in 
the  position  of  the  bones  there  is  reason  to  believe  that 
Indians  were  buried  here,  as  well  as  Mound  Builders. 
Many  teeth  and  tusks  of  animals,  fragments  of  stag-horn, 
with  various  implements  made  from  bone,  pieces  of  mica, 
stone  hammers,  gorgets  and  pipes,  spear  and  arrow-heads, 
copper  and  bone  awls,  and  fragments  of  shells  with 
traces  of  carving  thereon,  were  aiso  found  in  the  burial- 
place.  It  was  a  very  interesting  find.  The  mound  sup- 
posed to  have  stood  over  the  remains  and  relics  is  that 
designated  by  Mr.  Clarke,  in  a  quotation  we  shall  make 
hereafter,  as  the  "Brighton  Hill  mound."  It  was  also, 
probably,  one  of  the  series  of  signal-mounds  in  the  Mill 
creek  valley. 


Over  half  a  mile  north  of  the  ellipsis,  which  serves  as 
a  convenient  point  of  departure  for  distances  to  the 
other  works,  was  an  excavation  or  "dug-hole,"  believed 
to  be  artificial,  but  not  apparently  connected  with  any 
other  work.  It  was  nearly  fifty  feet  in  diamete"r  at  the  top, 
as  measured  from  the  top  of  the  circular  bank  formed 
by  throwing  out  the  earth,  and  almost  twelve  feet  in 
depth;  and  was  by  some  of  the  early  settlers  supposed 
to  be  an  old,  half-filled  well.  It  probably  belonged, 
however,  to  the  age  of  the  Mound  Builders,  and  to  the 
class  of  ancient  remains  known  as  "dug-holes,"  origin- 
ally intended  as  reservoirs  for  water  or  store  houses  of 

a  scholar's  view. 

General  W.  H.  Harrison,  in  his  instructive  address  be- 
fore the  Historical  and  Philosophical  society  of  Ohio,  in 
1837,  published  in  their  transactions,  and  also  in  pamph- 
let form,  gave  the  following  view  of  the  works,  as  they 
appeared  in  the  white  man's  early  day  here: 

When  I  first  saw  the  upper  plain  on  which  that  city  stands,  it  was 
literally  covered  with  low  lines  of  embankments.  I  had  the  honor  to 
attend  General  Wayne  two  years  afterwards,  in  an  excursion  to  examine 
them.  We  were  employed  the  greater  part  of  a  day,  in  August,  1793, 
in  doing  so.  The  number  and  variety  of  figures  in  which  these  lines 
were  drawn,  was  almost  endless,  and,  as  I  have  said,  almost  covered  the 
plain— many  so  faint,  indeed,  as  scarcely  to  be  followed,  and  often  for 
a  considerable  distance  entirely  obliterated;  but,  by  careful  examination, 
and  following  the  direction,  they  could  again  be  found.  Now,  if  these 
lines  were  ever  of  the  height  of  the  others  made  by  the  same  people 
(and  they  must  have  been  to  have  answered  any  valuable  purpose),  or 
unless  their  erection  was  many  years  anterior  to  the  others,  there  must 
have  been  some  other  cause  than  the  attrition  of  rain  (for  it  is  a  dead 
level)  to  bring  them  down  to  their  then  state.  That  cause  I  take  to 
have  been  continued  cultivation;  and,  as  the  people  who  erected  them 
would  not  themselves  destroy  works  which  had  cost  them  so  much  labor, 
the  solution  of  the  question  can  only  be  found  in  the  long  occupancy 



and  the  cultivation  of  another  people,  and  the  probability  is  that  that 
people  were  the  conquerors  of  the  original  possessors.  To  the  ques- 
tion of  the  fate  of  the  former,  and  the  cause  of  no  recent  vestige  of  set- 
tlements being  found  on  the  Ohio,  I  can  offer  only  a  conjecture,  but 
one  that  appears  to  me  to  be  far  from  improbable. 

The  general  thought  the  occurrence  of  tremendous 
floods,  like  those  of  1793  and  1832,  might  be  sufficient 
to  drive  off  the  Builders,  "not  only  from  actual  suffering, 
but  from  the  suggestions  of  superstition ;  an  occurrence 
so  unusual  being  construed  into  a  warning  from  Heaven 
to  seek  a  residence  upon  the  smaller  streams." 

THE  WORKS   IN    1817. 

Many  were  still  remaining.  Judge  Burnet,  writing  at 
this  time,  notes  them  as  "  numerous  here,  and  consisting 
of  two  circular  banks,  mounds,  tumuli,  etc."  A  house 
then  stood  at  the  corner  of  Mound  and  Third  streets, 
upon  the  site  of  the  tumulus  there.  Several  streets  were 
intersecting  the  remains,  and  they  did  not  long  thereafter 
maintain  their  ground  against  the  march  of  improvement, 
which  in  time  obliterated  the  last  vestige  of  the  monu- 
ments of  ancient  civilization,  so  far  as  the  surface  of  the 
site  of  Cincinnati  exhibited  them. 

THE   WORKS    IN    1819  AND    1 825. 

The  maps  prefixed  to  the  first  and  second  directories 
of  the  city,  published  in  1819  and  1825,  however,  take 
notice  of  the  existence  and  position  of  the  enclosures 
and  mounds  upon  the  site  of  Cincinnati,  though  not 
precisely  as  they  have  been  described  above.  One  work, 
the  large  ellipsis,  is  delineated  as  surrounding  completely 
the  block  between  Fourth  and  Fifth,  Race  and  Vine 
streets,  except  a  very  small  part  of  the  northwest  corner, 
about  half  the  next  block  east,  and  some  parts  of  the 
adjacent  blocks  north  and  south.  Adjoining  the  north- 
east part  of  it,  on  the  north  half  of  the  block  bounded 
by  Third,  Fourth,  Vine  and  Race  streets,  appears  a  large 
mound,  with  a  single  embankment  running  almost  due 
south  to  the  lower  part  of  the  block,  and  thence  across 
the  next  block  eastward  to  the  mound  at  the  northeast 
corner  of  Main  and  Third.  The  enclosure  is  represented 
as  an  irregular  circle,  of  about  six  hundred  feet  diameter. 
The  convex  parallel  walls  between  Canal  and  Twelfth 
are  shown  as  a  long  enclosure,  extending  almost  diagon- 
ally from  a  point  a  trifle  east  of  Vine  street  across  the 
block  bounded  by  that  place  and  the  streets  before 
named,  and  about  half-way  across  the  block  next  on  the 

Wayne's  sentry-post  is  plainly  marked  as  a  large  tumu- 
lus at  the  southeast  corner  of  Fifth  and  Mound,  and  the 
others  mentioned  as  being  in  the  west  and  northwest-part 
of  the  town  are  here — the  mound  upon  the  upper  side 
of  Seventh  street,  below  Smith,  near  fhe  rope-walk  then 
standing;  that  on  Western  Row,  nearly  at  the  head  of 
Richmond ;  one  large  mound  west  of  Plum,  near  the  old 
corporation  line  on  Liberty  street;  and  also  one  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  city,  directly  on  Fifth  street,  half  a 
block  beyond  Broadway.  The  mound  on  Fourth  street 
stood  nearly  where  Pike's  Opera  house  now  is. 

Thus  it  appears  that  the  ancient  works  upon  the  site  of 
Cincinnati  were  still  so  well  defined,  so  late  as  1825,  as  to 

deserve,  if  not  demand,  a  place  upon  the  map  of  the  city. 


In  November,  1841,  the  large  tumulus  near  the  corner 
of  Fifth  and  Mound  streets  was  removed,  in  order  to 
extend  Mound  street  across  Fifth  and  grade  an  alley. 
A  little  above  the  level  of  the  surrounding  surface,  near 
the  centre  of  the  mound,  were  found  a  large  part  of  a 
human  skull  and  two  bones  of  about  seven  inches  length, 
pointed  at  one  end.  It  was  undoubtedly  the  grave  of  a 
Mound  Builder,  probably  a  great  dignitary  of  his  tribe. 
Under  the  fragmentary  skull  of  the  buried  Builder  was  a 
bed  of  charcoal,  ashes  and  earth,  and  therein  a  very  re- 
markable inscribed  stone  which,  after  much  discussion, 
including  the  publication  of  Mr.  Clarke's  interesting 
pamphlet  in  vindication  of  its  authenticity,  has  been  pro- 
nounced a  genuine  relic  of  the  period  of  the  Mound 
Builders.  It  is  not  lettered  or  inscribed  with  hieroglyph- 
ics, but  is  marked  with  curious,  broad  lines,  curves  and 
scrolls.  Some  have  thought  they  could  trace  in  these  the 
outline  of  a  figure,  perhaps  an  idol;  but  the  better  con- 
jecture seems  to  be  that  it  served  for  a  record  of  calcula- 
tions and  a  scale  of  measurement.  The  following  de- 
scription and  remarks  upon  it  are  extracted  from  Messrs.' 
Squier  and  Davis's  "Ancient  Monuments  of  the  Missis- 
sippi Valley": 

The  material  is  'fine  grained,  compact  sandstone  of  a  light  brown 
color.  It  measures  five  inches  in  length,  three  in  breadth  at  the  ends,, 
and  two  and  six-tenths  at  the  middle,  and  is  about  half  an  inch  in  thick- 
ness. The  sculptured  face -varies  very  slightly  from  a  perfect  plane. 
The  figures  are  cut  in  low  relief  (the  lines  being  not  more  than  one- 
twentieth  of  an  inch  in  depth),  and  occupy  a  rectangular  space  of  four 
inches  and  two-tenths  long  by  two  and  one-tenth  wide.  The  sides  of 
the  stone,  it  will  be  observed,  are  slightly  concave.  Right  lines  are 
drawn  across  the  face  near  the  ends,  at  right  angles,  and  exterior  to 
these  are  notches,  twenty-five  at  one  end  and  twenty-four  at  the  other. 
The  back  of  the  stone  has  three  deep  longitudinal  grooves  and  several 
depressions,  evidently  caused  by  rubbing — probably  produced  by  sharp- 
ening the  instrument  used  in  the  sculpture.  [Mr.  Gest,  however,  the 
present  owner  of  the  stone,  does  not  regard  these  as  tool  marks,  but 
thinks  they  have  some  special  significance.  J 

Without  discussing  the  singular  resemblance  which  the  relic  bears  to 
the  Egyptian  cartouch,  it  will  be  sufficient  to  direct  attention  to  the  re- 
duplication of  the  figures,  those  upon  one  side  corresponding  with  those 
upon  the  other,  and  the  two  central  ones  being  also  alike.  It  will  be  ob- 
served that  there  are  but  three  scrolls  or  figures — four  of  one  description 
and  two  of  the  others.  Probably  no  serious  discussion  of  the  question 
whether  or  not  these  figures  are  hieroglyphical,  is  needed.  They  more 
resemble  the  stalk  and  flowers  of  a  plant  than  anything  else  in  nature. 
What  significance,  if  any,  may  attach  to  the  peculiar  markings  or  grad- 
uations at  the  end  it  is  not  undertaken  to  say.  The  sum  of  the  products 
of  the  longer  and  shorter  lines  (twenty-four  by  seven  and  twenty-five  by 
eight)  is  three  hundred  and  sixty-eight,  three  more  than  the  number  of 
days  in  the  year;  from  which  circumstance  the  suggestion  has  been  ad- 
vanced that  the  tablet  had  an  astronomical  origin  and  constituted  some 
sort  of  a  calendar. 

We  may  perhaps  find  the  key  to  its  purposes  in  a  very  humble,  but 
not  therefore  less  interesting  class  of  southern  remains.  Both  in  Mexico 
and  in  the  mounds  of  Mississippi  have  been  found  stamps  of  burnt  clay, 
the  faces  of  which  are  covered  with  figures,  fanciful  or  imitative,  all  in 
low  relief,  like  the  face  of  a  stereotype  plate.  These  were  used  in  im- 
pressing ornaments  upon  the  clothes  or  prepared  skins  of  the  people 
possessing  them.  They  exhibit  the  concavity  of  the  sides  to  be  ob- 
served in  the  relic  in  question — intended,  doubtless,  for  greater  conveni- 
ence in  holding  and  using  it — as  also  a  similar  reduplication  of  the 
ornamental  figures,  all  betraying  a  common  purpose.  This  explanation 
is  offered  hypothetically  as  being  entirely  consistent  with  the  gen- 
eral character  of  the  mound  remains,  which,  taken  together,  do  not 
warrant  us  in  looking  for  anything  that  might  not  well  pertain  to  a  very 
simple,  not  to  say  rude„people. 




The  following  discussion  from  Mr.  Clarke's  pamphlet 
may  appropriately  end  this  little  treatise  on  the  Cincinnati 
works : 

It  may  be  of  interest  here  to  examine  these  pre-historic  works  in  the 
light  of  Lewis  H.  Morgan's  "pueblo"  theory,  as  set  forth  in  his  article 
in  the  North  American  Review  for  July  of  this  year.  The  great  cen- 
tral work,  an  ellipse  eight  hundred  by  six  hundred  and  sixty  feet,  cor- 
responds with  his  pueblo  or  village.  Its  position  gave  it  a  measure  of 
security,  being  on  the  upper  plain,  three  hundred  and  fifty  feet  from  its 
edge,  and  could  be  completely  screened  from  view  from  the  river  by  a 
belt  or  grove  of  trees.  The  embankment,  three  feet  high  (possibly 
originally  higher),  with  a  base  of  thirty  feet,  afforded  sufficient  founda- 
tion for  their  buildings,  occupying  the  circumference  of  the  ellipse, 
facing  inward,  presenting  a  solid  timber  wall  on  the  outside,  with  no 
entrance  but  by  the  gateway  on  the  east,  which  may  have  been  pro- 
tected by  a  palisade  of  round  timbers,  with  proper  openings  for  ingress 
and  egress,  and  by  some  structures  of  the  nature  of  block-houses  on  the 
higher  embankments  attached  externally  at  each  side  of  the  entrance. 
From  the  lower  of  these  block-houses,  it  will  be  remembered,  ran  the 
low  embankment,  one  foot  high,  with  nine  feet  base,  southward  nearly 
to  the  edge  of  the  declivity,  and  then  east  to  the  mound  on  the  corner 
of  Third  and  Main  streets.  This  may  have  been  occupied  by  a  high 
timber  palisade,  or  a  covered  way  leading  to  the  mound,  which  was  so 
situated  as  to  command  a  full  view  of  the  Licking  river,  which  enters 
the  Ohio  on  the  opposite  shore,  and  was  doubtless  an  important  ap- 
proach, which  it  was  necessary  should  be  watched.  If  I  am  right  in 
supposing  that  the  embankment,  of  the  same  dimensions  as  the  last, 
noticed  east  of  Sycamore,  running  from  Sixth  street  to  near  Third 
street,  turned  there  and  joined  the  other  embankment  at  the  mound, 
and  was  built  upon  in  the  same  manner,  we  would  thus  have  the  whole 
front  so  defended  that  it  would  have  to  be  forced  or  flanked  by  an 
enemy  coming  from  the.direction  of  the  Licking  river. 

East  of  this  high  hill,  Mount  Adams,   overlooking  the  Ohio,  and  giv- 
ing a  clear  view  up  the  river   for  miles,  would  be  a  natural  outpost  on  ■ 
which  it  would  not  be  necessary  to  erect  a  mound  structure.     I  have 
never  heard  of  any  remains  having  been  found  on  this  hill. 

To  the  west,  the  hill  next  the  river  was  so  distant,  and  from  its  posi- 
tion did  not  command  an  extensive  enough  view  of  the  river  to  serve  as 
an  outlook;  so  a  position  was  selected  near  the  edge  of  the  plain,  about 
five  hundred  yards  west  of  the  closed  end  of  the  village,  and  a  large 
mound  thirty-five  feet  high  was  erected,  from  which  could  be  had  an 
extensive  view  of  the  Kentucky  shore  and  of  the  Ohio,  river  to  the  bend 
below  the  mouth  of  Mill  creek.  The  Brighton  Hill  mound  would  give 
an  extensive  view  of  the  whole  of  Mill  creek  valley,  the  whole,  as  be- 
fore mentioned,  being  part  of  an  extensive  series  of  signal  stations. 

The  minor  mounds  and  other  works  on  the  upper  plain  may  have 
been  connected  with  the  supervision  and  care  of  their  agricultural  oper- 
ations on  the  rich  land  between  the  village  and  the  northern  hills. 

Thus  we  have  a  village  judiciously  located  on  a  fine,  fertile  plain,  and 
well  guarded  by  the  nature  of  the  location  and  the  artificial  works 
erected  on  a  carefully  arranged  plan. 

Mr.  Morgan's  theory  will  apply  to  a  large  number  of  the  Ohio  works. 
The  two  larger  mounds  were  so  situated  that  we  can  hardly 
avoid  the  conclusion,  though  it  is  only  a  supposition,  that  one  object  of 
their  erection  was  to  serve  as  outlooks  for  watching  the  approaches  to 
their  village  from  the  Kentucky  side  of  the  river  by  the  Licking,  and 
from  the  west  by  the  Ohio.  From  the  description  of  the  structure  of 
the  mounds  and  the  remains  found  in  them,  it  is  quite  certain  that  they 
were  also  grave  mounds.  They  may  have  been  originally  placed  on 
these  commanding  points  so  as  to  be  seen  from  a  distance  (just  as  we 
place  rhonuments  in  prominent  positions),  and  afterward  used  as  out- 
looks. Dr.  Drake,  as  quoted  above,  gives  sufficient  details  of  the 
structure  and  contents  of  that  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  Main  streets 
to  warrant  this  conclusion  as  to  that  mound. 


Although  not  strictly  belonging  to  the  general  topic  of 
this  chapter,  mention  may  here  be  fitly  made  of  some 
interesting  "finds"  that  have  been  made  upon  the  site 
of  Cincinnati,  belonging  to  a  period  of  ancient  vegetation 
of  which  many  evidences  are  apparent  in  Hamilton 
county,  as  will  be  seen  upon  reference  to  the  second  chap- 
ter of  this  book,  upon  its  geology  and  topography.     In 

1802  a  well  was  dug  by  an  ancient  settler  in  the  centre  of 
one  of  the  artificial  enclosures  above  described,  and  two 
stumps,  of  twelve  and  eighteen  inches'  diameter,  respec- 
tively, were  met  with  at  a  depth  of  ninety-three  feet, 
standing  as  they  grew,  with  roots  sound  and  in  place. 
From  the  soil  that  was  thrown  out  in  excavating  the  well 
mulberry  trees  grew  in  large  numbers,  although  none  were 
known  to  exist  on  the  plain  before.  About  the  same 
time  Mr.  Daniel  Symmes,  while  digging  another  well  in 
the  eastern  part  of  the  town,  came  upon  a  large  unde- 
cayed  log  twenty-four  feet  below  the  surface.  It  is  said 
that  similar  discoveries  have  frequently  been  made  in 
making  deep  excavations  in  different  parts  of  the  city, 
showing  that  the  ancient  level  of  the  plain  was  once  far 
below  its  present  elevation. 



The  original  site  of  Cincinnati,  platted  and  surveyed 
under  the  name  of  Losantiville,  was  contracted  for  before 
the  surveys  of  the  Symmes  Purchase  were  made,  and  the 
conveyance  to  Mathias  Denman  simply  specified  that 
his  tract  should  be  located  as  nearly  as  possible  opposite 
the  mouth  of  the  Licking  river.  When  the  surveys  were 
completed,  it  was  found  that  he  owned  the  entire  section 
eighteen,  and  the  fractional  section  in  seventeen  lying  be- 
tween that  and  the  river,  in  township  four  and  the  first 
fractional  range,  as  surveyed  under  the  orders  of  the  pros- 
pective patentee,  Judge  Symmes.  The  tract  covered 
eight  hundred  acres,  and  including  the  outlots  as  well  as 
in-lots  laid  out  upon  it,  comprised  the  original  site  of  Cin- 
cinnati. It  extended,  on  a  north  and  south  line,  from 
the  present  Liberty  street  to  the  river.  The  eastern 
boundary  line  ran  from  the  intersection  of  the  old  Leb- 
anon road  with  Liberty  street  to  the  Ohio,  at  a  point  one 
hundred  feet  below  Broadway;  and  the  western  line  ran 
from  the  intersection  of  Liberty  street  with  the  Western 
row  (Central  avenue)  to  the  river,  which  is  reached  just 
below  Smith  street  landing.  This  tract,  a  little  less  than 
one  and  one-fourth  square  miles,  was  not  quite  one  twen- 
ty-second part  of  the  present  vast  area  of  Cincinnati. 

The  founders  of  Losantiville  found  this  site  nearly  or 
quite  in  a  state  of  nature,  save  the  earthworks  which  in- 
dicated its  occupancy  by  a  people  long  before  departed. 
Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield  says  it  was  the  site  of  an  old  Indian 
town,  and  other  authorities  say  that  two  block-houses  had 
been  erected  hereby  the  soldiers  of  an  expedition  against 
the  Indians,  only  eight  years  previous ;  but  the  records 
of  Losantiville  are  silent  concerning  the  vestiges  of  the 
Indian  village  and  the  white  men's  fortifications,  if  any 
existed  at  this  time.  A  dense  wood  covered  the  appar- 
ently virgin  tract.  The  lower  belt  of  ground  was  occu- 
pied mainly  by  beech,  buckeye,  and  sugar  trees,  loaded 
with  grapevines,  and  interspersed  with  a  heavy  under- 
growth of  spicewood  and  pawpaws.     The  same  timber 



prevailed  upon  the  second  terrace,  with  poplars  and 
other  trees,  some  of  which  were  very  large.  Many  of 
the  beeches  were  also  large,  and  a  cluster  of  these,  near 
"Stonemetz's  ford,"  on  Mill  creek,  was  still  standing 
sixty  years  after  the  settlement,  and  bore  the  name  of 
"Loring's  woods" — the  only  relics  of  the  primeval  forest 
here,  except  some  scattered  trees.  A  group  of  these  trees 
was  also  called  the  "Beechen  grove"  in  an  early  day. 

At  the  foot  of  Sycamore  street  was  an  inlet  of  consid- 
erable size,  which  took  the  name  of  "Yeatman's  cove," 
from  its  neighborhood  to  the  tavern  and  store  of  Griffin 
Yeatman,  but  also  called  the  "Stone  landing,"  because 
used  for  the  disembarking  of  the  boatloads  of  stone 
brought  for  the  building  of  Fort  Washington,  at  a  spot 
near  what  is  now  the  corner  of  Sycamore  and  Front  streets. 
At  the  corner  of  Ludlow  street  was  another  inlet,  called 
"Dorsey's  cove,"  and  another  still  higher  up,  just  below 
the  mouth  of  Deer  creek.  These  little  harbors  were  ex- 
ceedingly convenient  as  landing-places  for  immigrants, 
and  were  doubtless  used  also  by  the  crews  of  boats  con- 
veying the  earlier  expeditions  against  the  Indians.  In 
the  shore  end  of  Yeatman's  cove  the  first,  little,  rude  mar- 
ket-house of  the  village  was  constructed,  to  the  pillars  of 
which  boats  were  usually  tied  in  seasons  of  high  water. 

The  north  shore  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  ground  for  some 
way  back,  as  first  observed  by  the  whites  at  this  point, 
are  described  as  somewhat  resembling  in  appearance  the 
site  of  Philadelphia.  Dr.  Daniel  Drake,  writing  twenty 
years  after  the  beginnings,  when  the  physical  features  of 
the  place  had  not  greatly  changed,  except  by  the  partial 
clearing  of  the  woods,  in  his  "Notices  concerning  Cincin- 
nati," says: 

Its  site  is  not  equally  elevated.  A  strip  of  land  called  the  Bottom 
(most  of  which  is  inundated  by  extraordinary  freshes,  though  the 
whole  is  elevated  several  feet  above  the  ordinary  high-water  mark), 
commences  at  Deer  creek,  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  town,  and 
stretches  down  to  the  river,  gradually  becoming  wider  and  lower.  It 
slopes  northwardly  to  the  average  distance  of  eight  hundred  feet,  where 
it  is  terminated  by  a  bank  or  glacis,  denominated  the  hill,  which  is 
generally  of  steep  ascent,  and  from  thirty  to  fifty  feet  in  height.  In 
addition  to  this  there  is  a  gentle  acclivity  for  six  or  seven  hundred  feet 
further  back,  which  is  succeeded  by  a  slight  inclination  of  surface 
northwardly,  for  something  more  than  half  a  mile,  when  the  hills  or 
real  uplands  commence. 

These  benches  of  land  extend  northwestwardly  (the  upper  one  con- 
stantly widening)  nearly  two  miles,  and  are  lost  in  the  intervale  ground 
of  Mill  creek.  The  whole  form  an  area  of  between  two  and  three 
square  miles — which,  however,  comprehends  but  little  more  than  a 
moiety  of  the  expansion  which  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  has  at  this  point. 
For  on  the  southern  side,  both  above  and  below  the  mouth  of  the  Lick- 
ing river,  are  extended,  elevated  bottoms. 

The  hills  surrounding  this  alluvial  tract  form  an  imperfectly  rhom- 
boidal  figure.  They  are  between  three  and  four  hundred  feet  high;  but 
the  angle  under  which  they  are  seen,  from  a  central  situation,  is  only  a 
few  degrees.  Those  to  the  southwest  and  northwest,  at  such  a  station, 
make  the  greatest  and  nearly  an  equal  angle ;  those  to  the  southeast 
and  southwest  also  make  angles  nearly  equal.  .The  Ohio  enters  at  the 
eastern  angle  of  this  figure,  and,  after  bending  considerably  to  the  south, 
passes  out  at  the  western.  The  Licking  river  entets  through  the  south- 
ern, and  Mill  creek  through  the  northern  angle.  Deer  creek,  an  incon- 
siderable stream,  enters  through  the  northern  side.  The  Ohio,  both 
up  and  down,  affords  a  limited  view,  and  its  valley  forms  no  consider- 
able inlet  to  the  east  and  west  winds.  The  valley  of  the  Licking  af- 
fords an  entrance  to  the  south  wind,  that  of  Mill  creek  to  the  north 
wind,  and  that  of  Deer  creek  (a  partial  one)  to  the  northeast.  The 
other  winds  blow  over  the  hills  that  lie  in  their  respective  courses. 
The  Ohio  is  five  hundred  and  thirty-five  yards  wide  from  bank  to  bank, 
but  at  low-water  is  much  narrower.     No  extensive  bars  exist,  however, 

near  the  town.  Licking  river,  which  joins  the  Ohio  opposite  the  town, 
is  about  eighty  yards  wide  at  its  mouth.  Mill  creek  is  large  enough  for 
mills,  and  has  wide  alluvions,  which,  near  its  junction  with  the  Ohio,  are 
annually  overflown  [sic\.  Its  general  course  is  from  northeast  to  north- 
west, and  it  joins  the  Ohio  at  a  right  angle.  Ascending  from  these 
valleys  the  aspects  and  characteristics  of  the  surrounding  country  are 
various.  .  .  .  No  barrens,  prairies,  or  pine  lands  are  to  be 
found  near  the  town. 

Some  notices  of  the  site  of  Cincinnati  in  the  early 
day  have  been  inserted  in  the  first  chapter  of  this  divi- 
sion of  our  work,  and  need  not  be  repeated  here.  A 
glowing  paragraph  by  Mr.  J.  P.  Foote,  concerning  the 
hills  in  their  pristine  freshness,  will  be  particularly  re- 
membered. The  ground  on  the  "bottom"  was  quite 
broken  and  uneven;  that  on  the  "hill,"  or  second  ter- 
race, was  somewhat  smoother.  The  bank  which  sepa- 
rated them  was  sharp  and  abrupt;*  and  it  was  a  serious 
question  with  the  fathers  whether  it  should  be  cut 
through  by  the  streets  with  a  steep  or  gentle  gradient. 
Happily  for  the  horses  and  men  employed  in  the  im- 
mense transfer  business  since  that  day,  the  problem  was 
solved  in  the  sensible  way  that  might  have  been  expected 
of  the  founders  of  the  Queen  City,  although  the  cost- 
lier. The  grade  of  Main  street,  for  example,  was  thus 
in  process  of  time  extended  along  three  squares,  from 
Second  to  Fifth  streets  (Third  street  being  about  one 
hundred  feet  north  of  the  original  line  of  the  bank), 
with  an  angle  of  ascent  of  but  five  to  ten  degrees.  The 
constant  change  of  level  in  the  streets,  in  the  progress 
of  improvement  from  year  to  year,  made  sad  work  with 
the  relations  of  sidewalks  and  pavements  (or  the  spaces 
where  pavements  ought  to  have  been),  and  left  many 
buildings  of  the  early  day  far  above  the  streets  on  which 
they  once  immediately  fronted.  Interesting  anecdotes 
are  related  of  the  foresight  of  some  of  the  early  business 
men,  who,  at  once  upon  the  planning  and  laying  founda- 
tion of  their  buildings,  went  low  enough  with  the  latter 
to  meet  the  future  exigencies  of  improvement.  A  writer 
in  the  first  number  of  Cist's  Cincinnati  Miscellany,  prob- 
ably Mr.  Cist  himself,  making  some  notes  of  "city 
changes,"  says: 

In  the  early  part  of  the  present  century,  Broadway,  opposite  John's 
cabinet  warehouse,  was  the  center  of  a  pond,  three  or  four  acres  in  ex- 
tent, to  which  the  early  settlers  resorted  to  shoot  plovers. 
The  general  level  of  upper  Main  street  extended  as  far  south  as  nearly 
the  line  of  Third  street,  part  of  the  original  surface  of  the  ground  being 
preserved  in  some  of  the  yards  north  of  Third  street  to  this  date  (Oc- 
tober, 1844).  It  will  readily  be  imagined  what  an  impediment  the 
bluff  bank  overhanging  the  lower  ground  to  the  south,  and  repeatedly 
caving  in  on  it,  must  have  created  to  the  intercourse  between  the  two 
great  divisions  of  the  city — Hill  and  Bottom.  But  this  statement,  if  it 
were  to  end  here,  would  not  give  an  adequate  idea  how  far  the  brow  of 
the  hill  overhung  the  bottom  region ;  for  it  must  be  observed  that,  while 
the  hill  projected  nearly  forty  feet  above  the  present  level  where  its  edge 
stood,  the  ground  on  Main  street,  opposite  Pearl  and  Lower  Market 
streets,  corresponded  with  the  general  level  of  these  streets,  which  must 
have  been  between  thirteen  and  fourteen  feet  below  the  present  grade. 
The  whole  ground  from  the  foot  of  the  hill  was  a  swamp,  fed  partly 
from  a  cove  which  put  in  from  the  Ohio  near  what  is  now  Harkness' 
foundry,  and  in  high  water  filled  the  whole  region  from  the  hill  to  with- 
in about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  of  the  Ohio  in  that  part  of  the 
city  from  Walnut   to   Broadway — in  early  days  the  dwelling  ground, 

*  An  interesting  remnant  of  the  old  bank  at  the  brow  of  the  hill — the 
only  one  left,  we  believe — is  still  to  be  seen  at  the  northwest  corner  of 
Third  and  Plum  streets.  It  is  now  a  back  yard,  heaped  up  with  old 


principally,  of  the  settlers,  as  it  still  is  the  most  densely  built-on  and 
valuable  part  of  Cincinnati. 

The  writer  then  relates  some  interesting  facts  of  Casper 
Hopple's  old  tobacco  warehouse,  on  Lower  Market  street, 
which  was  built  upon  boat-gunnels  many  years  before — 
material  obtained  by  the  breaking  up  of  the  primitive 
river  vessels.  In  his  plan  of  building,  Mr.  Hopple  had 
the  foresight  to  place  the  joists  of  the  second  story  just 
fourteen  feet  above  the  sills  of  the  door  to  the  first,  say- 
ing that  that  would  be  the  proper  range  of  the  floor, 
when  Lower  Market  should  be  filled  to  its  proper  height; 
which  proved,  quite  remarkably,  to  be  the  case,  so  that 
his  second  story  became  a  first,  and  the  first  a  cellar  of 
the  right  depth,  as  originally  planned. 

This  entertaining  antiquary  also  makes  mention  of 
Captain  Hugh  Moore's  building,  nearly  opposite  this,  on 
the  subsequent  site  of  Bates  &  Company's  hat  warehouse, 
which  likewise  had  boat-gunnels  for  foundation,  with 
boat-plank  for  the  inside  walls,  lined  with  poplar  boards, 
and  a  clapboard  roof.  It  was,  he  thinks,  perhaps  thirty- 
six  feet  deep  and  twenty  feet  front.  Captain  Moore  se- 
cured this  building  for  the  sale  of  his  merchandise,  it 
being  the  only  one  he  could  secure  for  the  purpose. 
And  now  comes  in  the  remarkable  part  of  the  narrative, 
which  makes  it  germane  to  this  chapter: 

"When  he  had  bargained  for  the  house,  which  he  rent- 
ed at  one  hundred  dollars  per  annum,  and  which,  with 
the  lot  one  hundred  feet  on  Main  by  two  hundred  on 
Pearl  street,  he  was  offered  in  fee  simple  at  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty  dollars,  he  brought  the  flat-boat  which  was 
loaded  with  his  store-goods  from  the  Ohio,  via  Hobson's 
Choice,  not  far  from  Mill  creek,  up  Second  or  Columbia 
street,  and  fastened  the  boat  to  a  stake  near  the  door,  as 
nearly  as  can  be  judged  the  exact  spot  where  the  Museum 
lamp-post  now  [1844]  stands,  at  the  corner  of  Main  and 
Pearl  streets." 

Upon  the  lower  slope  was  a  broad  swamp,  occupying 
the  larger  part  of  the  space  between  Second  and  Lower 
Market  streets,  though  a  part  stretched  still  further  to  the 



It  is  said,  upon  the  authority  of  the  late  Hon.  E.  D. 
Mansfield,  who  makes  the  remark  in  his  Personal  Me- 
mories, that  the  Indians  had  anciently  a  town  upon  the 
site  of  Cincinnati.  Its  natural  advantages  for  the.  pur- 
poses of  savage  as  well  as  civilized  man,  would  of  them- 
selves argue  that  fact,  though  no  other  evidence  should 
exist  in  corroboration  of  the  statement.  Whatever  that 
evidence  may  be,  the  history  of  Indian  occupancy  at  this 
point  has  faded  out  as  completely  as  that  of  the  older 
and  more  civilized  Mound  Builder  in  this  garden  spot  of 
the  Ohio  valley.     Neither  left  a  record  in  literature — not 

even  in  that  of  the  sculptured  monument,  if  we  except 
the  remarkable  little  object  known  as  the  "Cincinnati 
stone,"  discovered  in  1841  in  the  large  mound  near  the 
interse6tion  of  Fifth  and  Mound  streets;  and  tradition  is 
equally  silent,  so  far  as  the  details  of  human  life  in  a  re- 
moter Losantiville  or  Cincinnati  are  concerned.  There 
were  the  earthworks — most  of  them  low  and  insignificant 
in  appearance,  as  they  rose  in  slight  eminence  or  wound 
their  way  amid  the  monarchs  of  the  forest — some  so  di- 
minutive as  to  be  scarcely  distinguishable  above  the  sur- 
face ;  and  they  were  all  that  told  of  the  presence  of  man 
in  congregated  communities  upon  this  area  until  Colonel 
Patterson  led  his  little  band  to  their  new  homes  in  the 
wilderness.  Except  for  those,  this  was  the  forest  prime- 
val. Anything  more  would  certainly  have  been  noted  and 
recorded  by  the  shrewd,  intelligent  men  who  were  the 
founders  of  the  city. 


The  statement  is  made,  however,  by  Mr.  Isaac  Smucker, 
of  Newark,  in  one  of  his  interesting  historical  papers 
published  by  the  secretary  of  State  in  the  official  vohlmes 
of  Ohio  Statistics  (that  for  1877  containing  this),  that 
Colonel  George  Rogers  Clark,  with  an  army  of  about 
one  thousand  men,  all  Kentuckians,  "in  1780  crossed 
the  Ohio  at  the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  and  erected  two 
block-houses  on  the  first  day  of  August,  upon  the  ground 
now  occupied  by  Cincinnati."  Clark  lTad  organized  the 
expedition  during  the  previous  month,  to  march  against 
the  Indian  villages  on  the  Little  Miami  and  the  Mad 
rivers,  to  punish  the  Shawnees  for  their  marauding  in- 
roads into  the  Kentucky  settlements.  After  the  reputed 
erection  of  the  block-houses — which  must  have  been  very 
rapidly  accomplished — he  resumed  the  march,  and  on 
the  fifth  day  thereafter  struck  the  Indian  towns  at  the  site 
of  Old  Chillicothe,  on  the  Little  Miami.  The  Indians 
had  anticipated  Clark's  arrival,  however,  and  themselves 
applied  the  torch  to  their  village,  leaving  little  mischief 
for  the  Kentuckians  to  do,  except  to  destroy  the  ripening 
corn.  But  at  Piqua,  a  larger  town  and  the  birthplace  of 
the  renowned  Tecumseh,  on  the  Mad  river,  about  five 
miles  west  of  the  present  Springfield,  the  savages  made  a 
stand,  preparing  an  ambuscade  in  the  high  grass  of  a 
prairie  adjoining  their  lodges,  and  opened  an  unexpected 
and  deadly  fire  upon  the  invaders.  The  latter  speedily 
rallied  and  charged  the  Indians,  who,  after  a  desperate 
fight,  fled  the  field,  losing  about  twenty  dead,  and  the 
Kentucky  volunteers  as  many.  The  village  and  several 
hundred  acres  of  standing  corn  were  laid  waste.  Colonel 
Clark  then  returned  to  the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  and 
disbanded  his  force. 

One  member,  and  but  one,  we  believe,  of  that  band  of 
Indian  fighters  has  left  express  testimony  to  the  building 
of  the  block-houses.  Mr.  Thomas  Vickroy,  who  was 
afterwards  an  assistant  in  the  survey  of  the  site  of  Pitts- 
burgh, was  out  in  this  expedition.     He  says: 

In  April,  1780,  I  went  to  Kentucky,  in  company  with  eleven  flat- 
boats  with  movers.  We  landed,  on  the  fourth  of  May,  at  the  mouth  of 
Beargrass  creek,  above  the  falls  of  Ohio.  I  took  my  compass  and 
chain  along  to  make  a  fortune  by  surveying,  but  when  we  got  there  the 
Indians  would  not  let  us  survey.     In  the  same  summer  Colonel  Byrd 


came  from  Detroit  with  a  few  British  soldiers  and  some  light  artillery, 
with  Simon  Girty  and  a  great  many  Indians,  and  took  the  forts  on  the 
Licking.  Immediately  afterward  General  Clark  raised  an  army  of 
about  a  thousand  men,  and  marched  with  one  party  of  them  against 
the  Indian  towns.  When  we  came  to  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  we 
fell  in  with  Colonel  Todd  and  his  party.  On  the  first  day  of  August, 
1780,  we  crossed  the  Ohio  river  and  built  the  two  block-houses  wheus 
Cincinnati  now  stands.  I  was  at  the  building  of  the  block-houses. 
Then,  as  General  Clark  had  appointed  me  commissary  of  the  cam- 
paign, he  gave  the  military  stores  into  my  hands  and  gave  me  orders  to 
maintain  that  post  for  fourteen  days.  Heleft  with  me  Captain  Johnson 
and  about  twenty  or  thirty  men,  who  were  sick  and  lame. 

Nothing  more  is  said  in  history,  so  far  as  the  writer  of 
these  pages  is  aware,  of  these  block-houses.  The  use  of 
the  structures,  during  Clark's  brief  campaign  to  the 
northward,  is  sufficiently  indicated  in  Mr.  Vickroy's 
statement.  As  his  force  was  not  regularly  recruited  and 
paid  by  the  United  States  or  any  other  constituted  au- 
#  thority,  there  is  not  the  least  probability  that  a  garrison 
was  left  in  it  when  his  march  was  done  and  he  recrossed 
the  Ohio.  In  that  case  the  red  men  would  make  short 
work  of  the  obnoxious  buildings  as  soon  as  they  obtained 
access  to  them.  Such  works  were  not  commonly  suf- 
fered to  remain  upon  lands  unoccupied  and  undefended, 
as  defiant  monuments  of  the  hated  "Long  Knife."  Fire 
would  speedily  cause  them  to  vanish  in  air,  and  the  lapse 
of  more  than  eight  years,  with  floods  probably  inunda- 
ting their  sites  repeatedly,  would  so  cover  them  with  soil 
and  nature's  tangled  wildwood  that  the  very  clearings 
made  for  them  could  not  be  recognized.  We  do  not 
learn  that  there  is  the  faintest  clue  to  the  exact  locality 
of  these  block-houses.  But  the  brief  story  of  them  is 
exceedingly  interesting,  as  that  of  the  first  occupancy  in 
houses  of  the  site  of  Cincinnati  by  the  white  man, 
August  1,  1780. 


The  fact  that  another  block-house  stood  upon  the  site 
of  Cincinnati,  more  than  six  years  before  the  Ludlow 
and  Patterson  party  came,  seems  to  be  clearly  established 
by  similar  testimony;  not  only  that  of  a  single  person — 
Mr.  John  McCaddon,  for  many  years  a  respected  citizen 
of  Newark,  in  this  State,  who  was  present  at  its  building 
— but  also  by  that  of  two  persons  of  far  greater  renown, 
no  less  personages  than  General  Simon  Kenton  and  Major 
James  Galloway.  General  Clark  was  then  making  a  sec- 
ond expedition  against  the  Miami  towns,  to  avenge  the 
defeat  of  the  Kentuckians  at  the  battle  of  the  Blue  Licks 
August  15,  1782.  That  disaster  had  aroused  a  fierce  de- 
sire for  reprisals  upon  the  Ohio  Indians;  and,  as  soon  as  a 
force  could  be  collected  from  the  widely  scattered  settle- 
ments, it  marched  in  two  divisions,  under  Colonels  Lo- 
gan and  Floyd,  for  the.,  mouth  of  the  Licking.  Clark 
crossed  here  with  one  thousand  and  fifty  men,  threw  up  a 
block-house  rapidly,  and  marched  with  such  speed  one 
hundred  and  thirty  miles  up  the  Miami  country,  that  the 
Indians  were  thoroughly  surprised.  The  principal  Shaw- 
nee town  was  destroyed  November  10th;  also  the  British 
trading  post  at  Loramie's  store,  in  the  present  Shelby 
county — the  same  locality  visited  by^hristopher  Gist  in 
1752 — and  he  destroyed  a  large  quantity  of  property  and 
some  lives,  with  little  loss.  It  was  a  very  effective  expe- 
dition, especially  as  relieving  Kentucky  against  formida- 
able  invasion. 

Fifty  years  afterwards  an  address  issued  by  the  vener- 
able pioneers  and  Indian  fighters,  Kenton  and  Galloway, 
to  call  their  comrades  together  for  the  semi-centennial 
celebration  of  theis  occupation  opposite  the  Licking,  con- 
tained these  words : 

We  will  no  doubt  all  recollect  Captain  McCracken.  He  commanded 
the  company  of  light  horse,  and  Green  Clay  was  his  lieutenant.  The 
captain  was  slightly  wounded  in  the  arm  at  Piqua  town,  when  within  a 
few  feet  of  one  of  the  subscribers,  from  which  place  he  was  carried  on  a 
horse  litter  for  several  days ;  his  wound  produced  mortification,  and  he 
died  in  going  down  the  hill  where  the  city  of  Cincinnati  now  stands. 
He  was  buried  near  the  block-ho^se  we  had  erected  opposite  the  mouth 
of  Licking,  and  the  breastworks  were  thrown  over  his  grave  to  prevent 
the  savages  from  scalping  him. 

We  have  also  the  separate  confirmatory  testimony  of 
Major  Galloway,  who  was  of  the  party  of  1782,  and  re- 
sided long  afterwards  in  Greene  county.  Ht  was  well 
known  to  many  old  citizens  of  Cincinnati.  In  a  letter 
written  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  an  invitation  to  at- 
tend the  fifty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  settlement  of  Cin- 
cinnati, in  1833,  he  says: 

In  October,  1782,  I  accompanied  General  Clark  on  an  expedition 
against  Pickaway  and  Loramie's  town,  and  was  within  a  few  feet  of  the 
lamented  William  McCracken  when  he  received  the  wound  of  which  he 
died  on  his  return,  while  descending  the  hill  near  which  Cincinnati  now 
stands,  and  was  buried  near  a  block-house  opposite  the  mouth  of 

These  cumulative  testimonies  would  seem  to  place  the 
question  of  a  pre-Losantiville  block-house  here  in  1782  be- 
yond doubt  or  cavil.  But  if  further  testimony  was  needed, 
it  is  supplied  by  Mr.  McCaddon,  the  old  resident  of  New- 
ark before  mentioned,  who  was  vouched  for  by  the  editor 
of  the  American  Pioneer  as  "a  man  of  sterling  integrity." 
He  wrote  a  letter  to  thai:  magazine  May  16,  1842,  in 
which  he  gives  some  account  of  the  second  expedition 
of  General  Clark  against  the  Miami  Indian  towns,  and 

At  the  place  where  Cincinnati  now  is,  it  was  necessary  to  build  a 
block-house,  for  the  purpose  of  leaving  some  stores  and  some  wounded 
men  we  got  of  McGary's  company.  I  may  therefore  say  that,  although 
I  did  not  cut  a  tree  or  lift  a  log,  I  helped  to  build  the  first  house  ever 
built  on  that  ground,  for  I  was  at  my  post  in  guarding  the  artificers 
who  did  the  labor  of  building.  When  this  was  done  we  penetrated 
into  the  interior  in  search  of  Indians. 

Mr.  McCaddon's  letter  has  especial  value,  as  showing 
the  immediate  purpose  of  the  block-house.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  neither  he  nor  either  of  the  other  eye-wit- 
nesses of  its  construction  gives  any  hints  of  its  location 
upon  the  terraces  of  Cincinnati,  nor  any  intimation  that 
he  saw  vestiges  of  the  block-houses  of  1780,  or  even  the 
spots  where  they  stood,  which  must,  within  little  more 
than  two  years  after  their  erection,  have  been  easily  rec- 
ognizable. It  is  not  a  pleasant  thought,  also,  that  the 
grave  of  Captain  William  McCracken,  the  brave  soldier 
who  died  of  his  wounds  while  being  borne  in  a  rude  lit- 
ter over  the  height  afterward  known  as  Key's  Hill,  and 
later  Mount  Auburn,  has  remained  wholly  unmarked  and 
unrecognizable  for  near  a  hundred  years.  Somewhere 
along  the  river  front  of  Cincinnati  rest  his  bones ;  unless, 
indeed,  they  have  been  disturbed  by  the  excavating  and 
unsparing  hand  of  city  improvement,  .and  thrown  out 
undistinguished  from  the  Indian  and  Mound  Builder  re- 
mains, which  command  simply  the  curiosity  and  specu- 
lation of  the  antiquary.      The  concealment  of  his  re- 


mains,  to  prevent  their  desecration  by  the  ruthless  toma- 
hawk or  scalping  knife,  no  doubt  aided  in  the  consign- 
ment to  oblivion  of  the  place  of  his  sepulture.  But  it 
is  singular  that  the  "breastworks"  noted  by  General 
Kenton  as  having  been  thrown  over  his  grave  were  not 
remarked  by  the  first  colonists  here  nor  by  the  subse- 
quent inquirers;  since  they  must  have  been  of  a  charac- 
ter quite  distinct  from  the  remains  of  the  Mound  Build- 
ers. They  were  probably  but  slight,  and  may  soon  have 
become  obliterated  by  the  action  of  rain  and  flood. 

Captain  McCracken,  wheff  at  this  point  bn  his  way 
northward  with  the  command,  believed  he  had  a  clear 
presentiment  of  approaching  death  in  a  remarkable 
dream  the  night  before  he  left  the  spot,  and  desired  all 
his  associates  who  might  be  living  fifty  years  from  that 
date,  in  case  he  should  be  killed  on  that  expedition,  to 
meet  at  the  same  place,  and  celebrate  their  brief  occupa- 
tion as  a  mark  of  respect  to  his  memory,  and  mark  the 
wonderful  changes  which  would  probably  then  have  oc- 
curred. It  was  agreed  to  by  nearly  all  present;  and  an 
attempt  was  made  in  1832,  as  we  have  seen,  to  get  -the 
surviving  comrades  together  for  the  celebration;  but  it 
was  the  cholera  year  in  Cincinnati  and  elsewhere  in  the 
west,  and  only  a  few  old  men  gathered,  under  circum- 
stances of  depression  and  sorrow,  to  honor  the  memory 
of  the  departed  soldier.  They,  however,  banqueted  at 
one  of  the  hotels,  at  the  expense  of  the  corporation,  and 
spent  a  few  hours  with  interest  in  the  interchange  of 
reminiscences  and  notes  of  more  recent  personal  expe- 


probably  occurred  somewhere  upon  or  near  the  site  of 
Losantiville  three  years  later — a  very  brief  and  unim- 
portant one  just  here,  but  more  prolonged  and  of  con- 
siderable consequence  elsewhere  within  the  bounds  of 
Hamilton  county.  As  the  story  forms  a  very  interesting 
episode  in  pre-Losantiville  annals,  it  may  well  be  told 
here,  although  most  of  it  has  little  immediate  relation  to 
the  famous  site  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking. 

In  the  early  fall  of  1785,  General  Richard  Butler,  of 
Carlisle,  Pennsylvania,  one  of  the  commissioners  of  the 
United  States  Government  (Generals  Samuel  H.  Parsons 
and  George  Rogers  Clark  being  the  others)  appointed 
to  make  treaties  with  the  western  and  northern  Indians, 
left  his  home,  under  instructions  to  proceed  to  the  Mi- 
amis  and  negotiate  a  treaty  there.  He  kept  a  full  diary 
of  his  journey,  which  has  been  preserved,  and  is  thor- 
oughly entertaining  and  valuable  in  all  parts.  He  left 
Carlisle  in  company  with  "the  Hon.  Colonel  James 
Monroe,  a  member  of  Congress  from  the  State  of  Vir- 
ginia, a  gentleman  very  young  for  a  place  in  that  honor- 
able body,  but  a  man  well-read,  very  sensible,  highly  im- 
pressed with  the  consequence  and  dignity  of  the  Federal 
Union,  and  a  determined  supporter  of  it  in  its  fullest  lat- 
itude." The  world  heard  something  more  of  this  young 
"Hon.  Colonel"  afterwards.  He  continued  with  the 
general's  party  in  the  voyage  down  the  Ohio  until  Lime- 
stone was  reached,  where  he  obtained  horses  and  went 
to  Lexington.  They  got  on  prosperously  in  the  pleasant 
autumn  weather,   and  in  due  time  neared  the   Miami 

country.     The  following  extracts  are  from  General  But- 
ler's entries  of  Friday,  October  21st: 

Sailed  at  half-past  two  o'clock;  passed  the  mouth  of  the  little  Mi- 
amis  at  three  o'clock.  It  is  so  low  there  was  no  water  running  [!]; 
above  the  sand-bank,  which  is  off  its  mouth,  the  land  is  quick,  and  the 
little  water  which  issues  from  it  passes  through  the  sand.  The  bottoms, 
both  above  and  below,  is  very  flat  and  low,  and  I  think  inundated  with 
small  floods.  About  two  miles  below  is  a  piece  of  high  ground,  which 
I  think  will  be  the  site  of  a  town,  as  will  be  the  case  at  the  mouths  of 
all  the  principal  rivers  and  creeks  of  this  great  country. 
Below  the  mouth  of  this  little  river  about  two  miles  is  a  very  large  bank 
of  sand,  at  which  Mr.  Zane  came  in  for  people  to  bring  in  two  deers. 

Pushed  on  to  the  mouth  of  Licking  creek,  which  is  a  pretty  stream; 
at  the  mouth,  both  above  and  below,  is  very  fine  bottoms.  The  bottom 
below' the  mouth  [the  site  of  Covington]  seems  highest  and  most  fit  to 
build  a  town  on;  it  is  extensive,  and  whoever  owns  the  bottoms  should 
own  the  hill  also.  Passed  this  at  five  o'clock;  and  encamped  two  miles 
below  on  the  north  side  [of  course  far  within  the  present  limits  of  Cin- 
cinnati. This  was  the  most  distinguished  company  this  locality  had  so 
far  had  the  honor  to  entertain.] 

There  is  great  plenty  of  limestone  and  coal  appears  on  every  strand 
[what  could  the  general  have  mistaken  for  coal  here?].  Here  is  a  very- 
fine  body  of  bottom  land  to  a  small  creek  four  miles  below  Licking 
creek.  [This  may  have  been  Mill  creek;  but,  if  so,  the  general  was  far 
out  in  his  reckoning  of  distance. .  If  his  measure  is  to  be  taken  with 
approximate  exactness,  the  stream  was  of  course  Bold  Face  creek, 
which  enters  the  river  at  Sedamsville.] 

A  noteworthy  bit  of  local  tradition,  relating  to  the 
Kentucky  side,  comes  here  in  Butler's  journal: 

I  am  informed  that  a  Captain  Bird  [Colonel  Byrd],  of  the  British, 
came  in  the  year  1780  from  Detroit,  down  the  big  Miamis,  thence  up 
the  Ohio  to  the  mouth  of  Licking  creek,  thence  up=  it  about  fifty  miles 
with  their  boats.  At  this  place  they  took  their  artillery,  and  cut  a  road 
fifty  miles  into  the  country,  where  they  attacked  several  places,  and 
took  them;  they  then  carried  off  the  poor,  distressed  people  with  their 
little  ones  to  Detroit  in  triumph. 

This  was  the  expedition  spoken  of  by  Vickroy,  of  six 
hundred  Canadians  and  Indians,  with  six  cannon,  in  the 
summer  of  r78o,  against  RiiddelFs  Station,  below  the. 
mouth  of  Hinkston  fork,  on  the  south  fork  of  the  Lick- 
ing. It  was  mainly  remarkable  for  its  approach  to  the 
station,  cutting  its  way  through  the  dense  woods  for  twelve 
days,  without  the  advance  being  noticed  by  the  garrison. 
The  post  was  surrendered,  on  condition  that  the  British 
should  protect  the  prisoners  from  the  Indians,  which 
they  were  unable  to  do,  as  the  savages,  at  once  after 
possession  was  given,  rushed  upon  the  hapless  people, 
and  divided  them  as  captives  among  themselves.  So  dis- 
gusted was  Colonel  Byrd  by  their  conduct  that  he  refused 
to  move  against  Martin's  Station,  unless  they  would  leave 
all  prisoners  taken  there  to  him.  They  agreed  to  this, 
and  for  once  kept  their  word,  upon  the  surrender  of  the 
station  without  resistance.  It  was  intended  also  to  at- 
tack Bryant's  Station  and  Lexington;  but  Byrd,  who 
seems  to  ha\ce  been  a  humane  and  brave  man,  decided 
to  end  the  expedition  without  their  capture.  It  was  the 
seizure  of  Riiddel's  and  Martin's  Stations,  however,  with 
the  carrying  of  a  large  number  of  men,  women  and  chil- 
dren into  Indian  captivity,  that  prompted  Clark's  first 
expedition  against  the  Miami  towns. 

To  return  to  General  Butler's  party.  The  banks  of 
the  Licking  were  afterwards  a  favorite  resort  for  the  hunt- 
ers of  the  party,  to  hunt  buffalo.  Further  up  the  Ohio 
an  enormous  beast  of  this  kind  had  been  killed.  Gen- 
eral Butler  writes  that  its  head  weighed  one  hundred  and 
thirty-five  pounds,  that  in  life  it  must  have  stood  over 



six  feet  high,  and  that  its  total  weight  was  at  least  fifteen 
hundred  pounds. 

The  country  between  a  point  six  miles  below  the  Lick- 
ing and  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  is  thus  described; 

"On»mile  from  this  is  a  bar  of  sand  in  the  middle  of 
the  river;  the  channel  is  on  the  north  shore.  Here  are 
the  dreadful  effects  of  a  tornado  on  the  hill ;  on  the  north 
side,  from  the  top  down,  every  tree  and  the  surface  of 
the  earth  has  been  washed  or  blown  off.  On  the  south 
shore  there  is  about  four  acres  of  land,  the  timber  of 
which  is  totally  blown  down,  which  I  think  will  be  suffi- 
cient for  mills  part  of  the  season,  as  it  comes  out  of  a 
hilly  country;  it  has  thrown  out  a  great  body  of  gravel, 
etc.,  which  forms  a  kind  of  Presque  Isle,  on  the  south 
side  of  the  river.  .  .  Two  miles  below  this 
comes  in  a  small  creek,  just  above  which  is  most  excel- 
lent land  on  the  face  of  a  beautiful  hill.  The  river  is 
beyond  description,  deer  and  turkey  sporting  before  and 
on  each  side  in  great  abundance — saw  above  twenty 
deers  before  twelve  o'clock.  Put  in  to  dine  about  eleven 
o'clock  about  twelve  miles  below  Licking  creek. 

"Sailed  at  half  past  one  o'clock,  the  wind  ahead. 
Here  is  some  very  fine  lands  covered  with  pine,  ash,  and 
other  rich  timber.  Pushed  on  to  the  Great  Miami,  above 
the  mouth  of  which  I  ordered  the  whole  to  encamp 
about  five  o'clock  in  the  evening.  I  went  out  with  Ma- 
jor Finney  to  examine  the  ground  for  a  post." 

The  general  was  instructed  by  a  resolution  of  Congress 
to  plant  a  military  station  at  any  eligible  point  between 
the  Miami  and  Muskingum  rivers;  and  although  recom- 
mended by  General  Clark,  who  was  at  a  little  fort  a  few 
miles  below,  to  select  a  site  beyond  the  Great  Miami,  he 
preferred  to  remain  on  the  east  side,  in  accordance  with 
his  instructions,  and  chose  a  spot  on  the  higher  ground, 
afterwards  on  the  farm  of  the  Hon.  John  Scott  Harrison, 
which  was  cleared,  and  the  erection  of  four  blockhouses 
and  a  quadrangular  work  begun  October  25,  1785. 
Within  three  days  two  block-houses  were  "in  a  tolerable 
state  of  defense,  and  a  third  well  forward."  The  party, 
and  the  troops  with  it,  commanded  by  Major  Finney  and 
Lieutenant  Doyle,  were  subsisted  mainly  on  bear's  meat, 
buffalo  and  other  game  October  30  one  Captain  John- 
ston, a  settler  from  below,  proposed  to  have  a  road  marked 
from  Lexington  to  the  fort,  which  Generals  Clark  and 
Butler  warmly  seconded.  A  store-house  was  presently 
built  for  the  goods  brought  to  facilitate  negotiations  with 
the  Indians.  Chimneys  were  built  of  stones  picked  up 
in  the  neighborhood.  November  13th  General  Parsons, 
another  of  the  commissioners  for  Indian  affairs,  arrived 
from  above,  with  a  boat-load  of  salt  provisions;  and 
there  were  several  other  arrivals  the  same  day,  of  people 
bound  to  the  falls  of  the  Ohio  and  other  points. 

The  fort  here  erected  was  called  "Fort  Finney,"  in 
honor  of  the  gallant  major  who  commanded  the  garrison. 
The  following  description  of  it,  by  Judge  Hall,  though 
probably  colored  somewhat,  for  his  Romance  of  Western 
History,  is  no  doubt  sufficiently  near  the  facts  to  warrant 
its  quotation  here: 

In  the  eye  of  a  military  engineer  the  fort  would  hardly  have  deserved 
that  name,  as  it  was  a  temporary  structure,  intended  only  to  protect  its 

small  garrison  against  a  sudden  attack  by  an  Indian  force.  It  was 
composed  of  a  series  of  log  houses  opening  upon  an  interior  area  or 
quadrangle,  with  a  block  house  or  citadel  in  the  centre,  while  the  outer 
sides,  closely  connected,  permit  a  square  inclosure  or  rampart,  without 
apertures,  except  a  single  entrance  and  a  few  loop-holes  from  which  to 
discharge  fire-arms.  The  whole  presented  the  appearance  of  a  single 
edifice,  receiving  light  from  the  centre  and  forming  barracks  for  the  gar- 
rison, as  well  as  breastworks  against  a  foe.  The  forest  was  cleared 
away  for  some  hundreds  of  yards  around,  leaving  an  open  vista  ex- 
tending to  the  water's  edge,  while  a  few  acres  enclosed  in  a  rude  fence 
and  planted  with  corn  and  garden  vegetables,  for  the  use  of  the  soldiers, 
exhibited  the  first  rude  attempt  at  agriculture  in  that  wild  and  beautiful 

A  council-house  was  put  up  to  accommodate  the 
Indians,  who  gradually  gathered  in  and  about  it;  and, 
while  awaiting  the  arrival  of  others  to  hold  a  pow-wow 
over  the  proposed  treaty,  and  being  supplied  with  rum 
and  whiskey  by  the  commissioners,  they  soon  became 
drunken  and  troublesome,  and  importunate  in  their 
demands.  Finally,  by  the  last  of  January,  after  a  great 
deal  of  difficulty,  the  representatives  of  various  tribes 
were  got  together  at  the  fort,  in  numbers  reported  by 
General  Butler  as  forty-seven  Delawares,  eighty-three 
Wyandots,  and  three  hundred  and  eighteen  Shawnees,  . 
four  hundred  and  forty-eight  in  all,  counting  all  ages  and 
sexes.  It  was  a  large  number  to  be  dependent  mainly 
on  the  supplies  of  the  Government.  No  Wabash  Indians 
were  present,  on  account  of  hostility  inspired  by  the 
British.  The  American  traders  and  the  Kentucky  peo- 
ple, strange  to  say,  seemed  also  opposed  to  a  treaty,  and 
did  what  they  could  to  prevent  it.  Those  Indians  who 
came  were  in  bad  temper,  and  at  times  haughty  and  dis- 
respectful. Out  of  an  incident  arising  from  this  spirit 
Judge  Hall,  the  voluminous  and  entertaining  writer, 
formerly  of  Hamilton  county,  has  woven  a  romantic 
story,  which  is  thus  prettily  told  in  a  chapter  of  his 
Romance  of  Western  History,  entitled,  The  War  Belt: 
A  Legend  of  North  Bend: 

An  apartment  in  the  fort  was  prepared  as  a  council-room,  and  at 
the  appointed  hour  the  doors  were  thrown  open.  At  the  head  of  the 
table  sat  Clark,  a  soldier-like  and  majestic  man,  whose  complexion, 
eyes,  and  hair  all  indicated  a  sanguine  and  mercurial  temperament. 
The  brow  was  high  and  capacious,  the  features  were  prominent  and 
manly,  and  the  expression,  which  was  keen,  reflective,  and  ordinarily 
cheerful  and  agreeable,  was  bow  grave  almost  to  sternness. 

The  Indians,  being  a  military  people,  have  a  deep  respect  for  martial 
virtue.  To  other  estimable  or  shining  qualities  they  turn  a  careless  eye 
or  pay  at  best  but  a  passing  tribute,  while  they  bow  in  profound  venera- 
tion before  a  successful  warrior.  The  name  of  Clark  was  familiar  to 
them :  several  brilliant  expeditions  into  their  country  had  spread  the 
terror  of  his  arms  throughout  their  villages  and  carried  the  fame  of  his 
exploits  to  every  council-fire  in  the  west.  Their  high  appreciation  of 
his  character  was  exemplified  in  a  striking  as  well  as  an  amusing  manner 
on  another  occasion,  when  a  council  was  held  with  several  tribes.  The 
celebrated  Delaware  chief,  Buckinghelas,  on  entering  the  council-room, 
without  noticing  any  other  person,  walked  up  to  Clark,  and  as  he  shook 
hands  cordially  with  him  exclaimed,  "  It  is  a  happy  day  when  two  such 
men  as  Colonel  Clark  and  Buckinghelas  meet  together." 

Such  was  the  remarkable  man  who  now  presided  at  the  council-table. 
On  his  right  hand  sat  Colonel  Richard  Butler,  a  brave  officer  of  the 
Revolution,  who  soon  after  fell,  with  the  rank  of  brigadier  general,  in 
the  disastrous  campaign  of  St.  Clair.  On  the  other  side  was  Samuel 
H.  Parsons,  a  lawyer  from  New  England,  who  afterwards  became  a 
judge  in  the  Northwestei  n  Territory.  At  the  same  table  sat  the  secre- 
taries, while  the  interpreters,  several  officers,  and  a  few  soldiers,  sat 

An  Indian  council  is  one  of  the  most  imposing  spectacles  in  savage 
life.  It  is  one  of  the  few  occasions  in  which  the  warrior  exercises  his 
right  of  suffrage,  his  influence  and  his  talents,  in  a  civil  capacity ;  and 



the  meeting  is  conducted  with  all  the  gravity  and  all  the  ceremonious 
ostentation  with  which  it  is  possible  to  invest  it.  The  matter  to  he  con- 
sidered, as  well  as  all  the  details,  are  well  digested  beforehand,  so  that 
the  utmost  decorum  shall  prevail  and  the  decision  be  unanimous.  The 
chiefs  and  sages,  the  leaders  and  orators,  occupy  the  most  conspicuous 
seats ;  behind  them  are  arranged  the  younger  braves,  and  still  further 
in  the  rear  appear  the  women  and  youth,  as  spectators.  All  are  equally 
attentive.  A  dead  silence  reigns  throughout  the  assemblage.  The 
great  pipe,  gaudily  adorned  with  paint  and  feathers,  is  lighted  and 
passed  from  mouth  to  mouth,  commencing  with  the  chief  highest  in 
rank,  and  proceeding,  by  regular  gradations,  to  the  inferior  order  of 
braves.  If  two  or  three  nations  be  represented,  the  pipe  is  passed  from 
one  party  to  the  other,  and  salutations  are  courteously  exchanged,  be- 
fore the  business  of  the  council  is  opened  by  the  respective  speakers. 
Whatever  jealousy  or  party  spirit  may  exist  in  the  tribe,  it  is  carefully 
excluded  from  this  dignified  assemblage,  whose  orderly  conduct  and 
close  attention  to  the  proper  subject  before  them  might  be  imitated  with 
profit  by  some  of  the  most  enlightened  bodies  in  Christendom. 

It  was  an  alarming  evidence  of  the  temper  now  prevailing  among 
them  and  of  the  brooding  storm  that  filled  their  minds,  that  no  pro- 
priety of  demeanor  marked  the  entrance  of  the  savages  into  the  coun- 
cil-room. The  usual  formalities  were  forgotten  or  purposely  dispensed 
with,  and  an  insulting  levity  substituted  in  their  place.  The  chiefs  and 
braves  stalked  in  with  an  appearance  of  light  regard,  and  seated  them- 
selves promiscuously  on  the  floor,  in  front  of  the  commissioners.  An 
air  of  insolence  marked  all  their  movements,  and  showed  an  intention 
to  dictate  terms  or  to  fix  a  quarrel  upon  the  Americans. 

A  dead  silence  rested  over  the  group;  it  was  the  silence  of  dread,  dis- 
trust, and  watchfulness,  not  of  respect.  The  eyes  of  the  savage  band 
gloated  upon  the  banquet  of  blood  that  seemed  already  spread  out  be- 
fore them ;  the  pillage  of  the  fort  and  the  bleeding  scalps  of  the  Ameri- 
cans were  almost  within  their  grasp;  while  that  gallant  little  band  saw 
the  portentous  nature  of  the  crisis  and  stood  ready  to  sell  their  lives 
as  dearly  as  possible.  * 

The  commissioners,  without  noticing  the  disorderly  conduct  of  the 
other  party  or  appearing  to  have  discovered  their  meditated  treachery, 
opened  the  council  in  due  form.  They  lighted  the  peace-pipe,  and, 
after  drawing  a  few  whiffs,  passed  it  to  the  chiefs,  who  received  it. 
Colonel  Clark  then  rose  to  explain  the  purpose  for  which  the  treaty 
was  ordered.  With  an  unembarrassed  air,  with  the  tone  of  one  accus- 
tomed to  command,  and  the  easy  assurance  of  perfect  security  and 
self-possession,  he  stated  that  the  commissioners  had  been  sent  to  offer 
peace  to  the  Shawanoes;  that  the  President  had  no  wish  to  continue 
the  war;  he  had  no  resentment  to  gratify ;  and  that,  if  the  red  men  de- 
sired peace,  they  could  have  it  on  liberal  terms.  "If  such  be  the  will 
of  the  Shawanoes,"  he  concluded,  "let  some  of  their  wise  men  speak." 

A  chief  arose,  drew  up  his  tall  person  to  its  full  height,  and  assum- 
ing a  haughty  attitude,  threw  his  eye  contemptuously  over  the  com- 
missioners and  their  small  retinue,  as  if  to  measure  their  insignificance, 
in  comparison  with  his  own  numerous  train,  and  then,  stalking  up  to 
the  table,  threw  upon  it  two  belts  of  wampum  of  different  colors — the 
war  and  the  peace  belt. 

The  chiefs  drew  themselves  up,  in  the  consciousness  of  having 
hurled  defiance  in  the  teeth  of  the  white  men.  They  had  offered  an 
insult  to  the  renowned  leader  of  the  Long  Knives,  to  which  they  knew 
it  would  be  hard  for  him  to  submit,  while'they  did  not  suppose  he  would 
dare  to  resent  it.  The  council-pipe  was  laid  aside,  and  those  fierce, 
wild  men  gazed  intently  on  Clark.  The  Americans  saw  that  the  crisis 
had  arrived;  they  could  no  longer  doubt  that  the  Indians  understood 
the  advantage  they  possessed,  and  were  disposed  to  use  it;  and  a  com- 
mon sense  of  danger  caused  each  eye  to  be  turned  on  the  leading  com- 
missioner. He  sat  undisturbed,  and  apparently  careless,  until  the  chief 
who  had  thrown  the  belts  on  the  table  had  taken  his  seat;  then,  with  a 
small  cane  which  he  heldin  his  hand,  he  reached  as  if  playfully  towards 
the  war-belt,  entangled  the  end  of  the  stick  in  it,  drew  it  towards  him, 
and  then,  with  a  twitch  of  the  cane,  threw  the  belt  into  the  midst  of  the 
chiefs.  The  effect  was  electric.  Every  man  in  council,  of  each  party, 
sprang  to  his  feet;  the  savages  with  a  loud  exclamation  of  astonishment, 
"Hugh!"  the  Americans  in  expectation  of  a  hopeless  conflict  against 
overwhelming  numbers.     Every  hand  grasped  a  weapon. 

Clark  alone  was  unawed.  The  expression  of  his  countenance 
changed  to  a  ferocious  sternness,  and  his  eye  flashed;  but  otherwise  he 
was  unmoved.  A  bitter  smile  was  slightly  perceptible  upon  his  com- 
pressed lips,  as  he  gazed  upon  that  savage  band,  whose  hundred  eyes 
were  bent  fiercely  and  in  horrid  exultation  upon  him,  as  they  stood  like 
a  pack  of  wolves  at  bay,  thirsting  for  blood,  and  ready  to  rush  upon 
him  whenever  one  bolder  than  the  rest  should  commence  the  attack, 

It  was  one  of  those  moments  of  indecision  when  the  slightest  weight 
thrown  into  either  scale  will  make  it  preponderate;  a  moment  in  which 
a  bold  man,  conversant  with  the  secret  springs  of  human  action,  may 
seize  upon  the  minds  of  all  around  him  and  sway  them  at  his  will. 
Such  a  man  .was  the  intrepid  Virginian.  He  spoke,  and  there  was  no 
man  bold  enough  to  gainsay  him — none  that  could  return  4he  fierce 
glance  of  his  eye.  Raising  his  arm,  and  waving  his  hand  towards  the 
door,  he  exclaimed;  '  Dogs/  you  may  go  I'  The  Indians  hesitated  for 
a  moment,  and  then  rushed  tumultuously  out  of  the  council-room. 

The  decision  of  Clark  on  that  occasion  saved  himself  and  his  com- 
panions from'  massacre.     The  plan  of  the  savages  had  been  artfully 
laid;  he  had  read  it  in  their  features  and  conduct,  as  plainly  as  if  it  had 
been  written  upon  a  scroll  before  him.     He  met  it  in  a  manner  which 
was  unexpected;  the   crisis  was  brought  on  sooner  than  was  intended; 
and  upon  a  principle  similar  to  that  by  which,  when  a  line  of  battle  is 
broken,  the  dismayed  troops  fly  before  order  can  be  restored,  the  new 
and  sudden  turn  given  to  these  proceedings  by  the  energy  of  Clark  con- 
founded the  Indians,  and  before  the  broken  thread  of  their  scheme  of 
tieachery  could  be  reunited,  they  were  panic-struck.     They  had  come 
prepared  to  browbeat,  to  humble,  and  then  to  destroy;  they  looked  for 
remonstrance  and  altercation ;  for  the  luxury  of  drawing  the  toils  gradu- 
ally around  their  victims;  of  beholding  their  agony  and  degradation, 
and  of  bringing  on  the  final  catastrophe  by  an  appointed  signal,  when 
the  scheme  should  be  ripe.     They  expected  to  see,  on  our  part,  great 
caution,  a  skillful  playing-off,  and  an   unwillingness   to  take  offence, 
which  were  to  be  gradually  goaded  into  alarm,  irritation  and  submis- 
sion.    The  cool  contempt  with  which  their  first  insult  was  thrown  back 
in  their  teeth,  surprised  them,  and  they  were  foiled  by  the  self-posses- 
sion of  one   man.     They  had   no  Tecumthe  among  them,  no  master- 
spirit to  change  the  plan,  so  as  to  adapt  it  to  a  new  exigency;  and 
those  braves  who,  in  many  a  battle,  had  shown  themselves  to  be  men  of 
true   valor,  quailed  before  the   moral  superiority  which   assumed  the 
vantage-ground  of  a  position  they  could  not  comprehend,  and  there- 
fore feared  to  assail. 

This  is  a  very  neat  romance,  but  unhappily  it  is  not 
historic  truth.  Judge  Hall  doubtless  based  his  account 
upon  the  narrative  of  the  event  in  the  old  Encyclopaedia 
Americana,  which  in  turn  rests  upon  the  notes  of  an  old 
officer,  who  is  said  to  have  been  present.  These,  how- 
ever, simply  say  that  the  Indian  spokesman,  "a  tall,  raw- 
boned  fellow,  with  an  impudent  and  villainous  look,'7 
presented  "a  black  and  white  wampum,  to  signify  they 
were  prepared  for  either  event,  peace  or  war.  Clark  ex- 
hibited the  same  unaltered  and  careless  countenance  he 
had  shown  during  the  whole  scene,  his  head  leaning  on 
his  left  hand  and  his  elbow  resting  upon  the  table.  He 
raised  his  little  cane  and  pushed  the  sacred  wampum  off 
the  table,  with  very  little  ceremony.'' 

Another  officer  who  was  in  the  garrison  of  Fort  Finney 
at  this  time,  but  who  may  not  have  been  in  the  council- 
room  on  this  occasion,  gives  in  his  diary  a  slightly  differ- 
ent narrative.  This  was  Ensign  (afterwards  Major)  Ebe- 
nezer  Denny,  whose  military  journal  was  published  by 
the  Historical  society  of  Pennsylvania  in  i860.  He  re- 
cords, under  date  of  January  27,  1786: 

Shawnees  met  in  council  house.  .  .  The  Ohio  river  they 
would  agree  to,  nothing  short ;  and  offered  a  mixed  belt,  indicating 
peace  or  war.  None  touched  the  belt— it  was  laid  on  the  table ;  Gen- 
eral Clark,  with  his  cane,  pushed  it  off  and  set  his  foot  on  it.  Indians 
very  sullen.  .  .  Council  broke  up  hastily.  Some  commotion 
among  the  Shawnees.  Returned  same  afternoon  and  begged  another 
meeting,  when  their  old  king,  Molunthy,  rose  and  made  a  short  speech, 
presented  a  white  string,  doing  away  all  that  their  chief  warrior  had 
said,  prayed  that  we  would  have  pity  on  women  and  children. 

This  account  is  repeated-  in  most  particulars  by  the  re- 
port made  by  Ensign  Denny  to  Colonel  Harmar  ten  days 
afterwards;  though  in  this  he  says  nothing  of  Clark's  con- 
nection with  the  incident.  He  writes  in  a  long  letter 
under  date  of  February  8th : 



The  commissioners  did  not  attempt  to  touch  the  string  which  was 
given,  and  without  rising  determined  on  an  answer.  .  .  Coun- 
cil was  not  broke  up  more  than  fifteen  minutes  when  a  message  came 
for  the  commissioners.  After  they  had  assembled,  the  chief  took  a 
white  string  and  destroyed  the  whole  of  his  former  speech. 

The  exact  truth  is  undoubtedly  told  in  the  journal  of 
General  Butler,  who  was  really  the  chief  personage  in 
these  transactions.  It  is  a  simple,  straightforward,  sol- 
dierly account,  bearing  every  aspect  of  truth.  According 
to  this,  after  a  rather  defiant  speech  by  Kekewepelletry, 
refusing  hostages  and  other  demands  of  the  commission: 
ers,  he  closed  by  throwing  upon  the  table  a  black  string 
of  wampum.  The  commissioners  then  held  a  confer- 
ence, and  Butler  stepped  forward  to  reply,  which  he  did 
at  some  length,  concluding  as  follows : 

We  plainly  tell  you  that  this  country  belongs  to  the  United  States — 
their  blood  hath  defended  it,  and  will  forever  protect  it.  Their  propo- 
sals are  liberal  and  just ;  and  you,  instead  of  acting  as  you  have  done, 
and  instead  of  persisting  in  your  folly,  should  be  thankful  for  the  for- 
giveness and  the  offers  of  kindness  of  the  United  States,  instead  of  the 
sentiments  which  this  string  imparts  and  the  manner  in  which  you 
have  delivered  it.  (I  then  took  it  up  and  dashed  it  on  the  table. )  We 
therefore  leave  you  to  consider  of  what  hath  been  said,  and  to  determine 
as  you  please. 

No  such  dramatic  scene  as  the  eulogists  of  General 
Clark  have  depicted  appears  to  have  occurred.  The  In- 
dians were,  however,  brought  to  terms  only  with  difficulty, 
and  after  much  negotiation  and  many  presents;  but  at 
length,  on  the  second  of  February,  1786,  a  treaty  was 
signed  which  compelled  the  Shawnee  Indians  to  acknowl- 
edge the  supremacy  of  the  United  States  over  all  the  ter- 
ritory ceded  by  England  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution, 
allotted  and  defined  the  reservation  of  the  Shawnees, 
and  provided  for  hostages  and  the  return  of  white  cap- 
tives. Two  whites  named  Pipe  and  Fox,  and  a  little  boy, 
were  given  up,  and  six  young  men  of  the  Indians  were 
left  as  hostages  for  the  punctual  fulfillment  of  the  treaty. 

croghan's  visit. 

The  whites,  however,  as  is  well  known  to  students  of 
local  history,  were  on  the  river  and  casually  at  this  point 
many  years  before  the  military  and  diplomatic  expedi- 
tions whose  story  is  told. 

In  1765  Colonel  George  Croghan  came  down  the  Ohio 
on  an  errand  to  Vincennes  and  Detroit,  as  commissioner 
for  Sir  William  Johnson,  to  visit  the  French  inhabitants 
at  those  points,  and  enlist  their  sympathies  in  behalf  of 
the  English,  in  the  hope  of  obviating  further  Indian 
wars.  He  left  an  interesting  journal  of  his  voyage.  Set- 
ting off  from  Fort  Pitt  (Pittsburgh)  on  the  fifteenth  of 
May,  in  that  year,  with  two  batteaux  and  a  considerable 
party  of  white  men  and  Indians,  he  in  a  few  days  reached 
the  region  and  made  the  following  entries  in  his  record. 

29th.     We  came  to  the  Little  Miame  river,  having  proceeded  sixty 

miles  last  night. 

30th.  We  passed  the  great  Miame  river  about  thirty  miles  from  the 
little  river  of  that  name,  and  in  the  evening  arrived  at  the  place  where 
the  Elephant's  bones  are  found  [Big  Bone  lick],  where  we  encamped, 
intending  to  take  a  view  of  the  place  next  morning.  This  day  we 
came  about  seventy  miles.  The  country  on  both  sides  level,  and  rich 
bottoms  well  watered. 

In  penning  the  last  remark  Croghan  had  doubtless  in 
mind  a  lively  recollection  of  the  broad,  beautiful  Cincin- 
nati basin  which  he  had  that  day  passed.     He  was  taken 

by  the  Indians  nine  days  after  the  last  entry  cited,  and 
carried  by  them  to  Vincennes. 


Some  years  after  this,  it  is  related  that  three  brothers, 
James,  George  and  John  Medfee,  of  Botetourt  county, 
Virginia,  set  their  longing  eyes  upon  the  Miami  country, 
intending,  if  they  found  it  as  desirable  in  all  important 
respects  as  was  described  to  them,  to  settle  the  wild  but 
very  hopeful  tract  of  which  they  had  heard,  opposite  the 
mouth  of  the  Licking — otherwise  they  would  go  on  to 
the  settlements  on  the  Salt  river,  in  Kentucky,  where 
they  had  acquaintances  from  the  Old  Dominion.  About 
the  beginning  of  June,  1773,  they  set  out  for  the  wilder- 
ness west.  Procuring  canoes  at  the  Kanawha,  they 
floated  down  that  stream  with  considerable  velocity  by 
reason  of  an  enormous  freshet — twelve  feet,  as  the  tradi- 
tions relate,  above  the  great  inundations  of  1832  and 
1847.  It  is  supposed  that  it  was  this  flood  the  height  of 
which  was  marked,  by  these  visitors  or  the  Indians,  upon 
a  tree  standing  below  Fort  Washington,  and  which  was 
pointed  out  by  the  latter  as  indicating  the  reach  of  the 
greatest  height  of  the  river  they  had  known,  either  by 
personal  experience  or  by  tradition.  Rushing  out  from 
the  Kenawha  upon  the  broad  bosom  of  the  Ohio,  they 
were  borne  rapidly  down  that  also.  The  mighty  valley 
of  the  Beautiful  River  was  full,  almost  from  bluff  to  bluff; 
and  when  they  arrived  at  the  site  of  the  future  Losanti- 
ville  and  Cincinnati  scarcely  any  tracts  were  in  sight, 
below  the  heights,  except  water  lots.  Dismayed  with 
the  appearance  of  things,  and  not  having  the  patience 
to  wait  for  a  more  favorable  season,  they  pushed  on 
to  their  Kentucky  friends,  and,  after  a  brief  visit  to  their 
homes  in  Virginia,  settled  in  the  former  State  and  became 
the  heads  of  prominent  Kentucky  families.  Such  was 
the  first  abortive  attempt  at  colonizing  the  Miami  coun- 
try that  is  on  record. 

In  1780,  the  father  of  General  William  Lytle — who 
(the  general)  became  afterwards  a  citizen  of  Williams- 
burgh  and  then  of  Cincinnati,  lived  here  in  very  honor- 
able prominence  for  many  years,  and  died  in  this  city 
March  8,  1 831— came  down  the  river  with  the  largest 
fleet  of  boats  and  company  of  immigrants  that  had  been 
known  to  that  time.     It  comprised  sixty-three  of  the 
primitive  craft  then  navigating  the  Ohio,  conveying  a 
number  of  men  capable  of  bearing  arms  said  to  have 
been  equal  to  one  thousand,  besides  their  women  and 
children.     About  ten  o'clock  in   the    forenoon  of   the 
twelfth  of  April,  the  occupants  of  the  boats  which  were 
leading  espied  an  encampment  of  Indians  on  the  north 
side  of  the  stream,  opposite  the  debouchure  of  the  Lick- 
ing.    Intelligence  of  danger  was  at  once  conveyed  back 
to  the  fleet,  and  three  large  boats  were  directed  to  land 
above  the  camp,  in  a  concerted  order.    Half  the  fighting 
men  were  to  leap  ashore  the  moment  the  boats  should 
touch;   and,    stopping  only   to   form   in  .column,  they 
charged   the   Indian  village.     The    latter,  however,   in 
number  variously  estimated  at  one  hundred  and  fifty  to 
five  hundred,  did  not  wait  for  actual  contact  with  their 
enemies,  but  incontinently  fled,  in  their  haste  and  disor- 



der  abandoning  many  of  their  poor  valuables.  They 
were  pursued  to  Mill  creek  and  up  the  valley  to  a  point 
beyond  the  present  locality  of  Cumminsville.  Several 
Indians  were  mounted,  and  got  away  easily;  the  others 
were  suffered  to  escape.  The  whites  returned  to  their 
boats,  and  moved  on  to  the  mouth  of  Beargrass  creek, 
now  Louisville,  where  their  projected  settlement  was 

The  relation  of  Mr.  John  McCaddon,  afterwards  a  res- 
ident of  Newark,  in  this  State,  avers  that  he  sailed  down 
the  Ohio  in  May  of  the  same  year,  and  afterwards,  at 
Louisville,  joined  the  expedition  of  George  Rogers 
Clark  against  the  Shawnees.  Below  the  site  of  Cincin- 
nati a  detachment  of  their  force,  which  had  chosen  to 
march  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  on  account,  they 
said,  of  more  abundant  game,  while  the  main  body  kept 
to  the  Kentucky  shore,  became  alarmed  at  the  fresh 
signs  of  Indians,  and  took  to  their  boats,  intending  to 
cross  the  river  and  rejoin  their  fellows,  who  had  kept 
abreast  of  them.  They  had,  however,  got  but  a  few 
yards  from  the  bank  when  they  were  -fired  upon  and 
thrown  into  confusion  by  a  party  of  Indians ;  but  before 
they  reached  the  shore  they  heard  the  "scalp  halloo'' 
from  the  top  of  the  hill,  and  knew  that  the  Indians 
were  in  full  retreat.  It  is  probable  that  the  wounded 
men  of  McGary's  company,  mentioned  by  Mr.  McCad- 
don in  his  letter  concerning  the  block-house,  were  hurt 
in  this  affair,  since  it  was  his  command  that  was  thus 

In  1785,  a  party  which  included  William  West,  John 
Simons,  John  Seft,  a  Mr.  Carlin,  and  their  families,  also 
John  Hurdman,  all  of  Washington  county,  Pennsylvania, 
visited  this  region  with  a  view  to   settlement.     Passing 
the  site  of   the  Queen   City  to  be,  they  landed  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Great  Miami,  it  is  thought  in  April,  and 
explored  its  valley  as  far  as  the  subsequent  site  of  Ham- 
ilton.    They  made  improvements  at  sundry  points  where 
they  found  bottom  lands  finer  than  the  rest;  but  do  not 
appear  to  have  remained  permanently  in  the   country. 
In  the  fall  Hurdman  came  down  the  river,  and  found  at 
its  mouth  Generals  Clark,  Butler,  and  Parsons,  with  Ma- 
jor Finney  and  his  soldiers,  about  to  construct  the  fort 
and  make  a  treaty  with   the  Indians.     Almost  the  only 
matter  which  connects  him  or  this  incident  closely  with 
the  history  of  Cincinnati  is  the,  fact  that  he  was  with  the 
party  of    Symmes,   three  years  afterwards,   when  there 
wandered  away  to  his  death  John  Filson,  one  of  the  pro- 
prietors of  Losantiville. 

In  September  of  1788  five  gentlemen,  from  a  station 
near  Georgetown,  Kentucky,  came  in  two  canoes  to  the 
mouth  of  Deer  creek,  up  the  bank  of  which  they  pro- 
ceeded on  foot  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards,  when 
they  were  fired  upon  by  a  concealed  savage,  and  one  of 
them,  named  Baxter,  was  killed.  He  was  buried  at  a 
spot  just  below  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  where,  many 
years  afterwards,  a  skeleton  was  found  by  a  party  of  boys, 
the  skull  of  which  had  a  bullet  rattling  inside  of  it.  It 
is  some  satisfaction  to  record  that  the  Indian  who  shot 
poor  Baxter  was  pursued  by  the  rest  of  the  party  and 
brought  down. 


The  last  mention  of  the  Cincinnati  region  by  a  geo- 
graphical designation,  before  the  incoming  of  Denman's 
colony,  was  doubtless  by  Judge  Symmes,  in  his  letter  to 
Dayton,  from  Limestone  (Maysville),  October  12,  1788, 
referring  to  the  unlucky  expedition  in  which  Filson  was 
lost.  The  judge  says:  "On  the  twenty-second  ult.  I 
landed  at  Miami,  and  explored  the  country  as  high  as 
the  upper  side  of  the  fifth  range  of  townships."  The 
point  at  which  he  stepped  ashore,  and  to  which  he  casually 
and  temporarily  gave  the  general  name  of  the  region,  was 
undoubtedly  the  Losantiville  site,  since  here  he  met  the 
party  of  Kentuckians,  led  by  Patterson  and  Filson,  who, 
in  accordance  with  the  public  notice  about  to  be  set  out  in 
full  in  the  next  chapter,  had  "blazed"  a  road  through  the 
deep  woods  between  Lexington  and  this  place.  They 
made  up  the  major  part  of  the  escort  which  accompanied 
Symmes  in  the  exploration  that  immediately  followed  into 
the  interior. 



By  this  time  the  reader  who  has  followed  patiently  the 
pages  of  this  volume  will  have  no  difficulty  in  under- 
standing the  considerations  that  probably  determined  the 
settlement  of  Losantiville.  Probably  no  intelligent  trav- 
eller had  ever  passed  down  the  Ohio  without  noting  the 
eligibility  of  this  beautiful  and  otherwise  singularly  fa- 
vored spot  as  the  site  of  a  settlement  which  might  be- 
come a  great  city.  The  Mound  Builder  and  the  Indian  , 
had,  each  in  his  own  time,  realized  its  advantages  of 
residence  in  clusters  of  homes;  and  very  early  the  adven- 
turous and  speculative  white  man,  as  we  have  seen, 
turned  with  longing,  eager  eyes  to  the  fertile  tract  oppo- 
site the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  as  the  most  hopeful  spot 
spot  in  all  the  Miami  country  whereon  to  plant  a  colony. 

Mr.  James  Parton,  in  his  article  on  Cincinnati  in  the 
Atlantic  Monthly  for  June,  i867,8suggests  that  the  loca- 
tion of  the  place  was  determined^  by  considerations  of 
safety,  as  this  point  was  the  best  in  this  region  for  the 
posting  of  a  garrison.  He  also  calls  attention  to  the 
facts  that  this  is  the  only  site  on  the  Ohio  river  where 
one  hundred  thousand  people  could  live  together  with- 
out being  compelled  to  climb  very  high  and  steep  hills, 
and  that  it  is  also  about  midway  between  the  source  and 
the  mouth  of  the  river^-that  is,  near  the  centre  of  the 
great  valley  of  the  OhioA 

Be  these  things  as  t\wy  may — whether  such  thoughts 
entered  the  minds  of  the  founders  of  Losantiville  or  not 
— it  is  certain  that  almost  as  soon  as  the  proposal  for  the 
Miami  Purchase  had  been  mooted,  long  before  Judge 
Symmes  or  the  ostensible  proprietors  of  the  village  were 
able  to  give  valid  title  deeds,  the  conditional  purchase  of 
the  tract "  upon  which  the  town  was  laid  out  had  been 
made,  and  the  site  had  been  surveyed  and  settled.     The 



men  whose  names,  in  the  first  instance,  must  forever  be 
identified  with  the  initial  steps  of  this  enterprise,  which 
has  eventuated  in  such  wonderful  results  as  are  to  be 
seen  in  the  present  city  on  the  shore,  were  Matthias 
Denman,  Colonel  Robert  Patterson,  John  Filson  and 
Israel  Ludlow. 


Of  him,  the  original  hero  of  the  Losantiville  venture, 
least  of  all  is  known.  He  was,  like  Symmes,  Dayton 
and  others  of  the  company  making  the  famous  purchase 
between  the  Miamis,  a  Jerseyman,  residing  at  Spring- 
field, Essex  county,  in  that  State,  to  which  he  returned, 
and  where  he  remained  so  late  as  1830,  at  least,  after  his 
colony  had  been  firmly  planted  upon  the  tract  he  bought 
from  Symmes.  He  was  in  that  year  visited  in  his  home 
at  Springfield  by  the  father  of  Mr.  Francis  W.  Miller, 
author  of  Cincinnati's  Beginnings.  That  he  was  a  man 
of  some  intelligence,  enterprise  and  energy,  may  be  in- 
ferred from  the  incidents  of  his  connection  with  this  en- 
terprise in  the  then  wilderness  west;  but  we  do  not  learn 
that  he  attained  to  any  special  distinction  in  his  own 
State,  or  even  where  he  was  born  or  when  he  died. 


Colonel  Robert  Patterson,  a  leading  spirit  in  the  pro- 
jecting and  founding  of  Losantiville,  was  a  native  of 
Pennsylvania,  born  near  Cove  mountain,  March  15, 
1753,  of  Irish  stock,  at  least  on  his  father's  side.  At 
twenty-one  years  of  age  he  served  six  months  on  the 
frontiers  of  that  State  defending  it  against  Indian  incur- 
sions. The  same  year  (1774)  he  and  six  other  young 
adventurers,  with  John  McLelland  and  family,  made  their 
way  to  the  Royal  spring,  near  Georgetown,  Kentucky, 
where  they  lived  until  April,  1776,  when  they  removed 
to  the  subsequent  site  of  Lexington.  Patterson,  how- 
ever, a  few  months  afterwards  assisted  in  the  defence  of 
McLelland's  station,  at  Royal  spring,  when  attacked  by 
Indians;  and  was  severely  wounded  by  the  savages  in  a 
night  attack  upon  his  party,  while  on  their  way  to  Pitts- 
burgh shortly  after,  to  procure  necessaries,  and  was  under 
a  surgeon's  care  for  a  year.  In  April,  1778,  at  Pittsburgh, 
he  joined  the  expedition  of  Colonel  George  Rogers  Clark 
against  the  Illinois  country,  returning  to  Kentucky  in 
September,  and  settling  at  Harrodsburgh.  Early  the 
next  year,  being  then  an  ensign  in  the  Kentucky  militia, 
he  proceeded  under  orders,  with  twenty-five  men,  to  his 
former  residence  north  of  the  Kentucky  river,  built  and 
garrisoned  a  fort,  and  in  April  laid  off  the  town  of  Lex- 
ington. In  May  he  participated  in  the  movement  of 
Colonel  Bowman  against  the  Shawnee  towns  on  the  Little 
Miami,  and  then,  probably,  for  the  first  time,  passed  over 
the  wilderness  tract  that  marked  the  future  seat  of  the 
Queen  City.  In  August,  1780,  he  was  again  here,  with 
the  expedition  under  Colonel  Clark  against  the  Indian 
towns  on  the  Little  Miami  and  Mad  rivers;  and  once 
more,  in  the  latter  part  of  September,  1782,  when  Clark 
marched  on  his  campaign  of  destruction  between  the 
Miamis,  to  avenge  the  defeat  of  the  whites  at  the  Lower 
Blue  Licks  in  August — in  which  Patterson,  now  colonel 
and  second  in  command  to  Boone,  had  a  very  narrow 

escape  from  capture.  He  must  thus  have  come  to  know 
well  the  advantages  of  the  site  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Licking,  years  before  the  arrangement  with  Denman  arid 
Filson  was  made.  In  T786,  Colonel  Patterson  seems  to 
have  made  his  last  visit  here,  in  another  expedition  against 
the  Shawnees,  under  General  Logan  (in  which  he  was 
badly  wounded),  before  he  came  with  the  party  in  Sep- 
tember, 1788,  to  "blaze"  a  road  from  Lexington  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Licking,  in  preparation  for  the  settlement 
of  Losantiville.  As  is  well  known,  he  never  resided  per- 
manently with  his  colony  here;  but  returned  to  Lexing- 
ton after  a  month's  stay.  In  1804  he  removed  from  that 
place  to  a  farm  near  Dayton,  in  this  State,  where  he  sur- 
vived until  August  5,  1827,  dying  there  and  then  at  the 
advanced  age  of  seventy-four  years.  Says  the  author  of 
Ranck's  History  of  Lexington: 

In  person  Colonel  Patterson  was  tall  and  handsome.  He  was  gifted 
with  a  fine  mind,  but,  like  Boone,  Kenton,  and  many  others  of  his 
simple  hunter  and  pioneer  companions,  was  indulgent  and  negligent  in 
business  matters,  and,  like  them,  lost  most  of  his  extensive  landed  prop- 
erty by  shrewder  rascals. 


John  Filson  was  a  Kentucky  schoolmaster  and  sur- 
veyor (although  he  says  in  the  preface  to  his  book,  "I 
am  not  an  inhabitant  of  Kentucky"),  of  some  literary 
ability,  as  is  evinced  by  the  articles  appended  to  A  Topo- 
graphical Description  of  the  Western  Territory  of  North 
America,  by  George  Imlay,  a  captain  in  the  continental 
army  during  the  Revolution,  and  afterwards  several  years 
in  Kentucky  as  a  self-styled  "commissioner  for  laying  out 
lands  in  the  back  settlements."  His  work  was  published 
in  London  in  three  editions,  1792-7;  and  the  appendix 
contains  the  following  entitled  articles,  "by  John  Filson," 
one  of  our  Losantiville  projectors: 

1.  The  Discovery,  Settlement  and  Present  State  of  Kentucky,  and 
an  Essay  towards  the  Topography  and  Natural  History  of  that  Impor- 
tant Country. 

2.  The  Adventures  of  Colonel  Daniel  Boone,  one  of  the  First  Set- 
tlers, comprehending  every  Important  Occurrence  in  the  Political  His- 
tory of  that  Province. 

3.  The  Minutes  of  the  Piankashaw  Council,  held  at  Port  St.  Vin- 
cents, April  15,  1784. 

4.  An  Account  of  the  Indian  Nations  inhabiting  within  the  limits  of 
the  Thirteen  United  States,  their  Manners  and  Customs,  and  Reflec- 
tions on  their  Origin. 

Filson  had  already  published,  in  1784,  at  Wilmington, 
Delaware,  in  an  octavo  volume  of  one  hundred  and 
eighteen  pages,  the  papers  named  in  the  first  two  titles; 
and  they,  with  three  others,  were  republished  in  New 
York  in  1793,  as  a  supplement  to  an  American  edition  of 
Imlay's  book,  and  all  attributed  to  Filson.  They  include 
a  report  of  the  Secretary  of  State  (Jefferson)  to  the  Pres- 
ident of  the  United  States  (Washington),  on  the  quantity 
and  situation  of  unsold  public  lands;  also  Thoughts  on 
Emigration,  to  which  are  added  Miscellaneous  Observa- 
tions relating  to  the  United  States,  and  a  short  account 
of  the  State  of  Kentucky — the  whole  making  up  a  unique 
and  in  some  respects  valuable  book.  Filson  was  thus  the 
first  to  publish  a  History  of  Kentucky. 

His  Adventures  of  Boone  appears  to  have  been  written 
at  the  dictation  of  Boone  himself,  Filson  supplying  merely 
the  phraseology,  with  perhaps  an  occasional  reflection. 
The  following  document,  signed  by  Boone  and  others, 



is  printed  as  an  endorsement  and  advertisement  in  Fil- 
son's  work  on  Kentucky: 

Advertisement.— We,  the  subscribers,  inhabitants  of  Kentucky, 
and  well  acquainted  with  the  country  from  its  first  settlement,  at  the 
request  of  the  author  of  this  book  have  carefully  revised  it,  and  recom- 
mend it  to  the  public  as  an  exceeding  good  performance,  containing  as 
accurate  a  description  of  our  country  as  we  think  can  possibly  be  given, 
much  preferable  to  any  in  our  knowledge  extant;  and  think  it  will  be 
of  great  utility  to  the  public.  Witness  our  hands  this  twelfth  of  May, 
Anno  Domini  1784. 

Daniel  Boone, 
Levi  Todd, 
James  Harrod. 
Part  of  Filson's  preface  is  as  follows  : 

When  I  visited  Kentucky,  I  found  it  so  far  to  exceed  my  expecta- 
tions, though  great,  that  I  concluded  it  was  a  pity  that  the  world  has  not 
adequate  information  of  it.  I  conceived  that  a  proper  description  of  it 
was  an  object  highly  interesting  to  the  United  States;  and,  therefore, 
incredible  as  it  may  appear  to  some,  I  must  declare  that  this  perform- 
ance is  not  published  from  lucrative  motives,  but  solely  to  inform  the 
world  of  the  happy  climate  and  plentiful  soil  of  this  favored  region. 
And  I  imagine  the  reader  will  believe  me  the  more  easily  when  I  inform 
him  that  I  am  not  an  inhabitant  of  Kentucky,  but  having  been  there 
some  time,  by  my  acquaintance  in  it  am  sufficiently  able  to  publish  the 
truth,  and  from  principle  have  cautiously  endeavored  to  avoid  every 
species  of  falsehood.  The  consciousness  of  this  encourages  me  to  hope 
for  the  public  candour,  where  errors  may  possibly  be  found. 

Filson  receives  the  following  notice  in  Collins'  History 
of  Kentucky: 

The  second  teacher  [in  Fayette  county]  was  John  Filson,  in  or  before 
1784;  adventurer,  surveyor,  fanciful  writer  of  the  autobiography  of 
Daniel  Boone,  and  author  of  the  first  printed  book  about  Kentucky — 
first  published  in  1784  in  Wilmington,  Delaware;  in  1785  translated 
into  French  and  published  in  Paris,  France;  in  1792,  1793,  and  1797, 
thrice  republished  in  London,  with  additions  by  Gilbert  Imlay,  a  sur- 
veyor of  Jefferson  county,  Kentucky,  to  satisfy  the  cravings  of  restless 
minds  in  England  for  information  about  the  newest  part  of  the  Old 
World.  [Mr.  Collins  had  apparently  not  heard  of  the  New  York  edition.] 
He  was  one  of  the  original  proprietors,  drafted  the  first  plan,  and 
coined  the  pedagogical  name  of  the  projected  town  of  Losantiville,  etc. 

In  a  subsequent  part  of  this  history,  Judge  Collins 

His  fanciful  name  for  the  intended  town  was  adopted — Losantiville, 
which  he  designed  to  mean  "the  village  opposite  the  mouth,"  Le-os- 
ante-ville,  but  which  more  really  signifies,  ' '  the  mouth  opposite  the 
village," — who,  or  what  induced  the  change  from  such  a  pedagogical 
and  nonsensical  a  name  to  the  euphonious  one  of  Cincinnati  is  un- 
known [ !  ] ;  but  in  the  name  of  the  millions  of  people  who  live  in  or 
within  reach  of  it,  or  visit  it  or  do  business  with  it,  we  now  thank  the 
man  and  the  opportunity.  The  invention  of  such  a- name  was  posi- 
tively cruel  in  Mr.  Filson;  we  hope  it  had  no  connection  with  his  early 
death.  Perhaps  that  is  reason  enough  why  no  street  in  Cincinnati  is 
named  after  him. 

Judge  Collins  seems  also  not  to  have  heard  that  Plum 
street,  in  this  city,  is  designated  as  "Filson  street"  upon 
Joel  Williams'  plat  of  the  original  town  site,  to  be  seen 
in  the  books  of  the  recorder's  office.  Certainly,  to  the 
honor  of  the  real  founders  and  pioneers  of  Losantiville, 
the  people  of  Cincinnati  have  not  been  neglectful  in  the 
matter  of  street  names.  There  is  a  Ludlow  street,  a 
Ludlow  avenue,  and  a  Ludlow  alley;  Patterson  has  two 
streets,  and  Denman  two;  McMillan  has  an  avenue;  Bur- 
net both  street  and  avenue;  while  St.  Clair,  Gano,  and 
many  other  early  names,  have  not  been  forgotten  in  the 
street  nomenclature.  It  is  true,  however,  that  the  mem- 
ory of  Filson  has  not  yet  thus  been  permanently  honored. 

According  to  Collins,  when  Denman  visited  Lexing- 
ton in  the  summer  of  1788,  he  saw  "the  double  power" 
of  Filson  as  a  surveyor  and  writer,  and  enlisted  him  in 

the  venture  with  himself  and  Patterson,  on  the  north  side 
of  the  Ohio. 

Mr.  George  W.  Ranck's  history  of  Lexington  notes  of 
Filson  that  he  "was  an  early  adventurer  with  Daniel 
Boone,  and  after  the  discoverer  of  Kentucky  returned  to 
Lexington  in  October  [1784],  from  the  Chillicothe  towns, 
Filson  wrote,  at  his  dictation,  the  only  narrative  of  his 
life  extant  from  the  pioneer's  own  lips.  This  narrative 
was  endorsed  at  the  time  by  James  Harrod,  Levi  Todd, 
and  Boone  himself.  Filson  taught  in  Lexington  for  sev- 
eral years,  and  did  no  little  to  secure  the  early  organiza- 
tion of  Transylvania  seminary." 

Filson,  it  will  be  remembered,  was  killed  by  the  In- 
dians in  the  Miami  country,  before  the  location  was  made 
at  Losantiville.  The  circumstances  of  his  death  are  nar- 
rated in  chapter  V,  Part  I,  of  this  work. 

Professor  W.  H.  Venable,  one  of  the  latest  and  best  of 
Cincinnati's  songsters,  thus,  in  his  June  on  the  Miami 
and  other  Poems,  sings  of  our  hero : 

John  Filson  was  a  pedagogue — 

A  pioneer  was  he; 
I  know  not  what  his  nation  was 

Nor  what  his  pedigree. 

Tradition's  scanty  records  tell 

But  little  of  the  man, 
Save  that  he  to  the  frontier  came 

In  immigration's  van. 

Perhaps  with  phantoms  of  reform 

His  busy  fancy  teemed, 
Perhaps  of  new  Utopias 

Hesperian  he  dreamed. 

John  Filson  and  companions  bold 

A  frontier  village  planned 
In  forest  wild,  on  sloping  hills, 

By  fair  Ohio's  strand. 

John  Filson  from  three  languages 

With  pedant  skill  did  frame 
The  novel  word  Losantiville, 

To  be  the  new  town's  name. 

Said  Filson:  "Comrades,  hear  my  words; 

Ere  three-score  years  have  flown 
Our  town  will  be  a  city  vast." 

Loud  laughed  Bob  Patterson. 

Still  John  exclaimed,  with  prophet-tongue, 

"  A  city  fair  and  proud, 
The  Queen  of  Cities  in  the  West." 

Mat  Denman  laughed  aloud. 

Deep  in  the  wild  and  solemn  woods, 

Unknown  to  white  man's  track, 
John  Filson  went  one  autumn  day, 

But  nevermore  came  back. 

He  struggled  through  the  solitude 

The  inland  to  explore, 
.  And  with  romantic  pleasure  traced 
Miami's  winding  shore. 

Across  his  path  the  startled  deer 

Bounds  to  its  shelter  green; 
He  enters  every  lonely  vale 

And  cavernous  ravine. 

Too  soon  the  murky  twilight  comes, 

The  night-wind  'gins  to  moan ; 
Bewildered  wanders  Filson,  lost, 

Exhausted  and  alone. 

By  lurking  foes  his  steps  are  dogged, 
A  yell  his  ear  appalls  1 



A  ghastly  corpse  upon  the  ground, 
A  murdered  man  he  falls. 

The  Indian,  with  instinctive  hate, 

In  him  a  herald  saw 
Of  coming  hosts  of  pioneers, 

The  friends  of  light  and  law ; 

In  him  beheld  the  champion 

Of  industries  and  arts. 
The  founder  of  encroaching  roads 

And  great  commercial  marts; 

The  spoiler  of  the  hunting-ground, 

The  plower  of  the  sod, 
The  builder  of  the  Christian  school 

And  of  the  house  of  God. 

And  so  the  vengeful  tomahawk 

John  Filson's  blood  did  spill, — 
The  spirit  of  the  pedagogue 

No  tomahawk  could  kill. 

John  Filson  had  no  sepulchre, 

Except  the  wildwood  dim ; 
The  mournful  voices  of  the  air 

Made  requiem  for  him. 

The  druid  trees  their  waving  arms 

Uplifted  o'er  his  head; 
The  moon  a  pallid  veil  of  light 

Upon  his  visage  spread. 

The  rain  and  sun  of  many  years 

Have  worn  his  bones  away, 
And  what  he  vaguely  prophesied 

We  realize  to-day. 

Losantiville  the  prophet's  word, 

The  poet's  hope  fulfils— 
She  sits  a  stately  Queen  to-day 

Amid  her  royal  hills! 

Then  come,  ye  pedagogues,  and  join 

To  sing  a  grateful  lay 
For  him,  the  martyr  pioneer, 

Who  led  for  you  the  way. 

And  may  my  simple  ballad  be 

A  monument  to  save 
His  name  from  blank  oblivion 

Who  never  had  a  grave. 


Colonel  Israel  Ludlow,  the  successor  of  John  Filson 
as  the  holder  of  a  third  interest  in  the  site  of  Cincinnati, 
was  born  upon  the  Little  Head  farm,  near  Morristown, 
New  Jersey,  in  1765.  In  his  early  twenties  he  came  to 
the  valley  of  the  Ohio",  to  exercise  his  talents  as  a  practi- 
cal surveyor,  and  was  here  appointed  by  the  geographer 
of  the  United  States,  to  survey  the  Miami  Purchase  and 
that  of  the  Ohio  company,  which  he  mainly  accom- 
plished by  the  spring  of  1792,  in  the  face  of  many  diffi- 
.  culties  and  dangers,  being  generally  without  any  escort 
of  troops,  in  a  country  swarming  with  Indians.  Taking 
the  interest  of  Filson  in  the  Losantiville  venture  after 
the  death  of  the  latter,  he  became  the  surveyor  of  the 
town  site  and  the  principal  agent  in  disposing  of  the 
lots.  After  the  treaty  of  Greenville  he  was  employed  by 
the  Government  to  run  the  boundary  lines  for  the  Indian 
country  established  by  treaty,  and  successfully  completed 
the  work,  though  amid  many  perils,  and  sometimes  in 
imminent  danger  of  starvation.  He  was  the  only  one 
of  the  original  proprietors  who  fixed  his  home  at  or  near 
Cincinnati,  establishing  in  1790   Ludlow  Station  as  a  cit- 

adel of  defence  against  the  savages  upon  a  spot  within 
the  present  limits  of  Cumminsville,  the  block-house 
standing  at  the  intersection  of  Knowlton  street  with  the 
Cincinnati,  Hamilton  &  Dayton  railroad.  It  is  claimed 
by  his  biographers  (see  Biographical  Encyclopedia  of 
Ohio,  etc.,)  that  he  gave  the  name  to  Cincinnati,  in 
honor  of  the  society  of  which  his  father,  Commodore 
Ludlow,  was  a  member.  December  12,  1794,  he  laid 
out  the  town  of  Hamilton  as  a  proprietor;  and  in  No- 
vember of  the  next  year,  in  union  with  Governor  St. 
Clair,  Hon.  Jonathan  Dayton,  and  William  McMillan, 
he  planted  the  town  of  Dayton.  November  n,  1796, 
he  was  married  to  Charlotte  Chambers,  of  Chambers- 
burgh,  Pennsylvania,  a  quite  extraordinary  woman,  who  is 
made  the  subject  of  a  beautiful  biography  by  one  of  her 
grandsons.  He  died  at  home  in  January,  1804,  after  but 
four  days'  illness,  and  was  buried  in  the  graveyard  adjoin- 
ing the  First  Presbyterian  church,  Cincinnati,  in .  the 
front  wall  of  which  was  afterward  fixed  a  tablet  in  honor 
to  his  memory.  He  was  buried  with  Masonic  honors, 
and  an  oration  was  pronounced  upon  the  occasion  by 
Judge  Symmes. 


Denman,  as  a  Jerseyman  and  perhaps  a  member  of 
the  East  Jersey  company,  was  early  cognizant  of  the  proj- 
ect of  Symmes  and  his  associates  to  secure  the  Miami 
Purchase;  and  in  January,  1788,  he  located,  among 
other  tracts,  the  entire  section  eighteen  and  the  frac-' 
tional  section  seventeen,  lying  between  the  former  sec- 
tion and  the  river,  upon  which  Losantiville  was  founded  in 
the  closing  days  of  the  same  year.  The  present  boun- 
daries of  the  tract  are  Liberty  street  on  the  north,  the 
Ohio  river  on  the  south,  an  east  line  from  the  Mount 
Auburn  water  works  to  the  river  a  few  feet  below  Broad- 
way, and  a  west  line  from  a  point  a  very  little  east  of  the 
intersection  of  Central  avenue  and  Liberty  street  to  the 
river  just  below  the  gas  works. 

The  agreed  price  was  the  same  as  the  company  was  to 
pay  the  Government — five  shillings  per  acre,  or  sixty-six 
and  two-thirds  cents;  which  for  the  seven  hundred  and 
forty  acres  of  the  tract  paid  for  would  have  amounted  to 
four  hundred  and  ninety-three  dollars  and  thirty-three 
cents.  (This  does  not  include  sixty  acres  which  were  in 
dispute — the  entire  tract,  as  finally  surveyed,  containing 
eight  hundred  acres — and  which  Symmes  claimed  were 
not  paid  for.)  But  the  purchase  money,  it  is  said,  was 
paid  in  Continental  certificates,  then  worth  only  five  shil- 
lings on  the  pound,  but  turned  into  the  treasury  of  the 
company  at  par;  so  that  the  actual  cost  of  the  entry  to 
Denman,  under  this  arrangement,  was  a  little  less  than 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars.  Some  conjectures 
have  been  made  that  the  entire  eight  hundred  acres,  now 
comprising  by  far  the  most  valuable  property  in  the  city, 
did  not  cost  Denman  more  than  fifty  dollars.  Jonathan 
Dayton,  one  of  the  company,  seems  to  have  been  fearful 
of  the  negotiation  with  Denman;  for,  after  Symmes  had 
gone  out  to  the  Purchase,  he  urged  him  by  letter  not  to 
allow  the  "Losantiville  section"  to  be  covered  by  any 
warrant,  except  one  bought  from  Symmes  or  from  Day- 
ton as  his  agent,  for  six  shillings  threepence,  or  seven 



shillings  sixpence,  to  aid  in  making  the  second  payment 
on  the  purchase.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  section  eigh- 
teen was  not  covered  by  one  of  Symmes'  warrants  until 
May,  1790,  and  the  fractional  section  not  until  April  of 
the  next  year;  and  the  old  belief  was  that  Denman  se- 
cured both  at  a  very  low  rate — for  a  mere  song,  as  we 
should  say  now. 

denman's  movements. 

In  the  summer  of  1788  Mr.  Denman  found  his  way 
westward,  and  made  a  personal  visit  to  his  purchase  op- 
posite the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  being  thereby  confirmed 
in  his  previous  intentions  of  founding  a  station  and  ferry 
there,  and  leading  a  colony  to  the  spot.  On  his  way 
back  he  stopped  at  Limestone,  and  is  said  there  to  have 
fallen  in  with  Colonel  Patterson,  and  soon  afterwards,  at 
Lexington,  with  the  schoolmaster  Filson.  Broaching  his 
project  to  them,  he  found  them  eager  listeners,  and  pres- 
ently agreed  to  take  them  into  joint  partnership  with  him. 
In  this  arrangement  Denman  appears  to  have  undertaken 
the  chief  conduct  of  the  business,  while  Filson  was  to  do 
the  surveying  and  staking  off  of  the  tract  and  superintend 
the  sales  of  lots,  and  Patterson  was  to  be  the  main  agent 
in  obtaining  purchasers  and  settlers.  Denman  was  un- 
derstood to  be  responsible  for  all  matters  relating  directly 
to  the  purchase  from  the  East  Jersey  company;  Filson 
was  already  pretty  well  acquainted  with  the  Miami  coun- 
try; and  Patterson  was  the  most  influential  man  in  stir- 
ring up  people  to  the  point  of  removal  to  the  new  land 
of  promise.  It  was  thus  a  very  judicious  and  hopeful  ar- 

Soon  afterwards,  probably  at  Lexington,  the  following 
contract  was  executed  between  the  parties : 

A  covenant  and  agreement,  made  and  concluded  this  twenty-fifth  day 
of  August,  1788,  between  Matthias  Denman,  of  Essex  county,  State  of 
New  Jersey,  of  the  one  part,  and  Robert  Patterson  and  John  Filson,  of 
Lexington,  Fayette  county,  Kentucky,  of  the  other  part,  witnesseth  : 
That  the  aforesaid  Matthias  Denman,  having  made  entry  of  a  tract  of 
land  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  Ohio  river,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Licking  river,  in  that  district  in  which  Judge  Symmes  has  purchased 
from  Congress,  and  being  seized  thereof  by  right  of  entry,  to  contain 
six  hundred  and  forty  acres,  and  the  fractional  parts  that  may  pertain, 
does  grant,  bargain,  and  sell  the  full  two-thirds  thereof  by  an  equal, 
undivided  right,  in  partnership,  unto  the  said  Robert  Patterson  and 
John  Filson,  their  heirs  and  assigns  ;  and  upon  producing  indisputable 
testimony  of  his,  the  said  Denman's,  right  and  title  to  the  said  prem- 
ises, they,  the  said  Patterson  and  Filson,  shall  pay  the  sum  of  twenty 
pounds  Virginia  money,  to  the  said  Denman,  or  his  heirs  or  assigns,  as 
a  full  remittance  for  moneys  by  him  advanced  in  payment  of  said 
lands,  every  other  institution,  determination,  and  regulation  respecting 
the  laying-off  of  a  town,  and  establishing  a  ferry  at  and  upon  the  prem- 
ises, to  the  result  of  the  united  advice  and  consent  of  the  parties  in  cov- 
enant, as  aforesaid ;  and  by  these  presents  the  parties  bind  themselves, 
for  the  true  performance  of  these  covenants,  to  each  other,  in  the  penal 
sum  of  one  thousand  pounds,  specie,  hereunto  affixing  their  hands  and 
seals,  the  day  and  year  above  mentioned. 

Matthias  Denman, 
Signed,  sealed,  and  delivered  R.  Patterson, 

in  the  presence  of—  John  Filson. 

Henry  Owen,  , 

Abr.  McConnell. 

The  Virginia  pound  of  those  days  was  equivalent  to 
three  dollars  and  thirty-three  cents  in  Federal  specie,  so 
that,  since  Denman  sold  two-thirds  of  his  tract  for  sixty- 
six  dollars  and  sixty-seven  cents,  the  cash  value  he  ap- 
parently put  upon  the  whole  was  but  one  hundred  dollars. 


The  general  plan  of  the  town  was  agreed  upon,  and 
Filson  was  to  proceed  as  quickly  as  possible  to  get  a. plat 
made,  and  all  things  in  readiness  for  early  settlement  and 
sale.  It  was  also  agreed  to  call  the  new  place  Losanti- 
ville. This  extraordinary  designation  was  undoubtedly 
the  product  of  the  Kentucky  schoolmaster's  pedantic 
genius.  An  analysis  of  the  word  soon  discovers  its 
meaning.  "L"  is  sometimes  supposed  to  be  simply  the 
contraction  of  the  French  le,  making  the  entire  name  to 
read  "the  town  opposite  the  mouth."  It  is  more  gener- 
ally believed,  however,  to  have  been  intended  by  Filson 
as  an  abbreviation  for  Licking,  leaving  the  article  before. 
ville  in  construction  to  be  understood.  Os  is  the  Greek 
word  for  mouth,  anti  Latin  for  opposite,  and  ville  French 
for  town  or  city.  The  whole  term  would  thus  signify 
the  town  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking.  It  fur- 
nishes a  remarkable  instance,  not  only  of  an  eccentric, 
polyglot  neologism,  but  of  the  power  of  synthetic  lan- 
guages to  express  in  one  word  what  an  analytic  language 
like  ours  must  express  in  a  much  longer  circumlocution 
and  with  somewhat  numerous  words.  It  has  been  doubted 
whether  the  village  was  ever  really  so  called,  except  in 
the  original  plans  of  Filson,  Denman,  and  Patterson;  but 
there  can  be  no  doubt  in  the  mind  of  one  who  looks  well 
into  the  question,  that  the  plan  and  village  had  that  title 
continuously  from  the  day  they  were  agreed  to,  in  August, 
1788,  to  the  day,  January  2  or  4,  1790,  when  Governor 
St.  Clair  changed  it  to  Cincinnati,  "so  that,"  as  Judge 
Symmes  wrote,  " Losantiville  will  become  extinct." 
There  was  never  a  post  office  or  municipality  here  of  that 
name;  but  letters  were  written  from  here  under  it;  the 
town  seems  to  have  been  familiarly  so  designated  in 
correspondence  and  conversation ;  it  has  come  down  in 
almost  unquestioned  tradition  associated  with  that  title; 
and,  to  crown  the  evidence,  it  so  appears  upon  some  of 
the  earliest  maps  of  Ohio,  and  one  of  the  plats  recorded 
fifteen  years  after  the  settlement,  while  bearing  the  name 
Cincinnati,  is  also  remarked  in  the  explanations  as 
"formerly  called  Losanterville."  The  orthographic 
blunder  nqted  suggests  the  spelling  adopted  by  Mr. 
Julius  Dexter  in  his  prefatory  historic  note  to  King's 
Pocket-book  of  Cincinnati,  and  which  may  occasion- 
ally be  seen  in  print  elsewhere — "  Losanteville, "  for  which 
there  are  some  good  arguments  to  adduce.  The  name 
appears  originally  to  have  been  written  with  considerable 
carelessness,  since  among  the  papers  of  Patterson,  after 
his  death,  was  found  a  copy  of  the  "conditions"  present- 
ly to  be  recited,  though  not  in  his  handwriting,  in  the 
heading  of  which  the  name  appears  as  "  Losantiburg. " 
It  was  probably  the  heedless  work  of  some  clerk  of  Pat- 
terson's. The  right  name  appears  in  the  nomenclature  of 
Cincinnati  only  in  "Losantiville  Hall,"  a  place  of  as- 
sembly on  Front  street,  many  years  ago,  north  of  Deer 
Creek  bridge,  mentioned  in  the  Cincinnati  Almanac  for 
1 85  o.  Nothing  else  like  it  appears  in  all  the  geographical 
nomenclature  of  the  world,  except  in  a  single  instance— 
the  name  of  the  postoffice  at  Losantville,  Randolph 
county,  Indiana,  probably  named  from  a  pioneer  settler 
or  proprietor. 




After  the  execution  of  the  agreement,  Denman  re- 
turned to  Limestone  to  meet  Judge  Symmes,  leaving  an 
understanding  with  his  partners  that  they  were  soon  to 
"blaze''  a  road  through  the  wilderness  in  the  direction  of 
their  purchase  and  establish  a  ferry  across  the  Ohio  there, 
if  practicable.  The  former  part  of  this  arrangement  ap- 
pears conspicuously  in  the  following  advertisement,  in- 
serted by  Patterson  and  Filson  in  the  Kentucky  Gazette, 
published  at  Lexington,  for  the  sixth  of  September,  1788 

Notice. — The  subscribers,  being  proprietors  of  a  tract  of  land  op- 
posite the  mouth  of  the  Licking  river,  on  the  northwest  side  of  the 
Ohio,  have  determined  to  lay  off  a  town  on  that  excellent  situation. 
The  local  and  natural  advantages  speak  its  future  prosperity,  being 
equal,  if  not  superior,  to  any  on  the  bank  of  the  Ohio,  between  the 
Miamis.  The  in-lots  to  be,  each,  half  an  acre,  the  out-lots  four  acres, 
thirty  of  each  to  be  given  to  settlers  upon  payment  of  one  dollar  and 
fifty  cents  for  the  survey  and  deed  of  each  lot.  The  fifteenth  of  Sep- 
tember is  appointed  for  a  large  company  to  meet  in  Lexington  and 
mark  a  road  from  there  to  the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  provided  Judge 
Symmes  arrives,  being  daily  expected.  When  the  town  is  laid  off  lots 
will  be  given  to  such  as  may  become  residents  before  the  first  day  of 
April  next.  Matthias  Denman. 

Robert  Patterson. 
John  Filson. 

A  company  was  gathered  without  much  difficulty  in 
those  restless  and  adventurous  days.  It  was,  probably, 
not  large,  but  sufficient  for  the  purpose,  and  did  not  in- 
clude Judge  Symmes,  who  was  proceeding  to  "Miami" 
by  way  of  the  river.  Without  waiting  for  him,  the  party 
found  its  way  to  the  Ohio — doubtless  aided  much  of  the 
way  by  old  Indian  trails  and  military  traces — and  must 
have  arrived  there  in  a  few  days,  since  it  there  met  Den- 
man and  Judge  Symmes,  who  records  that  he  "landed 
at  Miami"  on  the  twenty-second  of  September.  Fil- 
son is  rather  doubtfully  said  to  have  spent  a  day  or 
two  here,  marking  out  streets  through  the  dense  forest. 
He,  with  the  rest  of  the  Kentuckians,  accompanied 
Symmes  on  the  exploring  expedition  up  the  Miami 
country,  which  they  penetrated  "as  high  as  the  upper 
side  of  the  fifth  range  of  townships,''  as  the  judge  after- 
wards wrote.  The  adventures  of  this  party,  and  the  un- 
happy death  of  Filson,  have  been  related  in  our  chapter 
on  the  Miami  Purchase.  While  Symmes  and  Patter- 
son were  absent  on  this  excursion,"  Denman,  Ludlow — 
who  happened  to  be  with  the  party,  though  not  yet.a 
proprietor — and  others,  followed  the  meanderings  of  the 
Ohio  between  the  Miamis,  and  pushed  their  way  about 
ten  miles  up  one  of  the  Miami  rivers. 


After  the  death  of  Filson  and  the  return  of  the  explor- 
ing party  to  the  Ohio,  Denman  and  Patterson  went  with 
Symmes  back  to  Limestone,  where  they  decided  upon 
just  the  individual  needed  to  take  the  place  of  Filson  in 
the  partnership,  in  the  person  of  the  young  surveyor, 
Israel  Ludlow;  and  an  arrangement  was  made  in  Octo- 
ber by  which  he  should  take  Filson's  interest  in  the  Lo- 
santiville  enterprise.  The  latter's  plan  of  the  town  had 
perished  with  him.  His  brother,  who  was  with  the  party 
of  Kentuckians  when  John  •  Filson  was  killed,  consider- 
ing that  he  had  yet  paid  nothing  and  had  established  lit- 
tle valid  claim  upon  the  property,  informed  the  surviving 

partners  that  the  legal  representatives  of  the  deceased 
would  demand  nothing  under  the  contract  of  August  2 2d. 
Ludlow  prepared  a  new  plan  of  the  village,  differing,  it  is 
supposed,  in  some  important  respects  from  Filson's,  par- 
ticularly as  to  the  public  square  to  be  donated  for  church 
and  school  purposes,  the  common  or  public  landing,  and 
the  names  of  streets.  It  is  quite  possible  that  some  of 
these  differences  appear  in  the  discrepancies  observable 
between  the  recorded  plats  of  Ludlow  and  of  Joel  Wil- 
liams, which  will  be  presently  noted.  The  drafting  of 
plans,  the  gathering  of  a  colony,  and  other  preparations 
for  the  settlement,  employed  the  time  of  the  proprietors 
at  Limestone  and  elsewhere  for  many  weeks,  and  they 
were  further  hindered  for  a  time  by  the  same  obstacles 
which  delayed  Symmes,  as  recited  in  our  chapter  on  the 
Purchase.  At  length,  on  the  day  before  Christmas,  in 
the  year  of  grace  1788,  the  courageous  founders  of  Lo- 
santiville  and  Cincinnati  packed  themselves  in  the  rude 
flat  or  keel-boats  and  barges  of  the  time,  took  leave  of 
the  party  still  at  Limestone  that  was  shortly  to  settle 
North  Bend  (the  Columbia  adventurers  had  been  gone 
more  than  a  month),  and  swept  out  on  the  broad  bosom 
of  the  Ohio,  now  swelled  beyond  its  usual  limits,  and 
covered  thickly  with  floating  ice. 

They  were  all  men,  twenty-six  in  number.  The  fol- 
lowing, by  the  best  authorities,  is  the 


Noah  Badgeley,  Samuel  Blackburn,  Thaddeus  Bruen, 
Robert  Caldwell,  Matthew  Campbell,  James  Carpenter, 
William  Connell,  Matthew  Fowler,  Thomas  Gizzel  (or 
Gissel),  Francis  Hardesty,  Captain  Henry,  Luther  Kitch- 
ell,  Henry  Lindsey,  Israel  Ludlow,  Elijah  Martin,  Wil- 
liam McMillan,  Samuel  Mooney,  Robert  Patterson,  John 
Porter,  Evan  Shelby,  Joseph  Thornton,  Scott  Traverse, 
Isaac  Tuttle,  John  Vance,  Sylvester  White,  Joel  Williams. 

The  list  given  in  the  Cincinnati  Directory  of  1819, 
which  is  usually  repeated  as  the  roll  of  founders,  does  not 
include  the  names  of  Ludlow  and  Patterson,  which  is  ob- 
viously incorrect;  nor  of  Henry,  Matthew  Campbell,  or 
Elijah  Martin.  It  includes  the  name  of  Ephraim  Kibby, 
who  was  subsequently  of  the  Columbia  colony,  and  was 
very  likely  of  this  party,  as  also  Daniel  Shoemaker,  who 
is  not  on  the  list  of  1819,  but  appears,  like  Kibby  among 
the  original  proprietors  of  donation  lots.  Martin  and 
Campbell  were  also  such  proprietors;  but  not  Henry. 
The  names  of  all  the  others  appear  in  the  list  of  those 
who  drew  donation  lots,  except  those  of  the  proprietors 
of  the  town  and  of  Bruen,  Caldwell,  Connell,  Fowler, 
Hardesty,  Shelby,  and  Tuttle.  The  fact  is,  not  all  who 
came  with  the  party  staid  as  colonists,  while  others  arrived 
subsequently  to  share  in  the  distribution  of  the  donation 
lots.  Tuttle,  Henry,  and  probably  others,  joined  Symmes' 
voyagers  to  North  Bend  in  February;  Kibby  and  Shoe- 
maker, though  drawing  lots  at  Losantiville,  were  with 
Stites'  party  at  Columbia,  and  at  least  Kibby  subsequently 
removed  there;  one  other  at  least,  Mr.  Hardesty,  went 
elsewhere,  probably  on  the  Kentucky  shore,  since  there 
were  Hardestys  in  Newport;  and  others  drifted  away 
without  making  permanent  settlement  here. 



Judge  Symmes'  account  of  the  voyage  of  the  Losanti- 
ville  argonauts  from  Limestone  was  communicated  to  his 
fellows  of  the  East  Jersey  company,  in  a  letter  from  North 
Bend,  about  five  months  afterwards.     It  is  as  follows: 

On  the  twenty-fourth  of  December  last,  Colonel  Patterson  of  Lexing- 
ton, who  is  concerned  with  Mr.  Denman  in  the  section  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Licking  river,  sailed  from  Limestone  in  company  with  Mr.  Tuttle, 
Captain  Henry,  Mr.  Ludlow,  and  about  twelve  others,  in  order  to  form 
a  station  and  lay  out  a  town  opposite  Licking.  They  suffered  much 
from  the  inclemency  of  the  weather  and  floating  ice,  which  filled  the 
Ohio  from  shore  to  shore.  Perseverance,  however,  triumphing  over 
difficulty,  they  landed  safe  on  a  most  delightful  high  bank  of  the  Ohio, 
where  they  founded  the  town  of  Losantiville,  which  populates  consid- 
erably, but  would  be  much  more  improved  by  this  time,  if  Colonel  Pat- 
terson or  Mr.  Denman  had  resided  in  the  town.  Colonel  Patterson 
tarried  about  one  month  at  Losantiville,  and  returned  to  Lexington. 

The  time  of  the  departure  from  Limestone  is  indispu- 
table; the  date  of  arrival  at  "Miami"  has  been  much 
disputed.  For  many  years  the  twenty-sixth  of  Decem- 
ber was  celebrated  as  the  anniversary  of  the  landing; 
and  to  this  day  the  city  directory  notes  that  as  the  day 
observed  by  the  Cincinnati  Pioneer  association,  though 
we  are  informed  that  their  practice  in  this  particular  has 
changed.  It  does  not  seem  at  all  probable  that,  in  the 
face  of  difficulties  experienced,  the  voyage  from  Lime- 
stone to  Yeatman's  cove,  sixty-five  or  more  miles,  was 
accomplished  in  two  days.  An  English  traveller,  noting 
his  arrival  here  in  1806,  records  that  "travelling  is  so 
very  good  between  Limestone  and  the  town,  a  distance 
of  sixty-eight  miles,  that  I  descended  in  two  short  days' 
run,  without  meeting  with  any  obstacles.''  Bad  weather 
and  other  hindrances,  as  floating  ice,  which  Symmes  says 
"filled  the  Ohio  from  shore  to  shore,"  would  undoubtedly 
delay  the  trip  beyond  two  days,  and  very  probably  until 
the  day  now  generally  accepted  as  the  true  date — De- 
cember 28,  1788.  William  McMillan,  a  man  of  native 
talents  and  classical  education,  of  strong  memory  and 
clear,  judicial  brain,  testified  years  afterwards,  in  a  chan- 
cery case  involving  the  right  of  property,  as  between  the 
city  and  Joel  Williams,  in  the  Public  Landing,  that  he 
landed  here  with  the  party  on  that  day.  Denman  also, 
in  another  case,  testified  that  they  came  "late  in  Decem- 
ber," though  he  could  not  remember  the  precise  day; 
while  Patterson  and  Ludlow  thought  the  landing  was 
early  in  January,  which  is  quite  certainly  too  late.  Mr. 
McMillan's  testimony,  we  think,  now  commands  general 
acceptance.  The  tradition  is  probably  correct  that  the 
party,  occupied  in  completing  the  preparations,  did  not 
get  away  from  Limestone  until  somewhat  late  in  the  day, 
and  made  but  nine  miles  before  tying  up  for  the  night  • 
that  the  third  day  they  sighted  Columbia,  but  were  una- 
ble to  reach  it  or  stop  on  account  of  the  ice;  that  the 
same  cause  prevented  their  landing  here  upon  arrival 
opposite  the  spot  on  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  but 
that,  after  remaining  in  or  near  the  mouth  of  the  Licking 
through  the  night  of  the  twenty-seventh,  they  effected  a 
crossing  with  their  boats  the  next  morning,  and  trium- 
phantly entered  the  little  inlet  at  the  foot  of  Sycamore 
street,  afterwards  known  as  Yeatman's  cove.  Fastening 
their  frail  barks  to  the  roots  and  shrubs  along  the  bank, 
they  step  ashore,  collect  driftwood  and  other  dry  frag- 
ments, strike  the  steel  and  flint,  and  provide  themselves 

with  their  first  necessity  to  comfort  and  cookery — ample 
fires.  Very  likely,  the  fatigues  of  the  voyage  over,  they 
soon  realize,  even  long  before  night,  the  graphic  picture 
drawn  by  Dr.  Daniel  Drake  more  than  sixty-three  years 
afterwards:  "Setting  their  watchmen  around,  they  lay 
down  with  their  feet  to  the  blazing  fires,  and  fell  asleep 
under  the  music  of  the  north  wind  whistling  among  the 
frozen  limbs  of  the  great  sycamores  and  water  maples 
which  overhung  them." 

It  was  no  time  for  prolonged  rest  or  sleep,  however. 
The  depth  of  winter  is  not  the  season  for  open-air  bivou- 
acs, when  shelters  are  at  hand.     The  readiest  expedient 
for  the  supply  of  material  for  dwellings — one  already  sug- 
gested' by  the  practice  of  the  boatmen  of  the  age  in 
breaking  up  their  vessels  and  selling  their  constituent 
parts  when  the  destination  was  reached— naturally  occur- 
red to  the  newly  arrived,  and  their  first  cabin  was  con- 
structed of  boat-planks  and  other  breakage  from  the  craft 
in  which  they  came.     This  is  the  statement  of  Judge 
Burnet,  in  the  historical  preface  he  wrote  in  Mr.  George 
Henry  Shaffer's  Business  Directory  of  1840,  and  which 
Mr.  Shaffer,  who  is  still  living,  assures  us  is  trustworthy 
in  every  particular.     If  so,  the  picture  of  the  first  cabin 
(represented  as  a  log  one,  standing  below  the  cove),  used 
in  a  mayor's  message  some  years  ago  as  an  advertisement 
'■  for  a  forthcoming  History  of  Cincinnati,  must  be  revised 
1  and  reconstructed  in  the  light  of  this  fact.     The  first 
was  built  on  the  present  Front  street,  a  little'east  of  Main, 
and  of  course  northwest  of  the  cove  or  place  of  landing; 
and  others  soon  put  up,  two  or  three  in  number,  were  in 
the  immediate  vicinity,  where  the  dense,  wild  forest  bor- 
dered upon  the  surging  waters. 


While  his  companions  occupied  themselves  in  build- 
ing, hunting,  scouting,  and  other  employments,  Ludlow, 
doubtless  assisted  by  Badgeley,  who  was  one  of  Symmes' 
surveyors,  and  other  trusty  aids,  engaged  in  the  survey  of 
the  town,  which  was  substantially  completed  by  the 
seventh  of  January,  1789,  when  the  drawing  took  place 
for  the  donation  lots.  The  survey  extended  from  the 
river  to  Northern  row,  now  Seventh  street,  and  from 
Eastern  (now  Broadway)  to  Western  row  (Central  ave- 
nue), with  out-lots  of  tour  acres  each,  or  a  present  square, 
beyond  Northern  row  to  the  north  limits  of  the  Losanti- 
ville purchase,  at  Liberty  street.  The  out-lots  numbered 
eighty-one.  The  street  corners  were  marked  upon  the  trees. 
There  was  and  is,  as  everybody  remarks,  an  interesting 
association  between  the  two.  The  Jerseymen  and  Penn- 
sylvanians  of  the  party  had  clearly  in  mind,  in  the  regu- 
larity with  which  the  town  was  laid  off  and  the  names 
they  gave  its  avenues,  their  favorite  Quaker  City— 

Where  the  streets  still  re-echo  the  names  of  the  trees  of  the  forest, 
As  if  they  fain  would  appease  the  Dryads  whose  haunts  they  invaded. 
The  survey  was  not  recorded  until  April  29,  1802,  when 
the  law  of  the  Territory  required  it,  under  heavy  penalties. 
The  entry  may  be  found  in  Book  E — 2,  pages  62-63. 
The  following  documents,  on  page  60,  introduce  and  ex- 
plain it: 

References  to  the  plan  of  the  Town  of  Cincinnati,  in  page  No  62 
exhibited  by  Colonel  Israel  Ludlow  (as  one  of  the  proprietors),  on  the 


<  <:   ,  /, 



fore-noon  of  the  twenty-ninth  day  of  April,  1802,  and  recorded  agree- 
ably thereto. 

N.  B. — The  following  certificate  is  attached  to  the  original: 
This  may  certify  that  I  consider  myself  as  having  been  one  of  the 
original  proprietors  of  the  Town  of  Cincinnati,  and  hereby  authorize 
Israel  Ludlow  to  make  or  copy  a  plan  according  to  the  original  plan  or 
intention  of  the  firm,  and  cause  to  be  recorded  as  such,  agreeably  to 
the  Laws  of  the  Territory  in  that  case  made  and  provided. 
November  20,  1801. 

Matthias  Denman. 

P.  P.  Stewart, 
D.  C.  Cooper. 

The  following  notes  from  another  Nota  Bene  may  be 
of  interest : 

The  lots  in  the  regular  squares  of  the  town  contain  seventy-two 
square  perches,  are  twelve  poles  in  length  and  six  poles  wide.  The 
out-lots,  which  are  entire,  contain  each  four*acres,  are  in  length  from 
east  to  west  six  chains  and  fifty  links. 

The  six  long  squares  between  Front  and  Water  streets  contain  lots 
ten  poles  long  and  six  poles  wide. 

All  the  streets  in  the  town  are  four  poles  wide,  excepting  Seventh 
street  *  and  the  Eastern  and  Western  row,  which  are  but  two  poles 

The  corners  of  the  streets  are  north  sixteen  degrees  west,  and  others 
crossing  at  right  angles  south  seventy-four  degrees  west. — Streets 
through  the  out-lots  four  poles  wide. 

Then,  on  pages  62-3  of  the  record,  follows  the  Ludlow 
plat.  The  streets  thereon  are  named  as  now,  except  East- 
ern row  (Broadway)  and  Western  row  (Central  avenue). 
The  name  of  Plum  street  is  spelt  "  Plumb."  None  of  the 
alleys  or  narrower  streets  now  existing  within  the  tract 
platted  were  in  this  survey.  The  space  now  occupied  by 
the  Public  Landing  is  left  blank,  except  for  the  well  known 
cove  of  that  day,  which  is  figured  as  extending  to  the 
south  line  of  Front  street,  a  little  east  of  the  foot  of  Syca- 
more, and  a  little  wider  at  its  junction  with  the  river  than 
it  was  long.  Colonel  Patterson,  in  a  deposition  made  in 
1803,  in  the  suit  between  Williams  and  the  town  of  Cin- 
cinnati, said  that  this  ground  "in  front  of  Front  street 
was  declared  at  that  time  a  public  common  for  the  use  of 
the  citizens  of  the  said  town,  excepting  and  reserving 
only,  for  the  benefit  of  the  proprietors,  the  privilege  of 
establishing  a  ferry  on  the  bank  of  the  Ohio  on  said  com- 

All  lots  in  the  south  half  of  the  squares  between  Sec- 
ond and  Third  streets,  and  all  below  them,  are  laid  out 
lengthwise  north  and  south;  all  others  in  an  east  and  west 
direction.  Lots  one  hundred  and  fourteen  to  seventeen, 
and  one  hundred  and  thirty-nine  to  forty-two,  are  indi- 
cated in  Ludlow's  appended  notes,  and  by  a  boundary  of 
red  ink  in  the  plat,  as  "given  to  public  uses."  They  con- 
stitute the  block  bounded  by  Fourth  and  Fifth,  Walnut 
and  Main  streets,  which' was  afterwards  divided  between 
the  First  Presbyterian  church,  the  Cincinnati  college,  and 
the  county  of  Hamilton. 

East  of  Eastern  row,  between  extensions  of  Third  and 
Fifth  streets,  were  sixteen  in-lots,  and  immediately  north 
of  these  was  the  first  range  of  out-lots,  numbered  from  one 
to  eight.  The  ranges  of  out-lots  on  the  northwest,  two 
in  number,  began  also  north  of  Fifth  street.  Some  in- 
truding hand  has  marked  "canal"  upon  the  north  line  of 
the  third  range  of  out-lots,  above  Seventh  street,  then  the 

♦This  was  undoubtedly  originally  designated  as  Northern  row, 

narrow,  two-rod  street  forming  the  north  boundary  of  the 

Another  and  rival  plat,  surveyed  by  whom  we  know 
not,  was  exhibited  to  the  recorder  by  Joel  Williams,  on 
the  same  day,  "at  six  o'clock  p.  m.,"  of  "the  town  of  Cin- 
cinnati (formerly  called  Losanterville),"  by  Samuel  Free- 
man and  Joel  Williams,  assignees  of  Matthias  Denman 
and  Robert  Patterson.  It  was  also  recorded  by  the  ac- 
commodating register  of  that  official  term,  immediately 
after  the  Ludlow  and  Denman  plat.  The  general  changes 
in  the  names  of  streets,  as  indicated  by  letters  upon  this 
map,  referring  to  notes  prefixed,  possess  special  interest, 
and  exhibit  the  most  pointed  difference  between  the  two. 
The  present  Water  to  Seventh  streets  are  thus  designated, 
in  order :  Water,  Front,  Columbia  [Second],  Hill  [Third], 
High  [Fourth],  Byrd  [Fifth],  Gano  [Sixth],  and  Northern 
row.  At  least  one  of  these  names,  Columbia,  prevailed 
in  the  local  usage  for  many  years.  The  intersecting 
streets,  from  Eastern  row  (which  retained  its  name,  west- 
ward, were  Sycamore,  Main,  Cider  [Walnut],  Jefferson 
[Vine],  Beech  [Race],  Elm,  Filson  [Plum],  Western  row. 
The  space  devoted  by  the  original  proprietors  to  a  pub- 
lic landing  is  shown  as  filled  with  in-lots,  numbered  four 
hundred  and  sixty-one  to  four  hundred  and  sixty-eight. 
The  numbers  of  other  lots  and  the  general  features  of  the 
survey  are  the  same  as  in  the  other  plat.  The  same 
square,  bounded  by  Main,  Cider,  High,  and  Byrd  streets, 
is  marked  and  noted  as  "reserved  for  a  court  house,  a 
jail,  a  church,  and  school."  There  is  also  some  differ- 
ence observable  in  the  boundary  lines  of  sections. 

This  was  made,  as  the  appended  affidavit  of  Williams 
shows,  in  the  absence  from  the  territory  of  Denman  and 
Patterson,  "the  two  other  original  proprietors  of  said 
town" — other  than  Filson,  Colonel  Ludlow  not  being 
recognized  in  the  affidavit — and  Williams'  consequent  be- 
lief, as  he  swore,  "that  they  had  no  intention  of  recording 
in  person  the  plat  of  said  town,  agreeable  to  a  late  act 
of  the  said  territory,  entitled  'an  act  to  provide  for  the 
recording  of  town-plats.'"  The  affidavit  goes  on  to  aver 
that  "  this  deponent  further  saith  that  he  possesses, 
as  he  believes,  sufficient  information  in  the  premises  to 
enable  him  to  make  a  plat  of  said  town  of  Cincinnati, 
agreeable  to  the  original  plat,  design,  and  intentions  of 
the  aforesaid  original  proprietors  of  said  town,  in  man- 
ner and  form  as  the  same  was  originally  laid  out  and  de- 
clared by  the  proprietors  aforesaid;  and  this  deponent 
further  saith  that  the  within  is  a  true  and  accurate  map  or 
plat  of  the  said  town  of  Cincinnati,  agreeable  to  the  or- 
iginal plat,  planj"  etc.  The  divergences  from  Ludlow's 
survey  are  thus  partly  accounted  for.  Williams'  claims, 
under  this  plat,  made  without  any  reference  to  Colonel 
Ludlow,  the  original  surveyor,  who  was  still  living  and 
readily  accessible  within  five  miles  of  the  Cincinnati  of 
that  day,  were  subsequently  made  the  subject  of  litigation 
between  himself  and  the  public  authorities,  in  which  his 
plat  was  invalidated  and  his  case  lost.  The  property  in- 
volved in  the  determination  of  this  case  was  that  which 
Williams'  plat  covers  with  town  lots,  but  which  has  been 
continuously  occupied,  save  a  small  part  on  the  west  side 
once  covered  with  a  building  or  buildings,  as  a  public 


landing.  This  tract  Williams  had  bought  in  1800  from 
Judge  Symmes,  who  made  the  usual  guarantee  of  his 
right  to  sell  it,  and  gave  Williams  some  color  for  his 
claim.  As  to  the  comparative  correctness  of  the  two  plats, 
it  is  worth  notice  that  Colonel  Patterson,  in  his  deposi- 
tion of  1803,  declared  that  he  had  examined  both  plats, 
and  believed  "the  one  recorded  by  Israel  Ludlow  to  be 
agreeable  to  the  original  plan." 

Some  years  before  this,  in  1794  or  1795,  Williams  had 
come  into  possession  by  assignment  of  Denman's  remain- 
ing interest,  and  claimed  as  an  original  proprietor.  The 
remainder  of  Patterson's  third,  about  the  •  same  time, 
passed  by  assignment  to  Samuel  Freeman.  The  colonel 
remained  here  but  a  short  time,  and  then  returned;  while 
Denman,  who  did  not  even  come  with  the  colony  in  De- 
cember, did  not  remove  from  New  Jersey.  Of  the  four 
worthies  originally  associated  with  the  founding  of  Cin- 
cinnati, only  Colonel  Ludlow  became  identified  with  the 
place  as  a  resident;  and  he  lived  at  his  station  some  miles 
out.     To  all.intents,  however,  he  was  a  Cincinnatian. 


Losantiville  was  now  ready  for  regular  settlement.  It 
remained  for  the  proprietors  to  fulfil  their  generous 
pledges  of  free  in-lots  and  out-lots  to  the  expectant 
colonists.  The  survey  having  been  completed,  or  suf- 
ficiently advanced  for  the  purpose,  by  the  seventh  of 
January,  the  proprietors,  represented  by  Colonel  Ludlow, 
promulgated  the  following: 


on  which  the  donation  lots  in  the  town  Losantiville  are  held  and  settled. 
The  first  Thirty  town  and  out  lots  to  so  many  of  the  most  early  ad- 
venturers shall  be  given  by  the  proprietors,  Messrs.  Denman,  Patterson, 
&  Ludlow,  who  for  their  part  do  agree  to  make  a  deed  free  and  clear  of 
all  charges  and  incumbrances  excepting  that  of  surveying  and  deeding 
the  same,  so  soon  as  a  deed  is  procured  from  Congress  by  Judge 

The  lot-holders  for  their  part  do  agree  to  become  actual  settlers  on 
the  premises;  plant  &  attend  two  crops  successively  &  not  less  than  One 
Acre  shall  be  cultivated  for  each  crop  &  that  within  the  term  of  two 
years— each  person  receiving  a  donation  lot  or  lots  shall  build  an  house 
equal  to  Twenty  feet  square,  One  Storey  &  half  high,  with  a  brick, 
stone,  or  clay  Chimney,  which  shall  stand  in  front  of  their  respective 
in  lots  and  shall  be  put  in  tenantable  repair  within  the  term  of  two 
years  from  the  date  hereof. 

The  above  requisitions  shall  be  minutely  complyed  with  under  pen- 
alty of  forfeiture,  unless  Indian  depredations  render  it  impracticable. 
Done  this  seventh  day  of  January  Qne  thousand  seven  hundred  & 
Eighty  Nine.  Israel  Ludlow. 

The  lottery  for  the  distribution  of  the  lots  was  held 
the  same  day,  under  the  personal  direction  of  Patterson 
and  Ludlow,  with  the  result  indicated  below.  The 
original  proprietors  of  some  of  the  most  valuable  lots  in 
the  city  are  thus  shown.  The  orthography  of  the 
original  record,  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Ohio  His- 
torical and  Philosophical  society,  has  been  followed,  there 
being  no  difficulty  in  recognizing  the  names: 

Out-  In-  Out-  In- 

lots.  lots.  lots.  lots. 

Joel  Williams 3    79    Ephraim  Kibby 4    59 

John  Porter 2     77    John  Vance 24      4 

David  McClure 6    26  Jesse  Fulton 23      6 

Samuel  Mooney 14    33    Henry  Bechtel 16    56 

Sylvester  White 15      2    Isaac  ,  Freeman 20    51 

Joseph  Thornton 28      3    Samuel  Blackburn 29       1 

James  Carpenter 1    32    Scott  Traverse 9    52 

Matthew  Cammel 8  28  Elijah  Martin 26  7 

Noah  Badgeley 22  31  Archibald  Stewart 12  57 

Luthar  Kitchel 13  58  James  McConnel 5  30 

James  Cammel 21  34  " Davison 19  27 

Jesse  Stewart 30  54  James  Dument n  5 

Benjamin  Dument 25  53  Jonas  Menser 10  29 

Isaac  Van  Meter .. : 18  8  Thomas  Gizzel 17  9 

Daniel  Shoemaker 27  79  Harry  Lindsay 7  76 

William  McMillan 31  James  Campbell 154 

By  this  record  thirty-one  out-lots  and  thirty   in-lots 
were  given  away.     There  are  thirty-two  names  of  donees, 
but  Mr.  McMilllan  drew  no  in-lot,   and  in-lot  number 
seventy-nine  seems  to  have  been  drawn  by  both  Joel  Wil- 
liams and  Daniel  Shoemaker.     The   latter,  however,  ob- 
tained   lot    seventy-eight,    as   appears   by   the   diagram 
below,  so  that  the  record,  as  originally  made,  is  probably 
erroneous,  and  thirty-one  lots  each,  of  in-lots  and  out-lots, 
were  donated,  which  would  just  comprise  the  four  dona- 
tion blocks  of  in-lots,  save  only  the  one  lot  presently  to  be 
noted.     The  in-lots  given  embraced  the  entire  blocks  be- 
tween Front  and  Second,  Main  and  Broadway,   Second 
and  Third,  Broadway  and  Sycamore,  and  the  east  half 
of  the  block  bounded  by  Second  and  Third,  Main  and 
Sycamore,  except  lot  fifty-five,  on  the  northwest  corner  of 
Second  and  Sycamore,  which  was  then  reckoned  of  little 
value,  on  account  of  the   position   of  part  of  it  in  the 
swamp  which  was  for  years  about  the  intersection   of 
Sycamore  and  Second  streets.     The  lots  which  faced  or 
adjoined  the  Public  Landing  were  accounted  the  most 
valuable.     Some  of  the  settlers  preferred  not  to  be  limited 
to  these  blocks  in  their  selections,  and  declined  to  receive 
as  donees,  preferring  to  have  a  free  range  for  purchase, 
which  could  then  be  effected  at  an  exceedingly  low  rate. 
The  original  price  of  either  class  of  lots  is   not  certainly 
known,  but  is  supposed  to  have  been  two  dollars  for  an 
in-lot  on  the  "Bottom,"  and  four  dollars  for  one  on  the 
"Hill."     All   evidence  goes  to   show  that  prices    were 
very  cheap.     Colonel   Ludlow,  for  example,  having  one 
hundred  dollars  due  him  on  his  bill  of  surveying,  chose 
to  take  a  tract  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres  seven 
miles  from  the  village,  rather  than  accept  the  offer  made 
him  instead,  of  four  out-lots  and  a  square  through  which 
now  .runs  Pearl  street,  and  which   is  worth  millions  of 
dollars.     Several   years   afterwards,    though    prices   had 
much  advanced,  lots  in  the  principal  streets  could  yet  be 
had   for   less   than   one'  hundred  dollars.     About  1805 
town  property  rose  rapidly,  from  the  large  influx  of  popu- 
lation, but  advanced  more  slowly  till  1811,  when  another 
rapid  appreciation  set  in,  continuing  until    1815,    when 
some  lots  on  Main  street,  between  Front  and  Third,  com- 
manded as  much  as  two  hundred  dollars  per  front  foot, 
and  one  hundred  dollars  from  Third  to  Sixth.     Property 
on  lower  Broadway,  Front,  and  Market  streets,   could 
then  be  had  for  eighty  dollars  to  one  hundred  and  twenty 
dollars  per  foot;  elsewhere  in  the  business  quarter,  ten 
dollars  to  fifty  dollars,  according  to  situation  and  local 
advantages  for  trade.     Out-lots  still  adjoining  the  town, 
and  neighboring  tracts  of  country  property,  commanded 
five  hundred  dollars  to  one  thousand  dollars  an  acre  in 

Settlement   in   Losantiville    still  needed  stimulating; 
and  a  large  number  of  additional  lots  were  given  away  by 



the  proprietors,  mostly  in  May,  1789,  to  other  newcom- 
ers. The  following  list  has  been  preserved  of  lots  given 
away  by  the  proprietors  on  the  same  conditions  as  the 
first  thirty  donation  lots: 

No.  of  Lot.  No.  of  Lot. 

Robert  Caldwell 83,  84     Robert    Benham 17,  62 

John  Cutter 92    Joshua  Findlar 37 

Seth  Cutter 89    Henry  Bechtle,  jr 57 

James   Millan 94    Robert   Benham 63 

Levi   Woodward 33,  34    Joseph   Kelly 113 

Thaddeus  Bruen 32     Isaac  Bates 60 

Nathaniel    Rolstein 30    James  Campbell 154 

William    Rolstein 65     Dr.  John  Hole 227 

Jonathan    Fitts 61    Jabith  Philips 91 

William  Cammel 85    John  Cummings 106 

Abraham  Garrison 86    Captain    Furguson 13 

Francis  Kennedy 151 

Lutner  Kitchel 80 

David   Logan 263 

Mr.  Wick  Malign  Baker 138    John  Covert 85 

Cobus  Lindsicourt   114    Enoch  McHendry 67 

Richard    Benham 90    James  Dument 108 

William    McMillan,    esq 27    John  Terry,    sr., 116 

Same  (out-lot) 53    Joel    Williams 126 

Henry  Reed 88    J  oseph   McHendry 79 

John  Ellis 129    James   Cunningham 128 

Captain  [before  Lieut.]  Ford.  .9,   n     Samuel  Kitchel 209  or  205 

Levi  Woodard 34     Colonel  Robert  Patterson 127 

We  have  corrected  the  orthography  of  this  list  in  many 
places,  to  correspond  with  known  spelling.  These  lots 
seem  all  to  have  been  in-lots,  save  one  of  those  noted  as 
a  grant  to  Mr.  McMillan. 

The  following  is  a  diagram  of  one  of  the  blocks  in  the 
first  donation  parcel,  with  memoranda  of  actual  settlers 
who  drew  the  several  lots,  January  7,  1789: 

Lieutenant  Mahlon  Ford . . . 

Elijah   Martin 82 

Samuel  Kennedy 112 

Joel  Williams. 

Jesse  Stewart. 



D.  Shoemaker. 

Benjamin  -Dumont. 






99  ft. 










5      « 
<     10 




^             H 



Many  other  names  appear  on  Ludlow's  record  as  the 
original  purchasers  of  lots  in  Losantiville,  mostly  dur- 
ing 1789.  They  have  been  collected  by  the  industry 
of  Mr.  Robert  Clarke,  in  his  privately  printed  pamphlet 
on  Losantiville,  and  we  subjoin  the  list,  striking  there- 
from only  the  names  already  given  as  those  of  proprie- 
tors of  donation  lots: 

Dr.  Adams,  George  Adams,  John  Adams,  Henry  Atchison,  Stephen 
Barns,  Daniel  Bates,  William  Beazley,  William  Bedell,  Thomas  Black 
James  Blackburn,  John  Blanchard,  Truman  Bostwick,  Thomas  Brown, 
Brunton  &  Dougherty,  Moses  Burd,  James  Burns,   Garret  Cavender, 

John  Cheek,  Thomas  Cochran,  Ephraim  Coleman,  James  Colwell, 
Peyton  Cook,  Daniel  C.  Cooper,  John  Coulson,  Joseph  Cutter,  Mat- 
thew Danalds,  Edward  Darling,  Jonathan  Davis,  Elijah  Davis,  William 
Devin,  William  Dillan,  William  Dorrough,  Russel  Farnum,  Elijah 
Finley,  Benjamin  Flinn,  Jacob  Fowler,  Samuel  Freeman,  Adam  Funk, 
John  Gaston,  Uriah  Gates,  James  Goald,  William  Gowen,  Archibald 
Gray,  George  Greves,  John  Griffin,  Joel  Hamblin,  Hezekiah  Hardesty, 
Uriah  Hardesty,  William   Harris,  James  Harway,  William    Hedger, 

Heooleson,  Robert  Hinds,    Daniel  Hole,   Darius  Hole,  William 

Hole,  Zachariah  Hole,  Edward  Holland,  Jerum  Holt,  Israel  Hunt, 
Nehemiah  Hunt,  Nicholas  Johnson,  David  Joice,  Nicholas  Jones,  John 
Kearsey  (or  Kearney),  William  Kelley,  Rev.  James  Kemper,  Lieuten- 
ant Kingsbury,  Bethuel  Kitchell,  Daniel  Kitchell,  John  Love,  James 
Lowrey,  John  Ludlow,  James  Lyon,  Daniel  McClure,  George  McClure, 
John  McClure,  Mary  McClure,  William  McClure,  William  McCoy, 
James  McKnight,  Henry  McLaughlin,  John  McLaughlin,  James  Mar- 
shall, Isaac  Martin,  Margaret  Martin,  Samuel  Martin,  Luke  Mellon, 
Jonathan  Mercer,  James  Miller,  Moses  Miller,  Jacob  Mills,  Alexander 
Moore,  Robert  Moore,  Dr.  Morrel,  Jesse  Mott,  Captain  John  Munn, 
George  Murfey,  John  Murfey,  Mr.  Neelson,  George  Niece,  Christopher 
Noon,  Darius  C.  Orcutt,  Andrew  Parks,  Culbertson  Parks,  Presley  Peck, 
Thomas  Persons,  Matthew  Pierson,  Samuel  Pierson,  Enos  Potter,  Cap- 
tain Pratt,  James  Pursley,  Jacob  Reeder,  Stephen  Reeder,  Thomas  Rich- 
ards, John  Riddle,  Abraham  Ritchison,  Reuben  Rood,  Asa  Root,  Jona- 
than Ross,  John  Ross,  John  Ross,  jr.,  Moses  Ross,  William  Ross,  Wil- 
liam Rusk,  Colonel  Winthrop  Sargent,  Levi  Sayre,  David  Scott,  James 
Scott,  Obediah  Scott,  John  Seaman,  Jonas  Seaman,  Niles  Shaw,  Casper 
Sheets,  Ziba  Stibbins,  Captain  Strong,  Dennis  Sullivan,  Jacob  Tapping, 
Henry  Taylor,  Enos  Terry,  Robert  Terry,  John  Tharp,  Judge  George 
Turner,  Benjamin  Valentine,  Benjamin  Van  Cleve,  John  Van  Cleve, 
Jacob  Van  Doran,  -John  Van  Eton,  Cornelius  Van  Nuys,  James  Wal- 
lace, Jacob  Warwick,  David  Welch,  Samuel  Whiteside,  John  Wiant, 
Winters,  Amos  Wood. 

All  deeds  had  still  to  be  given  by  Symmes,  as  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  town  had  yet  no  valid  title  from  him ;  and 
he  himself,  for  that  matter,  had  not  been  able  to  obtain 
his  patent  from  the  Government. 

annals  of  losantiville. 

January  was  spent  mainly  in  surveying  and  in  laying 
off  in-lots.  Improvements  were  begun  on  the  outlots, 
and  continued  as  the  weather  permitted,  in  order  to  get 
them  ready  for  crops  in  spring,  and  some  were  pretty  well 
cleared  in  the  course  of  the  year,  especially  on  the  "Bot- 
tom," between  Walnut  street  and  Broadway.  A  great 
many  trees  were  cut  down  this  year,  but  they  mostly  re- 
mained on  the  ground,  where  some  of  them  were  to  be 
seen  for  years  afterwards.  Still,  the  main  reliance  for 
food  the  next  fall  and  winter  was  upon  the  settlers  at  Co- 
lumbia, who  had  much  of  the  fertile  Turkey  bottom  under 
cultivation,  without  whose  aid  there  would  have  been  pos- 
itive suffering  at  Losantiville,  and  perhaps  abandonment 
of  the  fort  by  the  garrison.  The  Indians  did  not  come 
in  and  manifest  friendship;  but  did  no  great  amount  of 
harm  the  first  year.  About  twenty  log  cabins  and  one 
frame  dwelling  were  built  during  the  year,  principally  on 
lots  adjacent  to  the  Public  Landing.*  There  were  but 
one  or  two  stone  chimneys  among  them  all.  They  were, 
in  general,  surrounded  by  standing  timber,  stumps,  and 
great  butts  of  timber  too  difficult  to  split,  and  so  left  to 
decay  or  be  burned. 

It  is  not  certainly  known  when  the  first  family  came. 
As  early  as  the  eighth  of  February  Francis  Kennedy  was 
on  the  ground  with  his  wife  Rebecca  and  children  to  the 
perfect  number  of  seven;  but  his  may  or  may  not  have 
been  the  first  entire  family.     It  is  known  that  he  found 

*  Major  Fowler,  however,  thought  there  were  forty  or  fifty  cabins  by 
the  close  of  1789. 



three  women  already  here — Miss  Dement,  daughter  of 
James  Dement;  Mrs.  Constance  Zenes,  afterwards  Mrs. 
William  McMillan;  and  Mrs.  Pesthal,  a  German  woman, 
with  some  small  children.  He  said  he  found  but  three 
little  cabins  when  he  came,  all  without  floors.  On  the 
tenth  of  April  Mr.  McHenry  came,  with  two  grandsons 
and  as  many  granddaughters;  also  Mrs.  Ross  with  a 
small  family.  Kennedy's  family  lived  in  the  boat  in 
which  it  came,  until  the  ice  in  the  river  began  to  run, 
when  he  built  a  cabin  right  in  the  middle  of  Water  street, 
which  was  not  yet  opened.  He  established  the  first  ferry 
to  the  Kentucky  shore  at  this  point,  Thomas  Kennedy 
attending  it  upon  the  other  side,  and  had  a  great  deal  to 
do,  especially  during  the  campaigns  against  the  Indians. 
He  was  drowned  near  the  close  of  the  Indian  wars,  while 
ferrying  over  cattle  for  the  army,  and  Joel  Williams  next 
obtained  the  ferry  license. 

Thomas  Kennedy,  the  ferryman  beyond  the  flood,  was 
a  Scotchman  who  came  first  to  Losantiville  in  the  spring, 
and  then  removed  to  the  other  shore,  where  Covington 
now  stands,  which  from  him  and  his  vocation  long  bore 
the  name  of  "Kennedy's  Ferry." 

In  April  of  this  year  arrived  Thomas  Irwin  and  James 
Burns,  two  young  men  from  Pennsylvania,  who  had  come 
to  push  their  fortunes  in  the  Miami  country.  They 
stopped  first  at  Columbia.  Mr.  McBride,  in  his  Pioneer 
Biography,  sketch  of  Mr.  Irwin's  life,  thus  narrates  their 
further  movements  and  observations : 

Messrs.  Irwin  and  Burns  remained  at  Columbia  during  the  day,  ex- 
amining the  place.  Mr.  Irwin  said  there  were  quite  a  number  of  fami- 
lies residing  there  at  the  time,  scattered  over  the  bottom  lands,  and, 
as  he  thought,  very  much  exposed.  They  offered  great  inducements 
to  the  young  adventurers  to  locate  themselves  at  Columbia;  and, 
though  they  informed  them  of  another  sm.ill  settlement  eight  miles 
further  down  the  river,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  river,  they 
gave  them  no  encouragement  to  go  there. 

They  remained  in  their  boat  during  the  night,  and  the  next  morning 
left  it  in  the  care  of  the  man  opposite  whose  house  they  had  landed, 
and  taking  their  guns,  started  down  the  river-bank  in  quest  of  the  set- 
tlement below.  The  bank  was  narrow,  and  there  was  no  road  or 
traces ;  the  woods  were  thick,  and  the  way  much  obstructed  by  under- 
brush and  vines; — so  that  the  travelling  was  very  tedious.  Opposite  the 
mouth  of  the  Licking  river,  they  came  to  a  double  shanty  occupied  by 
seven  men.  These  men,  all  but  two  of  them,  had  been  employed  with 
the  surveyors  in  surveying  Symmes'  Purchase  during  the  preceding 
winter.  Their  names  were  David  Logan,  Caleb  Reeves,  Robert 
[James?]  McConnell,  Francis  Hardesty,  Mr.  Van  Eaton,  William  Mc- 
Millan and  John  Vance.  Joel  Williams  was  also  there,  and  had  been 
with  the  surveyors  a  part  of  the  time,  and  was  with  Israel  Ludlow 
when  he  surveyed  and  laid  out  the  town  in  February  [January]  previ- 
ous [1789],  marking  the  lines  of  the  streets  and  corners  of  lots  on  the 
trees.  This  shanty  had  been  built  by  these  persons  for  their  accom- 
modation, immediately  after  they  laid  out  the  town.  It  was  the  first 
improvement  made  in  the  place,  and  these  persons  were  the  first  set- 
tlers of  Cincinnati.  Joel  Williams  assisted  them  to  build  the  shanty, 
and  remained  with  them  some  time,  until,  with  their  assistance,  he  built 
a  cabin  on  his  own  lot  near  the  foot  of  Main  street.  He  had  the  plat 
of  the  town,  was  an  agent  for  the  proprietors,  and  encouraged  Irwin 
and  Burns  to  settle  themselves  at  that  place. 

In  the  evening  of  the  same  day  they  returned  to  Columbia,  remain- 
ing on  board  their  boat  all  right.  The  next  day  they  floated  down  the 
river,  and  landed  at  the  shanty  opposite  to  the  mouth  of  Licking  river. 
This  was  about  the  tenth  day  of  April.  The  next  day  was  spent  in 
examining  the  place,  and,  being  pleased  with  the  situation,  they  con- 
cluded to  remain.  Mr.  Burns  located  one  town-lot  and  one  out-lot. 
The  out-lot  contained  four  acres.  Irwin  also  obtained  a  town-lot. 
They  cleared  one  acre  of  ground,  which  they  planted  with  corn.     .     . 

The  double  shanty,  before  mentioned,  occupied  by  Logan,  McMillan, 
and  others,  was  situated  about  the  head  of  Front  street.     Irwin  and 

Burns  located  themselves  near  to  it,  and  put  up  a  temporary  shanty, 
which  they  occupied  during  their  stay  that  summer.  The  other  settlers 
were  scattered  principally  between  Sycamore  and  Main  streets. 

According  to  Irwin's  recollections,  the  first  hewed  log 
house  in  the  place  was  put  up  by  Robert  Benham  about 
the  first  of  June  on  a  lot  below  Main,  and  between  Front 
street  and  the  river.  All  the  settlers  of  the  village  helped 
him  at  the  raising. 

Mr.  Irwin  did  not  settle  permanently  in  Cincinnati. 
He  was  an  ensign  in  Harrnar's  unfortunate  campaign,  re- 
mained at  the  village  the  next  winter  and  summer,  went 
out  as  a  wagoner  in  St.  Clair's  expedition,  and  remained 
in  Cincinnati  a  few  years  longer,  in  January,  1793,  mar- 
rying Miss  Ann  Larimore,  and  settling  finally  about  four 
miles  east  of  Middletown,  Butler  county.  He  was  a 
major  in  the  War  of  181 2,  and  afterwards  represented 
his  county  repeatedly  in  both  branches  of  the  State  legis- 
lature, and  was  a  colonel  in  the  militia  He  lived  to  the 
age  of  eighty-one,  dying  on  his  farm  October  3,  1847. 

Another  notable  arrival  of  that  spring  was  James  Cun- 
ningham, from  Beargrass  creek,  now  Louisville.  The  latter 
part  of  May,  however,  he  pushed  out  beyond  the  present 
site  of  Reading,  where  he  established  Cunningham's  Sta- 
tion or  settlement,  and  was  the  first  white  man  to  settle 
in  Sycamore  township.  The  names  of  some  others,  re- 
corded in  the  list  of  purchasers  of  lots,  are  undoubtedly 
those  of  actual  settlers  this  year. 

In  December  came  Colonel  John  Bartle,  one  of  the 
earliest  and  best  known  merchants  in  the  place,  who 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  days  here,  dying  December  9, 
1839,  aged  ninety-five. 

By  the  close  of  1789  eleven  families  and  twenty-four\ 
unmarried  men  were  residents  of  the  village.  Among] 
the  men  of  family  were  Drs.  Morrell  and  Hoel,  Stephen  I 
and  Jacob  Reeder,  Daniel  Kitchell,  Samuel  Dick,  Messrs. 
Garrison,  Blackburn,  and  others.  There  were  also  the 
troops  of  the  garrison,  which  were  numerous  after  the 
arrival  of  General  Harmar  with  his  reinforcement.  An 
account  of  the  building  of  the  fort,  which  occurred  this 
year,  and  of  the  fort  itself,  with  its  subsequent  history, 
will  be  given  in  the  next  chapter. 


The  tragedy  of  the  year  was  the  drowning  of  Noah 
Badgeley,  an  immigrant  from  Westfield,  New  Jersey,  who 
was  one  of  the  surveyors  employed  by  Judge  Symmes. 
He  had  been  up  the  Licking  river,  in  a  time  of  high  water, 
for  a  supply  of  bread-corn,  had  been  successful  in  his 
mission,  and  was  returning  when  his  canoe  was  overturned, 
he  drowned,  and  three  other  men  of  Losantiville  placed 
in  imminent  danger  of  drowning.  They  fortunately  se- 
cured a  refuge  in  a  tree-top,  but  in  the  midst  of  the  rag- 
ing waters,  where  they  remained  for  many  hours  before 
relief  came. 


t— t 







Judge  Burnet,  in  his  Notes  on  the  Northwestern  Ter- 
ritory, has  put  on  record  an  entertaining  but  probably 
apocryphal  tradition  concerning  the  establishment  of 
Fort  Washington  at  Losantiville,  rather  than  North 
Bend;  upon  which,  in  some  small  measure,  it  is  rea- 
sonable to  believe,  turned  the  subsequent  and  widely  dif- 
ferent fortunes  of  the  two  villages.  Ensign  Luce  (Gen- 
eral Harmar  spelled  this  Luse),  the  officer  dispatched, 
after  most  urgent  and  repeated  solicitations  by  Judge 
Symmes,  from  the  garrison  at  Louisville  to  North  Bend, 
for  the  protection  of  the  settlers,  had  no  definite  instruc- 
tions as  to  the  spot  he  should  fortify.  It  was  expected 
by  the  judge  that  he  would  build  a  permanent  work  at 
the  place  he  had  come  to  occupy;  instead  of  which  he 
erected  but  a  single,  and  not  very  strong,  blockhouse, 
and  presently  moved  on  with  his  force  of  twelve  soldiers 
to  Losantiville,  where  he  joined  Major  Doughty  in  the 
construction  of  the  more  elaborate  works  that  were  after- 
wards named  Fort  Washington.  Now,  says  Judge  Bur- 

About  that  time  there  was  a  rumor  prevailing  in  the  settlement,  said 
to  have  been  endorsed  by  the  Judge  [Symmes]  himself,  which  goes  far 
to  unravel  the  mystery  in  which  the  removal  of  the  troops  from  the 
Bend  was  involved.  It  was  said,  and  believed,  that  while  the  officer  in 
command  was  looking  out  very  leisurely  for  a  suitable  site  on  which  to 
build  the  block-house,  he  formed  an  acquaintance  with  a  beautiful 
black-eyed  female,  who  called  forth  his  most  assiduous  and  tender 
attentions.  She  was  the  wife  of  one  of  the  settlers  at  the  Bend.  Her 
husband  saw  the  danger  to  which  he  would  be  exposed  if  he  remained 
where  he  was.  He  therefore  resolved  at  once  to  remove  to  Cincinnati, 
and  very  promptly  executed  his  resolution.  As  soon  as  the  gallant 
commandant  discovered  that  the  object  of  his  admiration  had  changed 
her  residence,  he  began  to  think  that  the  Bend  was  not  an  advanta- 
geous situation  for  a  military  work,  and  communicated  that  opinion  to 
Judge  Symmes,  who  strenuously  opposed  it.  His  reasoning,  however, 
was  not  as  persuasive  as  the  sparkling  eyes  of  the  fair  Dulcinea  now  at 
Cincinnati.  The  result  was  a  determination  to  visit  that  place  and 
examine  its  advantages  for  a  military  post;  which  he  communicated  to 
the  Judge,  with  an  assurance  that  if,  on  examination,  it  did  not  prove 
to  be  the  most  eligible,  he  would  return  and  erect  the  fort  at  the  Bend. 
The  visit  was  quickly  made,  and  resulted  in  a  conviction  that  the  Bend 
could  not  be  compared  with  Cincinnati  as  a  military  position.  The 
troops  were  accordingly  removed,  to  that  place,  and  the  building  of  a 
block-house  commenced.  Whether  this  structure  was  on  the  ground  on 
which  Fort  Washington  was  erected  by  Major  Doughty,  can  not  now 
be  decided.  That  movement,  produced  by  a  cause  whimsical  and 
apparently  trivial  in  itself,  was  attended  with  results  of  incalculable  im- 
portance. It  settled  the  question  whether  North  Bend  or  Cincinnati 
was  to  be  the  great  commercial  town  of  the  Miami  country. 

Thus  we  see  what  unexpected  results  are  sometimes  produced  by 
circumstances  apparently  trivial.  The  incomparable  beauty  of  a  Spar- 
tan dame  produced  a  ten  years'  war,  which  terminated  in  the  destruc- 
tion of  Troy;  and  the  irresistible  charms  of  another  female  transferred 
the  commercial  emporium  of  Ohio  from  the  place  where  it  had  been 
commenced  to  the  place  where  it  now  is.  If  this  captivating  American 
Helen  had  continued  at  the  Bend,  the  garrison  would  have  been  erected 
there;  population,  capital,  and  business  would  have  centred  there;  and 
there  would  have  been  the  Queen  City  of  the  West. 

This  is  a  very  pretty  story,  and  its  narration  gives  a 
beautiful  tinge  of  romance  to  the  local  coloring  of  these 
annals.  But  the  well-ascertained  and  authenticated  facts 
are  against  it.  There  is  no  other  evidence  than  this  gos- 
sipy tradition  that  Ensign  Luce  built  anything  at  Losanti- 
ville, prior  to  the  beginnings  of  Fort  Washington,  or  that 

he  had  any  voice  in  the  selection  of  a  site  for  the  fort. 
On  the  other  side,  it  is  perfectly  well  known  that  he  did 
build  a  work  of  some  permanence  and  strength  (though 
Symmes,  in  a  letter  of  July  17,  1789,  calls  it  a  "little 
block-house,  badly  constructed  ")  at  North  Bend,  and  re- 
mained there  for  several  months,  perhaps  until  after 
Major  Doughty  had  begun  the  work  at  Losantiville ;  and 
that  his  transfer  to  that  station  was  determined,  not  by 
an  affaire  de  cceur,  but  by  military  considerations  solely. 
The  check  which  the  progress  of  North  Bend  received  in 
1789  was  the  result  of  previous  Indian  murders  and 
scares,  and  not  merely  of  the  transfer  of  a  handful  of 
troops.  The  pretty  story,  as  veritable  history,  must  be 
given  up.  The  genesis  of  Fort  Washington,  as  we  shall 
presently  show,  is  now  perfectly  well  known ;  and  Ensign 
Luce  (or  Luse)  had  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  it. 
Luce,  it  may  be  added,  resigned  in  March  of  the  follow- 
ing year,  and  Harmar,  in  forwarding  his  resignation  to 
the  Secretary  of  War,  seemed  particularly  anxious  that  it 
should  be  accepted. 


The  determination  to  plant  a  fort  opposite  the  mouth 
of  the  Licking,  and  the  commencement  of  work  upon  it, 
are  usually  set  down  for  June  or  July  of  1789.  We  first 
hear  of  the  project,  however,  in  Major  Denny's  Military 
Journal,  under  a  date  later  than  either  of  these.  Writing 
in  his  quarters  at  Fort  Harmar,  he  records : 

Aug.  9th  [1789J.  — Captain  Strong,  with  his  two  subalterns,  Lieuten- 
ant Kingsbury  and  Ensign  Hartshorn/  and  a  complete  company  of 
seventy  men,  embark  for  the  Miamis. 

nth. — Captain  Ferguson  joined  us  with  his  recruits.  Major  Doughty 
follows  Captain  Strong  for  the  purpose  of  choosing  ground  and  laying 
out  a  new  route  intended  for  the  protection  of  persons  who  have  settled 
within  the  limits  of  Symmes'  Purchase. 

Sept.  4th. — Ferguson  with  his  company  ordered  to  join  Strong  in 
erecting  a  fort  near  the  Miami.  Lieutenant  Pratt,  the  quartermaster, 
ordered  to  the  same  place. 

Major  Doughty,  the  senior  officer  of  the  troops  thus 
dispatched  to  the  Miami  country,  had  evidently  dis- 
cretionary powers  as  to  the  location  of  the  fort;  for  a 
letter  from'  General  Harmar,  written  from  Fort  Harmar 
September  12,  1789,  to  General  Knox,  Secretary  of  War, 
contains  the  following: 

Major  Doughty  informs  me,  in  his  letter  dated  the  twenty-first  ulti- 
mo, that  he"  arrived  at  the  Little  Miami  on  the  sixteenth,  and  after 
reconnoitring  for  three  days  from  thence  to  the  Big  Miami,  for  an  eligi- 
ble situation  whereon  to  erect  the  works  for  headquarters,  he  had  at 
length  determined  to  fix  upon  a  spot  opposite  Licking  river,  which  he 
represents  as  high  and  healthy,  abounding  with  never-failing  springs, 
etc. ,  and  the  most  proper  position  he  could  find  for  the  purpose. 

Work,  then,  was  pretty  certainly  begun  upon  Fort 
Washington  about  the  twentieth  of  September,  1789. 

The  site  selected  was  a  little  east  of  Western  row,  or 
Broadway,  between  that  and  the  present  Ludlow  street, 
just  outside  the  village  limits,  as  then  surveyed.  It  was 
upon  the  hill,  but  not  far  removed  from  the  brow  of  it  as 
the  second  terrace  then  existed — right  upon  the  line  of 
Third  street,  pretty  nearly  around  the  location  of  the 
Trollopean  Bazaar  for  more  than  fifty  years,  and  extend- 
'ng  near  sixty  feet  on  each  side  of  the  present  extension 
of  Third  street.  The  entire  reservation,  as  subsequently 
made  by  the  Government  for  the  purpose  in  the  patent  to 



Symmes,  was  fifteen  acres,  upon  which  the  fort  stood 
near  the  west  and  north  sides.  The  position  which  it 
occupied,  with  reference  to  present  blocks  and  streets, 
may  be  readily  seen  by  reference  to  the  old  maps  of  Cin- 
cinnati, in  the  books  descriptive  of  the  city  in  the  early 

In  February,  1841,  Mr.  Samuel  Abbey,  then  a  resi- 
dent of  New  England,  but  a  sergeant  in  Doughty's  com- 
mand at  the  time  of  the  erection,  revisited  the  site  while 
on  a  visit  to  Cincinnati,  and  emphatically  identified  the 
spot  between  Broadway  and  Ludlow  streets,  where  Third 
street  begins  to  change  direction  northwardly,  as  the  sta- 
tion of  the  flagstaff  of  the  fort.  Mr.  Abbey  had  reached 
the  advanced  age  of  seventy-five  years,  but  his  faculties 
were  still  in  vigorous  action,  and  his  recollections  of 
persons  and  places  in  the  early  day  of  Cincinnati  seemed 


of  the  fort  was  square  in  shape,  a  simple  fortification  of 
hewed  and  squared  timbers,  about  one  hundred  and 
eighty  feet  long  on  each  side,  with  barracks  two  stories 
high,  connected  at  the  corners  by  means  of  high  and 
strong  pickets  with  bastions,  or  more  properly  block- 
houses. These  were  doubtless  the  "four  block-houses" 
spoken  of  in  one  of  Timothy  Flint's  books  as  observable 
here  in  the  early  day;  though  it  is  singular  that  he  does 
not  speak  of  the  fort  as  an  entirety.  They  were  also  of 
hewed  timbers,  and  each  projected  about  ten  feet  in 
front  of  the  sides  of  the  fort,  so  as  to  command  com- 
pletely, by  the  direct  and  raking  fire  of  cannon  and  mus- 
ketry, every  wall  and  front  of  the  fortification.  In  the 
centre  of  the  south  side,  upon  the  main  front  of  the  fort, 
was  its  principal  gateway,  about  twelve  feet  wide  and  ten 
feet  high,  secured  by  heavy  wooden  doors  of  correspond- 
ing dimensions.  This  passage  into  the  fort  was  through 
the  line  of  barracks.  Upon  the  north  side  of  the  work 
and  somewhat  without  it,  but  connected  with  it  by  high 
palisades  extending  to  the  block-houses  at  the  northeast 
and  northwest  corners,  was  a  small  triangular  space  filled 
with  workshops  of  artificers  attached  to  the  garrison. 

Harmar's  own  description  of  the  fort,  as  it  existed 
when  he  occupied  it  as  his  headquarters,  though  in  an 
unfinished  state  [January  14,  1790],  is  as  follows: 

This  will  be  one  of  the  most  solid,  substantial  wooden  fortresses,  when 
finished,  of  any  in  the  Western  Territory.  It  is  built  of  hewn  timber,  a 
perfect  square,  two  stories  high,  with  four  block-houses  at  the  angles. 
The  plan  is  Major  Doughty's.  On  account  of  its  su- 
perior excellence,  I  have  thought  proper  to  honor  it  with  the  name  of 
Fort  Washington.  The  public  ought  to  be  benefited  by  the  sale  of 
these  buildings  whenever  we  evacuate  them,  although  they  will  cost 
them  but  little. 

The  general  was  led  to  make  this  remark  by  the  fact 
that  much  of  the  material  of  the  fort  was  made  up,  con- 
trary to  the  usual  impression  and  statement,  not  of  green 
logs  from  the  woods,  but  of  the  already  seasoned  and 
sawed  or  hewed  timbers  and  boat-boards  from  the  fiat  or 
"Kentucky  boats"  then  navigating  the  Ohio.  He  says  in 
the  same  letter: 

About  forty  or  fifty  Kentucky  boats  have  begun  and  will  complete  it. 
Limestone  is  the  grand  mart  of  Kentucky  ;  whenever  boats  arrive  there 
they  are  scarcely  of  any  value  to  the  owners  ;  they  are  frequently  set 
adrift  in  order  to  make  room  for  the  arrival  of  others.     I  have  con- 

tracted for  the  above  number  for  the  moderate  price  of  one  to  two  dol- 
lars each  ;  thus  much  for  the  plank  work.  All  other  expenses  (wagon- 
hire,  nails,  and  some  glass  excepted)  are  to  be  charged  to  the  labor  of 
the  troops.  The  lime  we  have  burned  ourselves,  and  the  stone  is  at 


An  enclosure  of  some  size,  separate  from  the  fort  and 
at  no  great  distance  from  it,  toward  the  river  and  a  little 
east  of  Broadway,  just  in  front  of  the  site  of  the  great 
nine-story  steam-mill  so  well  known  here  in  the  early 
day,  was  called  the  Artificers'  Yard,  in  which  were 
materials  for  their  work,  sheds  for  working  and  the  pro- 
tection of  articles  from  the  weather,  and  a  pretty  good 
dwelling,  the  residence  of  Captain  Thorp,  head  of  the 
quartermaster's  department  at  the  fort.  Between  the 
fort  and  the  yard,  on  the  Government  reservation,  near 
the  southeast  corner  of  Second  street  and  Broadway, 
were  several  log  houses,  occupied  as  barracks  by  a  part 
of  the  soldiers. 

A  spacious  and  smooth  esplanade,  about  eighty  feet 
wide,  stretched  along  the  entire  front  of  the  fort,  and  was 
bordered  by  a  handsome  paling  on  the  river  side,  at  the 
brow  of  the  hill,  which  then  sloped  about  thirty  feet  to 
the  lower  bottom  adjoining  the  stream.  The  exterior  of 
the  buildings  and  stockade  was  whitewashed,  and  pre- 
sented from  a  distance  an  imposing  and  really  beautiful 
appearance,  notwithstanding  the  rudeness  of  the  material 
that  mainly  entered  into  it.  The  officers  of  the  garrison 
had  their  gardens  upon  the  fertile  grounds  east  of  the 
enclosure,  ornamented  with  elegant  summer-houses  and 
finely  cultivated,  yielding  in  the  season  an  abundance  of 


One  object  of  the  new  post  between  the  Miamis  was 
to  furnish  an  eligible  headquarters  for  the  army,  nearer 
that  part  of  the  Indian  country  likely  to  cause  the  settlers 
fear  and  annoyance.  As  early  as  September  28,  1789 — 
probably  at  once  upon  receiving  Major  Doughty's  letter 
of  the  twenty-first — Harmar  wrote  to  General  Butler  at 
Pittsburgh : 

Your  humble  servant  is  a  bird  of  passage.  Some  time  the  latter  part 
of  next  month  or  beginning  of  November,  I  shall  move  down  the  river, 
bag  and  baggage  (leaving  Ziegler's  and  Heart's  companies  at  the  post 
for  the  protection  of  our  New  England  brothers),  and  shall  fix  my  head- 
quarters opposite  Licking  river. 

He  was  delayed,  however,  probably  by  the  unfinished 
condition  of  the  fort;  for,  November  10th  of  the  same 
year,  we  find  Major  Denny  making  the  following  entry  in 
his  journal : 

The  general  intends  removing  to  headquarters  very  shortly,  to  the 
new  fort  building  by  Major  Doughty,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Licking 

He  did  not  then  get  away  from  the  Muskingum  until 
the  twenty-fourth  of  December,  when  he  left  Fort  Har- 
mar with  a  small  fleet  of  boats  and  three  hundred  men 
with  whom  he  landed  safely  at  Losantiville  on  the  twenty- 
eighth,  and  settled  his  officers  and  men  as  best  he  could 
in  and  about  the  fort.  It  is  a  coincidence  of  some  inter- 
est that  the  first  colonists  here  in  like  manner  left  their 
point  of  embarkation  December  24th,  just  two  years  pre- 

*  Substantially  from  Cist's  Cincinnati  in  1841. 



viously,  were  also  four  days  upon  the  voyage — though 
they  had  only  about  one-fifth  the  distance  to  traverse, 
being  delayed  by  ice  in  the  river — and  similarly  landed 
on  the  twenty-eighth.  Upon  the  general's  arrival,  be  took 
command  at  the  fort,  relieving  Major  Doughty,  who  be- 
came commandant  of  the  small  force  left  at  Fort  Har- 
mar.  Fort  Washington  was  now  the  headquarters  of  the 
United  States  army. 


This  was  the  most  important  and  extensive  military 
work  in  existence  at  that  period  in  any  of  the  territories 
of  the  United  States.  It  made  a  conspicuous  figure  in 
the  Indian  wars  of  the  closing  decade  of  the  last  century. 
Here,  in  the  summer  and  fall  of  1790,  the  first  year  after 
its  construction,  rendezvoused  the  three  hundred  and 
twenty  regular  troops  and  eight  hundred  and  thirty-three 
Kentucky  and  Pennsylvania  militia  of  General  Harmar's 
ill-starred  command,  from  which  they  marched  Septem- 
ber 30th  of  the  same  year,  to  their  disastrous  defeat  near 
St.  Mary's.  Upon  the  retreat,  the  exultant  savages  fol- 
lowed their  broken  columns  until  they  were  almost  under 
the  guns  of  the  fort.  Hither,  too,  in  the  middle  of  the  next 
May,  came  the  confident  St.  Clair  with  his  legions,  burn- 
ing for  revenge  upon  the  red-skinned  and  red-handed  en- 
emy, and  remained  here  and  at  Ludlow's  station,  recruit- 
ing and  equipping  his  forces,  until  the  seventeenth  of  the 
succeeding  September,  when  it  likewise  marched  away  to 
defeat.  Lively  times,  also,  the  frontier  garrison  saw  in 
1 793 — the  "bloody  '93"  of  the  French  Revolution — 
while  the  forces  of  Mad  Anthony  Wayne  lay  at  "  Hob- 
son's  Choice,"  in  the  Mill  creek  valley,  preparing  most 
effectually  to  reverse  the  fortunes  of  war  by  its  trium- 
phantly successful  campaign  against  the  Indians  of  the 
Miami  and  Maumee  valleys.  Soon  after  its  departure  a 
terrible  visitation  of  small-pox  swept  off  nearly  one-third 
of  the  garrison  remaining,  as  well  as  of  the  citizens  of 
the  village. 

To  Fort  Washington,  also,  April  3,  1792,  came  Major 
Trueman,  of  the  United  States  army,  as  a  commissioner 
from  President  Washington  to  negotiate  a  treaty  with  the 
western  Indians.  He  brought  instructions  from  the  Sec- 
retary of  War,  and  reported  formally  to  Colonel  Wilkin- 
son, then  commanding  at  the  fort.  The  colonel  detailed 
Colonel  Hardin  to  proceed  with  him  into  the  Indian 
country,  for  which  they  left  some  time  in  June.  During 
the  summer  information  was  received  by  the  comman- 
dant at  Vincennes  from  a  Wea  chief  that  four  white  men, 
who  were  approaching  the  Indians  under  a  flag  of  truce, 
had  been  fired  upon,  three  of  them  killed,  and  the  fourth, 
who  was  bearing  the  flag  and  had  on  his  person  the  cre- 
dentials and  other  papers  of  the  expedition,  had  been 
taken  a  prisoner  and  barbarously  murdered  the  next  day. 
On  the  third  of  July  Colonel  Vjgo  brought  the  intelli- 
gence from  Vincennes  to  Cincinnati.  The  sad  news  was 
soon  confirmed,  and  the  party  identified  as  that  of  True- 
man  and  Hardin,  by  prisoners  escaping  from  the  Indians 
and  coming  in  to  Fort  Washington.  Colonel  Hardin, 
before  his  departure,  had  told  a  friend  in  Cincinnati, 
Captain  James  Ferguson,  that  his  presence  in  the  party 

would  prompt  the  savages  to  violate  the  flag  and  assas- 
sinate him,  whom  they  had  long  feared  and  hated.  One 
of  the  attendants  of  the  officers  was  a  son  of  Mr.  A. 
Freeman,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Cincinnati.  His  story 
has  further  notice  in  the  first  division  of  this  history. 
This  incident  has  been  made  the  groundwork  of  one  of 
the  most  interesting  sketches  in  Benjamin  Drake's  Tales 
of  the  Queen  City. 


In  the  fall  of  1789,  even  before  the  entire  completion 
of  the  fort,  there  was  danger  that  the  troops  would  be 
forced  to  abandon  it,  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  food. 
In  this  exigency  Colonel  John  S.  Wallace,  a  noted  hunter 
and  Indian  fighter,  came  forward  and  made  a  contract 
with  the  military  authorities  to  supply  the  garrison  with 
wild  meat.  He  was  assisted  by  two  hunters  named 
Drennan  and  Dement,  and,  about  ten  miles  below  Cin- 
cinnati, on  the  Kentucky  side,  they  found  game  in  great 
quantity — buffalo,  deer,  and  bear — which  enabled  them 
without  special  difficulty  to  fulfil  their  engagements.  At 
one  hunt  they  secured  enough  to  keep  the  seventy  men 
then  in  the  garrison  supplied  with  this  kind  of  food  for 
six  weeks.  The  troops  were  also  kept  in  good  heart  by 
a  sufficient  supply  of  corn  from  Columbia,  where  the 
crop  of  the  year  was  abundant,  and  contributed  largely, 
as  is  elsewhere  noted,  to  the  safety  of  Losantiville  and 
the  fort. 

Major  Jacob  Fowler  and  his  brother  Matthew  ar.e  also 
said  to  have  had  a  contract  to  furnish  the  garrison,  as 
well  as  the  village,  with  the  spoils  of  the  chase,  from  the 
establishment  of  the  fort  till  some  time  after  St.  Clair's 
arrival  there.  They  received  twopence  per  pound  for 
buffalo  and  bear  meat,  and  two  and  half  for  venison — in 
Pennsylvania  currency,  seven  shillings  and  sixpence  to 
the  dollar.  They  hunted  some  in  Mill  Creek  valley, 
where  the  game  was  reputed  good,  but  extended  their 
hunting  grounds  ten  to  fifteen  miles  into  Kentucky.  The 
skins  of  animals  killed  were  sold  to  a  man  named  Archer, 
who  kept  a  tannery  in  or  near  the  town.  After  a  time 
the  authorities  got  behindhand  in  their  payments,  and 
the  hunters  would  sell  only  to  the  citizens  and  the  offi- 
cers of  the  garrison. 

Writing  of  the  currency  of  the  times,  it  is  worth  noting 
that  the  soldiers  at  Fort  Washington  were  paid  in  bills  of 
the  old  Bank  of  the  United  States — a  currency  locally 
called  "oblongs,"  especially  at  the  gambling  tables,  which 
were  much  frequented  by  the  officers,  as  well  as  the 
enlisted  men  and  hangers-on  of  the  garrison.  A  three- 
dollar  bill  was  at  that  day  sufficient  for  the  monthly  pay 
of  a  private  soldier. 


The  troops  at  Fort  Washington  naturally  '  were  some- 
what at  feud  with  the  citizens  of  the  village,  notwithstand- 
ing their  mutual  dependence,  to  some  extent,  upon  each 
other.  Record  will  elsewhere  be  made  of  a  serious  af- 
fray in  the  early  years  of  the  settlement,  in  which  a  party 
of  soldiers  participated.  It  is  very  likely  that  there  were 
some  cases  of  insolence  and  tyranny  in  the  conduct 
of  the  officers  and  their  subordinates  toward  the  civilians, 



and  that  in  various  ways  there  were  reprisals  from  the 

villagers.      In   1790,  at  all  events,   Governor  St.   Clair 

thought  fit  to  issue  a  proclamation  declaring  the  existence 

of  martial  law  for  some  distance  about  the  fort;  which, 

with  other  alleged  high-handed  acts,  is  thus  sharply  dealt 

with  in  one  of  the  letters  of  Judge  Symmes  to  his  friend 

and  associate  Dayton : 

The  governor's  proclamations  have  convulsed  these  settlements  be- 
yond your  conception,  sir,  not  only  with  regard  to  the  limits  of  the 
Purchase,  but  also  with  respect  to  his  putting  part  of  the  town  of  Cin- 
cinnata  [sic\  under  military  government.  Nor  do  the  people  find  their 
subordination  to  martial  law  a  very  pleasant  situation.  A  few  days  ago 
a  very  decent  citizen,  by  the  name  of  [Knoles]  Shaw,  from  New  Eng- 
land (and  one,  too,  who  lived  with  his  family  a  considerable  distance 
beyond  the  limits  assigned  by  proclamation  round  Fort  Washington, 
for  the  exercise  of  the  law  martial),  was  put  in  irons,  as  I  was  yesterday 
credibiy  informed,  his  house  burned  by  the  military,  and  he  banished 
the  Territory.  I  hear  his  charges  are  that  of  purchasing  some  of  the 
soldiers'  clothing  and  advising  in  some  desertions ;  but  of  this  he  was 
no  otherwise  convicted  (for  he  asserts  his  innocence),  than  by  the  sol- 
dier's accusation  after  he  had  deserted  and  been  retaken,  which  he 
might  do  in  order  to  shift  the  blame  in  some  degree  from  himself  in 
hopes  of  more  favor.  There  are,  indeed,  many  other  acts  of  a  despotic 
complexion,  such  as  some  of  the  officers,  Captain  Armstrong,  Captain 
Kirkwood,  Lieutenant  Pastures,  and  Ensign  Schuyler,  very  recently, 
and  Captain  Strong,  Captain  Ford,  Captain  Ashton,  and  Ensign  Harts- 
horn, while  General  Harmar  commanded,  beating  and  imprisoning  cit- 
izens at  their  pleasure.  But  here,  injustice  to  the  officers  generally  of 
the  levies,  I  ought  to  observe  that,  as  yet,  I  have  heard  no  complaint 
of  any  severity  or  wantonness  in  them.  The  violences  of  which  I 
speak  are  found  among  the  officers  of  the  regular  troops,  who,  in  too 
many  instances,  are  imperiously  haughty,  and  evidently  affect  to  look 
down  on  the  officers  of  the  levies.  I  hear  there  are  several  officers  with 
their  corps  arrived  at  headquarters,  but  I  have  not  seen  any  of  them,  as 
I  had  left  Cincinnata  a  day  or  two  before  their  arrival,  and  have  not 
been  there  since.  It  really  becomes  a  very  unpleasant  place  to  me,  for 
I  have  always  had  something  in  my  nature  which  was  shocked  at  acts 
of  tyranny,  and  when  at  that  place  my  eyes  and  ears  are  every  day  sa- 
luted with  more  or  less  of  those  acts  which  border  hard  on  it. 


The  first  commandant  of  Fort  Washington  was  its 
founder  and  builder,  Major  Doughty,  who  was  super- 
seded, of  course,  by  his  superior  officer,  General  Har- 
mar, upon  the  arrival  of  the  latter  late  in  December. 
Harmar  named  the  fort,  which  had  theretofore  been  with- 
out special  designation,  upon  the  arrival  of  Governor  St. 
Clair  in  January,  at  the  same  time  Hamilton  county  and 
Cincinnati  were  named — Judge  Symmes  and  St.  Clair 
having,  respectively,  the  privilege  of  naming  these.  Gen- 
eral Wilkinson  assumed  command  after  Harmar's  de- 
feat, continuing  the  fort  as  headquarters  of  the  army. 
Captain  William  Henry  Harrison,  whose  earliest  military 
life  was  identified  with  the  fort,  was  in  command  from 
1795  until  his  resignation,  three  years  thereafter.  Cap- 
tain Edward  Miller  was  commandant  in  May  and  June, 
1799;  but  how  long  before  and  after  we  have  been  unable 
to  ascertain.  The  next  year  Lieutenant  Peter  Shiras 
"held  the  fort,"  and  he  is  the  last  of  the  post  comman- 
ders of  whom  we  have  certain  information,  though  Major 
Zeigler  doubtless  came  near  him  as  post  commandant, 
either  before  or  after  that  date. 


One  of  General  Harmar's  letters,  dated  June  9,  1790, 
furnishes  a  full  roster  of  the  commissioned  officers  then 
at  the  fort.  They  were:  General  Harmar,  Captain 
Ferguson,   Captain   Strong,  Captain  M'Curdy,  Captain 

Beatty,  Lieutenant  Armstong,  Lieutenant  Kerney  (Kear- 
sey?),  Lieutenant  Ford,  Lieutenant  Pratt,  Lieutenant 
Denny,  Ensign  Sedam,  Ensign  Hartshorn,  Ensign  Thomp. 
son,  Doctor  Allison.  Some  of  these,  as  Sedam,  Allison, 
and  one  or  two  others,  will  be  recognized  as  well  known 
names  in  the  annals  of  Cincinnati. 


In  1803  the  United  States  acquired,  by  gift  and  pur- 
chase, from  General  James  Taylor,  a  part  of  the  ground 
upon  which  Newport  barracks  were  built  and  now  stand. 
General  Charles  Scott  acted  for  the  Government,  took 
the  deed  and  paid  the  purchase  money.  The  barracks 
were  ready  for  the  reception  of  the  troops  the  next  year, 
when  Fort  Washington  was  evacuated  and  its  garrison 
transferred  to  the  opposite  shore.  The  history  of  Fort 
Washington  is  thenceforth  quite  uneventful,  though  some 
noted  citizens  of  Cincinnati,  as  Dr.  William  Goforth  and 
his  promising  young  student,  Daniel  Drake,  from  time  to 
time  occupied  rooms  or  dwellings  in  it. 


In  1808,  in  pursuance  of  an  order  of  Congress,  the 
military  reservation  at  Cincinnati  was  condemned  and 
ordered  to  be  sold  with  the  structures  thereon.  General 
Jared  Mansfield,  then  surveyor-general  of  the  Northwest, 
was  directed  to  supervise  the  sale.  He  had  the  tract  of 
fifteen  acres  subdivided  into  lots  and  sold  in  early  March 
through  the  land  office  at  Cincinnati.  The  old  site  of 
the  fort,  near  the  Trollopean  Bazaar,  is  now  among  the 
most  thickly  built  districts  of  the  city.  The  demolition 
and  sale  of  the  buildings  took  place  on  St.  Patrick's 
Day,  March  17,  was  at  public  vendue  and  attended  by 
the  entire  population  of  the  city  and  vicinity,  who  made 
a  gala-day  of  the  event.  Little  of  the  material  was 
valuable  except  for  firewood,  and  much  of  it  was  sold  for 
this  purpose.  Colonel  Stephen  McFarland,  father  of 
the  venerable  Isaac  B.  McFarland,  who  is  still  residing 
on  Park  street  and  well  remembers  this  day,  lived 
adjacent  to  the  fort,  and  bought  the  logs  of  the  cabins 
between  it  and  Artificers'  Yard,  which  fed  his  fires  for 
some  years.  Mr.  Joseph  Coppin,  of  Pleasant  Ridge,  late 
president  of  the  Cincinnati  Pioneer  association,  was  also 
present  at  the  sale  and  thus  describes  a  ludicrous  inci- 
dent of  it: 

During  the  taking  down  of  the  fort,  two  men  got  into  a  fight,  and 
upset  a  barrel  of  soft  soap.  Here  they  were  down  in  soap,  and  then  in 
the  dirt;  and  when  the  people  thought  they  had  fought  enough  and 
were  fit  for  the  river,  they  marched  them  down  to  the  tune  of  the 
"Rogue's  March,"  and  in  the  river  they  had  to  go  and  wash  off  in 
presence  of  the  crowd  that  followed. 


The  first  well  in  Cincinnati  was  dug  at  the  fort  in 
1 79 1,  by  an  eccentric  wanderer  calling  himself  John 
Robert  Shaw,  who  afterwards  published  a  little  book  in 
Kentucky,  giving  an  account  of  his  adventures,, with  rude 
illustrations,  probably  designed  and  executed  by  himself. 
He  was  called  by  the  early  settlers  "the  water-witch," 
from  his  skill  in  divining  water  by  the  forked  rod,  and 
was  sent  for  from  long  distances  to  find  it. 

So  late  as  1802,  a  book  published  in  Paris,  entitled 
Voyage  a  la  Louisiane,  par  B D ,  gives  Fort 

O/J  c 



ashington  a  place  by  name  upon  the  map  prefixed,  but 
no  Cincinnati  appears,  nor  either  of  the  Miami  rivers. 
Upon  other  old  maps  Fort  Washington  is  sometimes 
given  as  a  locality  in  the  neighborhood  of  Cincinnati, 
which  is  also  set  down,  but  generally  in  its  proper  place. 

In  1789  two  soldiers,  named  John  Ayers  and  Matthew 
Ratmore,  were  shot  at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  fort, 
for  desertion.  These  were  the  first  executions  in  the 

In  a  description  of  Cincinnati,  as  he  first  saw  the  vil- 
lage in  February,  1791,  the  Rev.  Oliver  M.  Spencer  in- 
cludes the  following  notice  of  the  fort: 

On  the  top  and  about  eighty  feet  distant  from  the  brow  of  the  second 
bank,  facing  the  river,  stood  Fort  Washington,  occupying  nearly  all 
the  ground  between  Third  and  Fourth  streets,  and  between  Ludlow 
street  and  Broadway.  This  fort,  of  nearly  a  square  form,  was  simply 
a  wooden  fortification,  whose  four  sides  or  walls,  each  about  one  hun- 
dred and  eighty  feet  long,  were  constructed  of  hewed  logs,  erected  into 
barracks  two  stories  high,  connected  at  the  corners  by  high  pickets, 
with  bastions  or  block-houses,  also  of  hewed  logs  and  projecting  about 
ten  feet  in  front  of  each  side  of  the  fort,  so  that  the  cannon  piaced 
•  within  them  could  be  brought  to  rake  its  walls.  Through  the  centre  of 
the  south  side  or  front  of  this  fort  was  the  principal  gateway,  a  passage 
through  this  line  of  barracks  about  twelve  feet  wide  and  ten  feet  high, 
secured  by  strong  wooden  doors  of  the  same  dimensions.  Appended 
to  the  fort  on  its  north  side,  and  enclosed  with  high  palisades  extend- 
ing from  its  northeast  and  northwest  corners  to  a  block-house,  was  a 
small  triangular  space;  in  which  were  constructed  shops  for  the  accom- 
modation of  the  artificers.  Extending  along  the  whole  front  of  the  fort 
was  a  fine  esplanade,  about  eighty  feet  wide  and  enclosed  with  a  hand- 
some paling  on  the  brow  of  the  bank,  the  descent  from  which  to  the 
lower  bottom  was  sloping,  sbout  thirty  feet.  The  front  and  sides  of 
the  fort  were  whitewashed,  andat  a  small  distance  presented  a  handsome 
and  imposing  appearance.  On  the  eastern  side  were  the  officers'  gar- 
dens, finely  cultivated,  ornnmented  with  beautiful  summer  houses,  and 
yielding  in  their  season  abundance  of  vegetables.  * 

Judge  Burnet  gives  the  following  account  of  the  fort, 
as  he  remembered  seeing  it  first  in  1795  : 

In  Cincinnati,  Fort  Washington  was  the  most  remarkable  object. 
That  rude  but  highly  interesting  structure  stood  between  Third  and 
Fourth  streets  produced,  east  of  Eastern  row,  now  Broadway,  which 
was  then  a  two-pole  alley,  and  was  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  town, 
as  originally  laid  out.  It  was  composed  of  a  number  of  strongly 
built,  hewed  log  cabins,  a  story  and  a  half  high,  calculated  for  soldiers' 
barracks.  Some  of  them,  more  conveniently  arranged  and  belter  fin- 
ished, were  intended  for  officers'  quarters.  They  were  so  placed  as  to 
form  a  hollow  square  of  about  an  acre  of  ground,  with  a  strong  block- 
house at  each  angle.  It  was  built  of  large  logs,  cut  from  the  ground 
on  which  it  stood,  which  was  a  tract  of  fifteen  acres,  reserved  by  Con- 
gress in  the  law  of  1792,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  garrison. 

The  Artificers'  Yard  was  appended  to  the  fort,  and  stood  on  the  bank 
of  the  river,  immediately  in  front.  It  contained  about  two  acres  of 
ground,  enclosed  by  small  contiguous  buildings,  occupied  as  work- 
shops and  quarters  for  laborers.  Within  the  enclosure  there  was  a 
large,  two-story  frame  house,  familiarly  called  the  'yellow  house,'  which 
was  the  most  commodious  and  best-finished  edifice  in  Cincinnati.  On 
the  north  side  of  Fourth  street,  immediately  behind  the  fort,  Colonel 
Sargent,  secretary  of  the  Territory,  had  a  convenient  frame  house  and 
a  spacious  garden,  cultivated  with  care  and  taste.  On  the  east  side 
of  the  fort  Dr.  Allison,  the  surgeon-general  of  the  army,  had  a  plain 
frame  dwelling  in  the  centre  of  a  large  lot,  cultivated  as  a  garden  and 
fruitery,  and  which  was  called  "Peach  Grove.". 

The  anniversary  of  Washington's  birthday,  February 
22,  1791,  was  celebrated  by  a  ball  at  the  fort,  preceded 
by  an  exhibition  of  fireworks,  the  booming  of  cannon, 
discharge  of  rockets,  and  other  demonstrations  of  joy 
and  honor. 

The  rule  at  the  fort   must  have  been  at  times  pretty 

*This  is  undoubtedly  the  source  from  which  Mr,  Cist  drew  his  de- 

severe,  if  one  may  judge  from  the  closing  part  of  a  letter 
written  by  General  Wilkinson,  May  11,  1792,  while  he  was 
commandant  of  the  fort,  to'  Captain  John  Armstrong, 
commanding  at  Fort  Hamilton.  He  thus  instructs 
Armstrong : 

Should  any  men  desert  you,  the  scouts  are  to  take  the  track,  pursue, 
overtake,  and  make  prisoners  of  them  ;  and  for  every  one  so  appre- 
hended and  brought  back,  you  may  engage  them  twe  nty  dollars,  If 
the  deserter  is  discovered  making  for  the  enemy,  it  will  be  well  for  the 
scout  to  shoot  him  and  bring  his  head  to  you ;  for  which  allow  forty 
dollars.  One  head  lopped  off  in  this  way  and  set  upon  a  pole  on  the 
pajade  might  do  lasting  good  in  the  way  of  deterring  others. 

ViSociety  in  the  infant  Cincinnati  largely  took  its  tone 
from  the  official  society  in  Fort  Washington.  Here,  it 
must  be  remembered,  were  quartered,  at  various 
times,  four  eminent  commanders  of  the  American 
army,  under  the  President — Generals  Harmar,  St.  Clair, 
Wayne  and  Wilkinson.  In  the  staffs  of  these  men,  and 
in  more  immediate  command  of  the  troops,  were  officers 
of  culture  and  polished  manners,  some  of  European 
education,  many  of  luxurious  habits.  The  living  at  the 
officers'  mess  tables  was  generous.  It  is  shrewdly  sus- 
pected that  St.  Clair's  defeat  was  due  quite  as  much  to 
his  gastronomic  indulgences  as  to  any  misconduct  of 
his  men  or  officers;  for  he  was  so  afflicted  with  the  gout 
during  his  campaign  that  he  had  to  be  carried  in  a  litter 
to  the  fatal  fiekl,  and  was  quite  incapable  of  the  most 
efficient  action.]*  General  Wilkinson,  who  succeeded  him, 
was  a  gentlemlm  and  scholar  who  delighted  in  surround- 
ings of  beauty  and  refinement;  and  in  the  schemes  for 
adornment  and  social  pleasure  he  was  ably  and  cordially 
seconded  by  his  wife.  Here,  in  the  wilds  of  the  west, 
besides  frequent  balls  and  other  festivities  at  the  fort, 
Wilkinson  had  a  superb  barge  built  and  decorated  as  a 
pleasure-boat,  upon  which  he  gave  banquets  and  other 
entertainments  to  his  officers  and  friends.  Mr.  H.  M. 
Brackenridge,  author  of  Recollections  of  Persons  and 
Places  in  the  West,  saw  this  barge  in  its  heyday,  and 
thus  writes  of  it: 

The  general's  lady  and  several  ladies  and  gentlemen  were  on  board 
of  the  boat,  which  was  fitted  up  in  a  style  of  convenience,  and  even 
magnificence,  scarcely  surpassed  by-the  present  steamboats.  It  was 
propelled  against  the  stream  by  twenty-five  or  thirty  men,  sometimes 
with  the  pole,  by  the  cotdelle,  and  often  by  the  oar.  There  was  also  a 
band  of  musicians  on  board,  and  the  whole  had  the  appearance  of  a 
mere  party  of  pleasure.  My  senses  were  overpowered — it  seemed  an 
Elysium!  The  splendor  of  the  furniture,  the  elegance  of  the  dresses, 
and  then  the  luxuries  of  the  table,  to  a  half-starved  creature  produced 
an  effect  which  cannot  easily  be  described.  Every  repast  was  a  royal 
banquet,  and  such  delicacies  were  placed  before  me  as  I  had  never  seen, 
and  in  sufficient  abundance  to  satiate  my  insatiable  appetite. 

The  general's  countenance  was  continually  lighted  up  with  smiles, 
and  he  seemed  the  /acre  le  bouheur  of  all  around  him.  It  seemed  to 
be  his  business  to  make  every  one  happy. 

And  Herr  Klauprecht  writes,  in  his  German  Chronicle 
of  the  History  of  the  Ohio  Valley: 

His  lady,  a  charming  being,  assisted  her  husband  in  a  truly  estim- 
able manner,  by  enlivening  the  entertainments  with  the  sprightliness 
and  grace  of  her  amiable  soul. 

Judge  Burnet  also  writes,  in  his  Notes  on  the  Settle- 
ment of  the  Northwestern  Territory : 

During  a  large  portion  of  the  year!"  they  had  to  endure  the  fatigues 
and  privations  of  the  wilderness;  and  as  often  as  they  returned  from 
those  laborious  excursions,  they  indulged  most  freely  in  the  delicacies 
of  high  living.     Scarcely  a  day  passed  without  a  dinner-party,  at  which 



the  best  of  wine  and  of  other  liquors,  and  the  richest  viands  furnished 
by  the  country  and  by  commerce,  were  served  up  in  great  profusion 
and  in  fine  taste.  Genteel  strangers  who  visited  the  place,  were 
generally  invited  to  their  houses  and  their  sumptuous  tables. 
Atone  of  those  sumptuous  dinners,  given  by  Angus  Mcintosh,  the  bot- 
tom of  every  wine-glass  on  the  table  had  been  broken  off,  to  prevent 
what  was  called  heel-taps;  and  during  the  evening  many  toasts  were 
given,  which  the  company  were  required  to  drink  in  bumpers. 





(The  great  local  events  which  opened  this  year  were 
the  visit  of  -Governor  St.  Clair,  the  consequent  erection 
of  Hamilton  as  the  second   county  in   the   Northwest 
Territory,  and  the  re-christening  of  the  chief  town  of  the 
Miamis  as  its  county-seat  and  the  prospective  capital  of 
the  Territory.!    Let  it  be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that 
Hamilton  county  was  not  in  being,  and  that  Cincinnati 
was  LosantivTTle,  so  far  as  public  knowledge,  at  least,  was 
concerned,    during   the   first    three   days  of   this   year. 
The  testimony   is    express   to  the    effect  that  the  Gov- 
ernor arrived  at  Fort  Washington  January  2d,  sent  for 
Judge  Symmes  to  North  Bend  the  next  day,  and  on  the 
fourth  issued  his  proclamation  erecting    "  this  Purchase 
into  a  county,"  as  Symmes  said,  at  the  same  time  that  he, 
as  the  judge  put  it  in  another  letter,  "made  Losantiville 
the  county-town  by  the  name  of  Cincinnata,  so  that  Lo- 
santiville will  become  extinct."     It  is  altogether  probable 
that  while  St.  Clair  left  to  Symmes  the  designation  of  the 
county  (and  the  judge,  in  a  letter  cited  below,  seems  also 
to  claim  the  re-christening  of  Losantiville),  he  assumed 
himself  the  entitling  of  its  seat  of  justice,  the  Queen  City 
to-be, .  and  named  it  from  the  famous  society  of  which 
both  himself  and   Colonel-  Hamilton  were  members — 
that  society  which,  in  the  old  words,  was  "  instituted  by 
the   Officers  of  the   American  Army  at  the  Period  of 
its  Dissolution,  as  well  to  commemorate  .the  great  event 
which  gave  Independence  to  North  America,  as  for  the 
Laudable   Purpose  of    inculcating  the    Duty  of   laying 
down  in  Peace  Arms  assumed  for  public  Defence,  and  of 
uniting  in  Acts  of  brotherly  affection  and  Bonds  of  Per- 
petual Friendship  the  members  constituting  the  same.'' 
This  society  received  its  name,  as  is  well  known,  from 
Cincinnatus,    the  noble   Roman  agriculturist  who,    458 
b.  c,  was  called  from  his  plow  to  become  the  Dictator  of 
Rome,  in  a  great  public  emergency.     Its  honors  are  still 
shared  by  a  few  citizens  of  the  metropolis  whose  greatness 
has  helped  to  give  its  name  renown — gentlemen   who 
have  the  blood  of  Revolutionary  heroes.     Only  seven 
other  places  in  the  United  States  or  in  the  world  bear  the 
same  title — in  Washington  county,  Arkansas;  Pike  coun- 
ty, Illinois;  Greene  county,  Indiana;  Appanoose  county, 
Iowa;  Ralls  county,  Missouri;  Pawnee  county,  Nebraska; 
and    Walker    county,   Texas; — all    wholly    unimportant 
places,  except  for  their  great  name.     There  is  also  a  Cin- 
cinnatus in  Cortland  couny,  New  York. 

A  paragraph  may  well  enough  be  given  here  to  Judge 
Symmes'  spelling  of  the  word  as  Cincinnata.  He  retained 
this  in  the  date-line  of  such  of  his  letters  as  wsre  written 
from  this  place,  and  in  other  of  his  writings,  for  some 
years,  when  he  adopted  the  orthography  which  has  always 
been  standard.  His  letters  of  1795  bear  the  heading 
"Cincinnati."  Long  before  this  he  was  troubled  with 
doubts  as  to  the  word,  whose  spelling  seems  to  have  been 
the  result  of  his  own  reasonings  and  inventions,  prompted 
by  his  classical  knowledge,  rather  than  to  rest  upon  any 
recognized  authority.  In  a  letter  of  his,  dated  June  19, 
179T,  having  written  the  word  once  in  his  epistle,  he 
diverges  from  his  topics  of  business  into  the  following 

Having  mentioned  Cincinnata,  I  beg,  sir,  you  will  inquire  of  the  liter- 
ati in  Jersey  whether  Cincinnata  or  Cincinnati  be  most  proper.  The 
design  I  had  in  giving  that  name  to  the  place  was  in  honor  of  the  Order 
of  Cincinnati,  and  to  denote  the  chief  place  of  their  residence;  and,  so 
far  as  my  little  acquaintance  with  cases  and  genders  extends,  I  think 
the  name  of  a  town  should  terminate  in  the  feminine  gender  where  it  is 
not  perfectly  neuter.  Cincinnati  is  the  title  of  the  order  of  knighthood 
and  cannot,  I  think,  be  the  place  where  the  knights  of  the  order  dwell! 
I  have  frequent  combats  in  this  country  on  this  subject,  because  most 
men  spell  the  place  with  ti,  when  I  always  do  with  ta.  Please  to  set  me 
right,  if  I  am  wrong.  You  have  your  Witherspoons  and  Smiths,  and 
indeed  abound  in  characters  in  whose  decision  I  shall  acquiesce. 

Well  reasoned,  no  doubt,  from  the.  standpoint  of  the 
linguist  and  the  expert  in  geographical  nomenclature; 
but  the  voice  of  the  vast  majority,  he  confesses,  was 
against  him,  and  the  usage  in  favor  of  Cincinnati  soon 
became  too  strong  for  him  to  resist. 
(  January  4,  1790,  Losantiville  was  no  more,  and  Cin- 
cinnati, as  a  "name  to  live,"  began.  The  wheels  of  civil 
government  were  soon  in  motion ;  the  courts  of  justice 
began  to  sit;  the  little  community  came  readily  under 
the  forms  of  law  and  order;  and  the  great  career  of  the 
Queen  City,  in  a  humble  way,  was  opened.]  The  gov- 
ernor remained  at  the  fort  during  three  days,  received 
the  compliments  and  respects  of  such  of  the  citizens  as 
chose  to  call  and  pay  them,  completed  his  schedule  of 
civil  and  military  appointments,  and  then  re-entered  his 
barge  and  went  on  his  tedious  way  to  Marietta. 

One  day  before  St.  Clair  issued  his  proclamation  estab- 
lishing the  county  of  Hamilton,  Benjamin  VanCleve  be- 
came a  resident  of  Cincinnati,  remaining  here  until  his  re- 
moval to  Dayton  early  in  1796.  He  was  a  prominent  and 
valued  citizen,  and  has  left  important  contributions  to  the 
memoirs  of  his  times,  in  the  clear  and  well-written  mem- 
oranda he  then  made,  some  of  which  have  been  published 
in  the  second  volume  of  the  American  Pioneer.  He  thus 
notes  the  arrival  here,  wfth  other  items  of  interest: 

We  landed  at  Losantiville,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Licking  river,  on 
the  third  day  of  January,  1790.  Two  small,  hewed-log  houses  had  been 
erected,  and  several  cabins.  General  Harmar  was  employed  in  building 
Fort  Washington,  and  commanded  Strong's,  Pratt's,  Kearsey's,  and 
Kingsbury's  companies  of  infantry,  and  Ford's  artillery.  A  few  days 
after  this  Governor  St.  Clair  appointed  officers,  civil  and  military,  for 
the  Miami  country.  His  proclamation,  erecting  the  county  of  Hamil- 
ton, bears  date  January  2,*  1790,  on  the  day  of  his  arrival.  Mr.  Tap- 
pan  [Tapping],  who  came  down  with  us,  and  who  remained  only  a 
short  time,  and  William  McMillan,  esq.,  were  appointed  justices  of  the 
peace  for  this  town,  of  which  the  governor  altered  the  name  from  Lo- 
santiville to  Cincinnati. 

Mr.  Van  Cleve  served  in  the  quartermaster's  depart- 

*  It  was  not  issued,  however,  until  the  fourth. 



ment  in  St.  Clair's  unfortunate  campaign;  but,  contrary 
to  the  custom  of  quartermasters'  employes,  fought  bravely 
in  the  action,  and  got  away  with  much  difficulty,  though 
unharmed.  The  next  spring  he  was  sent  by  Colonel 
Wilkinson,  on  horseback,  as  an  express  to  the  seat  of 
government  at  Philadelphia  by  way  of  Lexington  and 
"the  Crab  Orchard,"  reckoned  in  his  instructions  as  "the 
most  direct  route  to  Philadelphia,"  whence  he  brought 
dispatches  from  General  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  to 
General  Wayne,  then  at  Pittsburgh.  He  was  at  Dayton 
in  November,  1795,  when  the  place  was  laid  off  by  Colo- 
nel Ludlow,  and  drew  town  lots  for  himself  and  several 
others  in  a  lottery  held  by  the  proprietors,  engaging  to 
move  thither  the  next  spring,  which  he  did,  reaching  there 
with  several  other  persons,  including  two  families,  in  a 
large  pirogue  from  Cincinnati.  He  says  in  his  diary:  "I 
raised  a  good  crop  of  corn  this  year.  In  the  meantime 
flour  cost  me  nine  dollars  a  barrel,  and  corn  meal  a  dol- 
lar a  bushel  in  Cincinnati,  and  the  transportation  to  Day- 
ton was  two  dollars  and  a  half  per  hundred  weight."  In 
April,  1797,  he  removed  to  Little  Beaver  creek,  seven 
miles  from  Dayton.  In  1801  he  was  appointed  to  take 
returns  of  all  taxable  property  in  Dayton  township,  which 
then  included  a  large  tract,  as  elsewhere  noted.  In  the 
War  of  1812-15,  he  commanded  a  company  of  riflemen, 
and  received  orders  direct  from  Governor  Meigs,  May  26, 
1812,  to  march  to  the  frontiers  west  of  the  Miamis,  and 
assist  the  frontier  inhabitants  in  erecting  block-houses 
and  otherwise  preparing  for  their  defense.  He  never  re- 
turned to  reside  in  Cincinnati. 

I  On  St.  Patrick's  day  of  this  year,  March  17th,  by  a  tra- 
oitien  generally  received,  the  first  white  child  was  born  here 
— William  Moody,  son  of  a  baker  from  Marietta — in  a 
cabin  on  the  southwest  corner  of  Fourth  and  Main  streets.  J 
He  is  so  considered  by  Mr.  Julius  Dexter,  secretary  of  the 
Historical  society,  in  his  introductory  note  to  King's 
Pocket-book  of  Cincinnati;  and  when  he  was  sergeant- 
at-arms  to  the  city  council,  he  was  always  mentioned  in 
the  city  reports  and  the  Directory  as  "the  first  white 
child  born  in  Cincinnati."  He  died  in  the  early  spring  of 
1879,  shortly  after  passing  his  eighty-ninth  year,  and  was 
made  the  subject  of  the  following  remarks  in  the  mayor's 
message  of  that  year: 

Within  a  few  days  has  died,  on  Barr  street,  William  Moody,  who,  as 
extraordinary  as  it  may  appear,  was  generally  accredited  with  being  the 
first  white  child  born  in  this  city.  Mr.  Moody  was  born  in  a  log  cabin 
which  stood  not  far  from  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  Main  streets.  Cin- 
cinnati, or  Los-anti-ville,  as  it  was*  then  called,  consisted  of  a  few  log 
cabins  mostly  located  south  of  Third  street,  and  had  a  population  of 
less  than  two  hundred  people,  the  soldiers  stationed  in  Fort  Washington 
included;  yet  this  child  grew  to  manhood  and  lived  long  enough  to  see 
Cincinnati  become  the  Queen  City  of  the  West,  teeming  with  an  active, 
energetic,  thrifty  population  of  over  three  hundred  thousand  people. 
How  hard  it  is  to  realize  the  fact  that  such  wonderful,  marvelous 
changes  could  take  place  within  the  lifetime  of  a  single  citizen. 

Mr.  Moody  did  not  wear  the  honor  unchallenged, 
however.  Claims  have  been  put  forward  in  behalf  of 
another,  of  whom,  in  a  public  address,  after  remarking 
that  the  infant  village,  in  its  first  year,  began  to  be  a  vil- 
lage of  infants,  Dr.  Drake  said:  "The  eldest-born,  of  a 
broad  and  brilliant  succession,  was  David  Cummins, 
whose  name  is  appropriately  perpetuated    in  our  little 

neighbor  Cumminsville,  the  site  of  which  was  then  a 
sugar-tree  wood,  with  groves  of  papaw  and  spice-wood 
bushes."  He  was  born  in  a  log  cabin,  in  front  of  the 
present  site  of  the  Burnet  house;  but  at  what  date  we 
know  not.  He  is  probably  the  same  one  who  is  men- 
tioned in  Timothy  Flint's  Indian  Wars  of  the  West  as 
John  Cummins,  and  as  the  first  white  born  here.  It  is 
also  claimed  in  Nelson's  Suburban  Homes,  published  in 
1873,  that  the  first  child  born  of  white  parents  here  was 
she  who  became  Mrs.  Kennedy,  aunt  of  Mrs.  Dunn  of 
Madisonville,  and  daughter  of  Samuel  Kitchell.  Judge 
Carter,  too,  in  his  late  book  on  the  Old  Court  House,  in 
a  paragraph  devoted  to  Major  Daniel  Gano,  so  long  clerk 
of  the  courts  here,  avers  that  "he  was,  I  believe,  among 
the  first  white  children,  if  not  the  very  first  white  child, 
born  in  the  city  of  Cincinnati."  It  is  not  probable  the 
person  lives  who  can  definitely  decide  this  knotty  ques- 
tion of  precedence. 

The  first  marriage  ceremonies  in  Cincinnati  were  per- 
formed this  year  by  'Squire  William  McMillan.  He 
united  two  couples  in  1790,  and  several  more  in  1791. 
His  first  marriages  were  Daniel  Shoemaker  and  Miss  Elsy 
Ross  (called  Alice  Ross  in  Flint's  book),  Darius  C.  Or- 
cutt  and  Miss  Sally  McHenry.  The  next  wedded  couple 
were  Peter  Cox  and  Miss  Francis  McHenry.  Mr.  Cox 
was  killed  soon  after  by  the  Indians.  The  records  of 
the  general  court  of  quarter  sessions  of  the  peace,  to 
which  transactions  of  such  grave  importance  to  the  State 
were  then  required  to  be  reported,  do  not  exhibit  these 
unions,  but  do  set  out  the  weddings  of  Benjamin  Orcutt 
and  Ruth  Reynolds,  of  Columbia,  by  Judge  McMillan, 
March.  17,  1790;  and  of  Joseph  Kelly,  of  Cincinnati, 
and  Keziah  Blackford,  of  Columbia,  April  22d,  by 
'Squire  John  S.  Gano;  besides  two  Columbia  couples 
wedded  through  the  agency  of  the  latter.  It  was  a  very 
hopeful  beginning  for  Hymen  in  the  little  hamlet. 

On  the  Fourth  of  July,  a  national  salute  of  thirteen 
guns  was  fired  from  the  fort,  and  there  was  a  special  mili- 
tary parade  in  honor  of  the  day. 

In  September  came  Samuel  Dick,  his  wife  and  two 
small  children,  from  Washington  county,  Pennsylvania. 
He  was  one  of  the  party  that  marched  to  relieve  Dun- 
lap's  station  the  next  January,  when  beleaguered  by  the 
Indians.  He  purchased  the  lot  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  Front  and  Walnut,  and  built  himself  a  residence  upon 
it.  He  also  bought  other  lots  and  various  property, 
opened  a  grocery,  engaged  afterwards  in  forwarding  sup- 
plies to  Fort  Hamilton  and  other  forts  in  the  interior, 
and  also  kept  a  tavern  in  his  house.  He  did  not,  how- 
ever, become  a  permanent  resident,  but  in  1801  removed 
to  Indian  Creek,  Butler  county,  where  he  died  August 
4,  1846. 

In  October,  from  Stony  Hill,  New  Jersey,  came  Eze- 
kiel  Sayre  and  family — four  sons  and  two  daughters — 
one  of  whom,  Huldah,  afterwards  became  the  wife  of  the 
esteemed  Colonel  John  S.  Wallace,  and  survived  until 
November  29,  1850,  being  at  the  time  of  her  death  the 
oldest  continuous  resident  of  Cincinnati.  Mr.  Sayre  ul- 
timately removed  to  Reading,  in  this  county.  He  was 
the  father  of  Major  Pierson  Sayre,  a  soldier  of  the  Revo- 



lution,  who  removed  from  Pennsylvania  to  Butler  county 
in  1809,  and  presently  to  Cincinnati,  where  he  suc- 
ceeded Isaac  Anderson  in  keeping  the  "Green  Tree'' 
inn.  He  did  not  remain  long,  however,  but  returned  to 
Butler  county,  where  he  became  sheriff  and  filled  other 
offices,  living  to  a  great  age.  He  died  about  April  4, 
1852.  Benjamin,  another  son  of  Ezekiel  Sayre,  became 
sheriff  of  Warren  county. 

The  same  month  Colonel  John  Riddle  came  also  from 
New  Jersey.  He  worked  at  his  trade  of  blacksmith  for 
a  few  years,  and  earned  enough,  mainly  by  shoeing 
horses  for  the  garrison  at  Fort  Washington,  to  buy  from 
Judge  Symmes,  at  sixty-seven  cents  an  acre,  a  section  of 
land  then  two  miles  northwest  o*'  the  village,  but  now 
embraced  in  the  city.  0ne  corner  of  his  tract  was  near 
the  site  of  the  Brighton  House.  Here  he  settled  in  1793, 
and  lived  the  remainder  of  his  years  in  the  same  house, 
surviving  until  June  17,  1847. 

C  About  forty  families  in  all  were  added  to  the  popula- 
tion this  year,  and  about  the  same  number  of  dwellings, 
among  which  were  two  frame  housesTj  There  were  now 
in  the  village  two  blacksmiths,  two  carpenters,  one  shoe- 
maker, one  tailor,  and  one  mason.  The  progress  of  the 
place  alarmed  the  great  Miami  Purchaser  at  his  un- 
promising home  down  the  river,  and  he  wrote  in  a  let- 
ter of  November  4,  1790: 

The  advantage  is  prodigious  which  this  town  is  gaining  over  North 
Bend.  Upwards  of  forty  framed  and  hewed  log  two-story  houses  have 
been  and  are  building  since  last  spring.  One  builder  sets  an  example 
for  another,  and  the  place  already  assumes  the  appearance  of  a  town  of 
some  respectability.  The  inhabitants  have  doubled  within  nine  months 

This  progress,  however,  was  not  unalloyed  with  sor- 
row and  loss.  The  Indian  depredations  were  fearful,  and 
cost  the  infant  Cincinnati  fifteen  to  twenty  lives. 

Judge  Symmes  this  year  laid  out  an  addition  of  town 
lots  on  the  fractional  section  twelve,  next  east  of  the  en- 
tire section  eighteen,  upon  which  Cincinnati,  in  part,  was 
originally  laid  out.^JThe  streets  through  them  on  this, 
the  east  side  of  Broadway,  were  but  sixty  feet  wide,  some 
diverging  from  a  north  and  south  line  forty-four  degrees, 
and  the  streets  intersecting  these  running  east  and  west 
on  lines  parallel  with  the  general  course  of  the  river. 

The  directory  of  1819  follows  its  summary  of  the  simple 
statistics  of  this  year  in  the  little  settlement  in  the  woods, 
opposite  the  Licking,  with  this  interesting  paragraph : 

About  twenty  acres  in  different  parts  of  the  town  were  planted  with 
corn.  The  corn,  when  ripe,  was  ground  in  hand-mills.  Flour,  bacon, 
and  other  provisions,  were  chiefly  imported.  Some  of  the  inhabitants 
brought  with  them  a  few  light  articles  of  household  furniture,  but  many 
were  mostly  destitute.  Tables  were  made  of  planks,  and  the  want 
of  chairs  was  supplied  with  blocks;  the  dishes  were  wooden  bowls  and 
trenchers.  The  men  wore  hunting-shirts  of  linen  and  linsey-woolsey, 
and  round  them  a  belt,  in  which  were  inserted  a  tomahawk  and  scalping- 
knife.  Their  moccasins,  leggings,  and  pantaloons  were  made  of  deer 
skins.  The  women  wore  linsey-woolsey,  manufactured  by  themselves. 
The  greatest  friendship  and  cordiality  existed  among  the  inhabitants, 
and  a  strong  zeal  for  each  other's  safety  and  welfare. 


The  Rev.  Oliver  M.  Spencer,  in  the  little  book  on  his 
Indian  captivity,  thus  describes  the  village  as  he  saw  it 
on  his  first  visit,  soon  after  the  advent  of  his  father  and 
family  at  Columbia : 

About  the  twenty-second  of  February,  1791,  when  I  first  saw  it,  it 
contained  not  more  than  forty  dwellings,  all  log  cabins,  and  not  exceed- 
ing two  hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants.  In  the  southeastern  part  of  the 
town,  near  the  site  of  his  present  dwelling,  stood  the  cabin  of  Mr.  D. 
E.  Wade,  in  the  midst  of  the  forest  trees,  and  just  below,  on  the  first 
bank,  between  the  mouth  of  Deer  creek  and  Lawrence  street,  were 
scattered  among  the  trees  four  or  five  more  cabins.  Between  Eastern 
row  (a  narrow  street  now  enlarged  into  Broadway)  and  Main  street,  on 
Front  and  Columbia  streets,  there  were  about  twenty  log  houses;  and 
on  Sycamore  and  Main,  principally  on  the  second  bank  or  hill,  as  it  was 
called,  there  were  scattered  about  fifteen  cabins  more.  At  the  foot  of 
this  bank,  extending  across  Broadway  and  Main  streets,  were  large 
ponds,  on  which,  as  lately  as  the  winter  of  1798,  I  have  seen  boys  skat- 
ing. All  the  ground  from  the  foot  of  the  second  bank  to  the  river  be- 
tween Lawrence  street  and  Broadway,  and  appropriated  to  the  fort, 
was  an  open  space  on  which,  although  no  trees  were  left  standing,  most 
of  their  large  trunks  were  still  lying. 

His  description  of  Fort  Washington,  omitted  here, 
will  be  found  in  our  chapter  on  that  work. 

At  this  time,  says  another  writer,  there  was  but  one 
frame  dwelling  in  Cincinnati,  which  belonged  to  Israel 
Ludlow,  and  stood  at  the  lower  end  of  Main  street. 
The  room  in  front  was  occupied  as  a  store.  Matthew 
Winton  kept  tavern  on  Front  street,  nearly  opposite  to 
David  E.  Wade,  rather  to  the  west.  Ezekiel  Sayre  was 
exactly  opposite  Wade.  John  Barth  kept  the  first  store 
in  Cincinnati.  This  was  on  the  site  of  the  present  Cin- 
cinnati hotel,  and  was  a  hipped-roof  frame  house.  A 
German  named  Becket  had  a  dram-shop  opposite  Plum 
street,  between  Front  street  and  the  river  bank.  John  S. 
Wallace  resided  on  Front  street,  below  Race.  Joel  Wil- 
liams kept  tavern  at  Latham's  corner. 

The  twenty-second  of  February  is  celebrated  in  grand 
style  this  year  by  officers  at  the  fort,  in  salutes  from  the 
cannon,  the  discharge  of  rockets  and  other  firearms,  and 
a  ball  in  the  evening,  which  was  attended  by  at  least  a 
dozen  ladies  from  the  village  and  Columbia. 

In  November  the  fort  had  a  noteworthy  arrival  in  the 
person  of  one  William  Henry  Harrison,  a  young  medical 
student  from  Virginia,  who  had  been  studying  in  Phila- 
delphia, but  had  decided  to  enter  the  army,  and  secured 
a  humble  appointment  as  ensign  in  the  Sixteenth  United 
States  infantry.  He  was  but  a  mere  stripling,  not  yet 
nineteen  years  of  age;  and  was  at  first  coldly  received 
by  his  fellow-officers,  to  whom  he  was  a  total  stranger, 
and  who  had  recommended  another  to  the  place  he  had 
obtained.  He  won  his  way  in  all  good  time,  however. 
The  next  year  he  was  promoted  to  lieutenant,  in  the 
spring  of  1793  became  an  aid  on  the  staff  of  General 
Wayne,  and  was  made  a  captain  in  1794,  after  the  bat- 
tle of  the  Fallen  Timbers.  He  will  appear  in  this  history 

f  Legal  temperance  gets  its  first  record  in  Cincinnati 
this  year.  On  the  fourth  of  July  Joseph  Saffin  receipted 
to  Squire  McMillan,  justice  of  the  peace,  for  sixteen  dol- 
lars, received  by  his  honor,  in  full  of  a  fine  imposed  by 
him  upon  Reuben  Read,  of  Cincinnati,  on  the  informa- 
tion of  Saffin,  who  thereby  became  entitled  to  it,  upon 
the  charge  of  "selling  spirituous  liquors  contrary  to  an 
act  of  the  Terrkory  of  the  United  States,  Northwest  of 
the  river  Ohio."\ 

(jThis  was  thtfyear  of  St  Clair's  disastrous  defeat ;  and 
the  savages,  before  and  after  that  affair,  committed  many 



depredations  in  and  about  the  village. )  Mr.  Benjamin 
Van  Cleve,  who  was  a  young  man  here  that  year,  has 
left  the  following  notes  in  his  memoranda: 

The  Indians  had  now  become  so  daring  as  to  skulk  through  the 
streets  at  night  and  through  the  gardens  around  Fort  Washington, 
Besides  many  hairbreadth  escapes,  we  had  news  daily  of  persons  killed 
on  the  Little  Miami  or  on  the  Great  Miami,  or  between  the  settlements. 
One  morning  a  few  persons  started  in  a  pirogue  to  go  to  Columbia,  and 
the  Indians  killed  most  of  them  a  little  above  the  mouth  of  Deer  creek, 
within  hearing  of  the  town.  David  Clayton,  one  of  the  killed,  was  one 
of  our  family.* 

On  the  twenty-first  of  May,  1791,  the  Indians  fired  on  my  father, 
when  he  was  at  work  on  his  out-lot  in  Cincinnati,  and  took  prisoner  Jo- 
seph Cutter,  within  a  few  yards  of  him.  The  alarm  was  given  by  hal- 
looing from  lot  to  lot  until  it  reached  town.  I  had  just  arrived  from 
Leach's  [Leitch's]  station.  The  men  in  town  were  running  to  the  pub- 
lic ground,  and  I  there  met  with  one  who  saw  the  Indians  firing  on  my 
father.  I  asked  if  any  would  proceed  with  me,  and  pushed  on  with  a 
few  young  men  without  halting.  We,  however,  met  my  father  after 
running  a  short  distance,  and  got  to  the  ground  soon  after  the  Indians 
had  secured  Cutter.  While  we  were  finding  the  trail  of  the  Indians  on 
their  retreat,  perhaps  fifty  persons  had  arrived,  most  of  whom  joined  in 
the  pursuit.  But  by  the  time  we  had  gained  the  top  of  the  river  hills 
we  had  only  eight.  Cutter  had  lost  one  of  his  shoes,  so  that  we  could 
frequently  distinguish  his  track  in  crossing  water  courses,  and  we  found 
there  was  an  equal  number  of  Indians.  We  were  stripped,  and  a 
young  dog  belonging  to  me  led  us  on  the  trace,  and  generally  kept 
about  a  hundred  yards  ahead.  We  kept  them  on  the  full  run  until 
dark,  thinking  we  sometimes  discovered  the  shaking  of  the  bushes.  We 
came  back  to  Cincinnati  that  night,  and  they  only  went  two  miles  fur- 
ther from  where  our  pursuit  ceased.  The  next  day  they  were  pursued 
again,  but  not  overtaken. 

On  the  first  day  of  June  my  father  was  killed  by  them.  He  was 
stabbed  in  five  places,  and  scalped.  Two  men  that  were  at  the  out-lot 
with  him  when  the  Indians  showed  themselves,  ran  before  him  towards 
the  town.  He  passed  them  at  about  three  hundred  yards,  the  Indians 
being  in  pursuit  behind ;  but  another,  as  it  was  supposed,  had  con- 
cealed himself  in  the  brush  of  a  fallen  tree-top  between  them  and  the 
town.  As  my  father  was  passing  it,  a  naked  Indian  sprang  upon  him. 
My  father  was  seen  to  throw  him  ;  but  at  this  time  the  Indian  was 
plunging  his  knife  into  his  heart.  He  took  a  small  scalp  off  and  ran. 
The  men  behind  came  up  immediately  ;  but  my  father  was  already  dead. 

f  There  was  not  much  increase  in  the  population  of 
Cincinnati  this  year — about  half  of  the  male  adult  pop- 
ulation was  out  in  the  army;  and  many  were  killed  in 
conflicts  with  the  Indians,  while  the  successive  defeats  of 
Harmar  and  St.  Clair  had  discouraged  immigration,  and 
frightened  some  of  the  settlers  away  from  "the  Miami 
slaughter-house,"  a  number  going  over  into  Kentucky. 
No  new  manufactures  were  started  in  the  place,  except  a 
horse-mill  for  grinding  corn/\  It  stood  below  Fourth 
street,  near  Main,  and  the  Presbyterians  sometimes  held 
their  meetings  in  it,  when  they  could  not/neet  in  the 
open  air,  their  house  not  yet  being  built.  (/Prices  were 
high — flour  ten  dollars  per  barrel,  salt  eight,  and  town 
property  was  still  very  low.  Lot  thirteen,  on  the  original 
town-plat,  was  sold  this  year  to  Major  Ferguson  for  eleven 
dollars.  It  comprised  one  hundred  feet  on  Broadway  by 
two  hundred  on  Fourth,  at  the  southwest  corner  of  these 

Theapparently  slight  tenures  by  which  property  now 
of  enormous  value  was  held  by  some  of  its  early  posses- 
sors— tenures  becoming  strong  enough,  however,  when 
confirmed  by  twenty-one  years'  undisputed  possession — 
are  illustrated  hy  the  following  exceedingly  brief  warranty- 
deed  and  assignment.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  as- 
signment made  by  Mr.  Cook  does  not  even  name  the  as- 

*This  did  not  occur  until  the  next  year. 

signee,  and  that  the  year  of  date  is  not  given  in  the  lead- 
ing instrument.  The  property  thus  simply  conveyed 
comprises  one  hundred  feet  by  two  hundred  on  Sycamore 
street  between  Third  and  Fourth,  and  is  now,  of  course, 
exceedingly  valuable: 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents  that  I,  Jonathan  Fitts,  do  hereby 
bind  myself,  my  heirs,  etc. ,  to  hold  and  defend  to  Peyton  Cook  my  right, 
title,  and  claim  to  a  town  lot  in  Cincinnati,  viz:  No.  61.  The  right  of 
said  lot  to  said  Fitts  have  by  these  presents  vested  in  said  Cook,  for 
value  received,  this  28th  August. 

Test.  John  Vance.  Jonathan  Fitts. 


I  do  hereby  assign  my  right  and  title  to  the  within  said  lot  for  value 
received,  as  witness  my  hand  and  seal  this  25th  Jan.,  1791. 

Testas,  B.  Brown.  Peyton  Cook. 


On  the  twelfth  of  February  occurred  the  first  serious 
affray  which  disgraced  the  town.  Lieutenant  Thomas 
Pastern,  of  the  garrison,  had  a  quarrel  with  Bartle,  the 
storekeeper,  whose  place  was  where  the  old  Spencer 
house  now  stands,  and  beat  him  severely.  Bartle 
prosecuted  his  assailant;  and  his  attorney,  one  Blan- 
chard,  was  so  severe  upon  the  officer  and  showed 
him  up  in  such  a  contemptible  character  that  his  ire 
was  excited  anew,  and  he  brought  a  sergeant  and  thirty 
soldiers  from  the  fort  to  whip  the  lawyer  and  his  defend- 
ers. An  affray  of  some  magnitude  was  the  result.  It 
occurred  on  Main  street,  in  and  about  the  office  of  the 
justice,  William  McMillan.  The  soldiers  were  met  by 
about  eighteen  citizens  and  a  number  of  the  militia,  the 
squire  and  Colonel  John  Riddle  being  prominent  in  the 
melee,  and  were  driven  away  after  a  sharp  contest.  The 
affair  caused  great  excitement  in  the  village  and  at  the 
fort.  General  Wilkinson,  then  commandant,  reduced 
the  sergeant  to  the  ranks,  and  issued  a  general  order 
deprecating  the  unhappy  occurrence.  The  lieutenant 
was  tried  at  the  next  quarter-sessions,  and  fined  three 
dollars.  But  for  his  orders  to  the  soldiers  to  make  the 
attack,  they  would  have  been  included  in  the  punishment 
inflicted  by  Williamson. 

/This year  is  rather  celebrated  for  "first  things."  The 
First  Presbyterian  church,  or  church  of  any  kind  here 
was  put  up,  as  will  be  more  fully  related  hereafter.     The 

first  execution  under  sentence  of  the  courts  occurred 

that  of  James  Mays,  for  murder,  executed  by  Sheriff 
John  Ludlow.  The  first  school  was  opened,  with  thirty 
pupils.  The  first  ferry  between  Cincinnati  and  Newport 
was  opened,  by  Captain  Robert  Benham,  whose-lk#nse 
XTXTPart-t-  The  first  great  flood  since  the  settlement 
began  occurred,  flooding  the  entire  Bottom  to  the  average 
depth  of  five  feet,  and  drowning  out  many  of  the  inhabi- 
tants. \  The  Fourth  of  July  was  celebrated  by  thirteen 
rounds  from  the  cannon  of  the  fort  in  the  morning  and 
again  at  noon;  the  troops  were  paraded  and  had  a  special 
drill;  there  wereadinner  and  toasts,  witrfmore  cannon- 
firing;  and  at  night  a  brilliant  exhibition  of  fireworks  and 

(^Between  forty  and  fifty  immigrants  arrived  in  Cincin- 
nati this  year,  and  several-ignore  cabins,  with  three  or  four 
frame  houses,  were  put  up.)  In  this  year  Mr.  James  Fer- 
guson, who  had  been  out  in  Harmar's  campaign  as  a  vol- 



unteer/lopened  a  store  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Syca- 
more streets,  for  general  merchandizing.  Nearly  all 
kinds  of  goods  were  then  procured  from  Philadelphia. 
They  were  sent  for  or  gone  for  by  the  merchant  in  per- 
son over  the  only  road  to  that  city  which  then  existed 
to  Cincinnati,  by  way  of  Lexington,  Danville,  and  Crab 
Orchard  to  Cumberland  Gap,  thence  northwest  through 
Abingdon,  Stanton,  Winchester,  and  Baltimore,  and 
were  received  by  wagons  to  Brownsville  and  thence  by 
the  river  to  Cincinnati;  taking  a  month  or  little  less  for 
each  way,  going  and  returning.  Four  to  five  months 
were  usually  required  for  the  procurement  of  stocks  from 

James  Smith,  or  "Sheriff  Smith,"  as  he  was  commonly 
known,  came  this  year  from  Cumberland  county,  Penn- 
sylvania, with  James  Findlay,  and  continued  the  associa- 
tion with  him  by  forming  the  well-known  pioneer  mer- 
cantile firm  of  Smith  &  Findlay,  which  was  maintained 
until  about  1802.  Their  store  was  in  the  old  quarter, 
on  Front  street,  near  the  foot  of  Broadway.  Mr.  Smith 
was  appointed  sheriff  some  years  after  his  arrival,  and 
held  the  office  until  the  State  was  formed,  when  he  was 
elected  to  it  by  the  people,  and  held  this  important  post 
in  all  about  eight  years.  He  was  also,  for  a  part  of  this 
time,  collector  of  taxes  in  the  county,  and  of  the  Fed- 
eral revenues  for  the  Northwest  Territory.  He  further 
acted  as  Governor  St.  Clair's  private  secretary,  was  cap- 
tain of  the  first  company  of  light  infantry  formed  in  Cin- 
cinnati, and  a  paymaster  in  the  War  of  1812-15,  and  was 
in  Fort  Meigs  during  the  siege  by  the  British  and  In- 
dians. McBride's  Pioneer  Biography  says :  "Indeed,  he 
was  among  the  foremost  of  the  early  settlers  as  respects 
character,  influence,  and  capacity  for  business,  and  pos- 
sessed in  a  large  degree  that  public  confidence  most 
highly  prized  by  gentlemen,  the  trust  reposed  in  an  hon- 
est man."  He  removed  from  Cincinnati  in  1805,  to  a 
farm  near  Hamilton,  and  died  there  in  1834.  He  was 
the  father  of  the  Hon.  Charles  Killgore  Smith,  who  was 
born  here  February  15,  1799,  and  lived  a  highly  distin- 
guished career  in  Butler  county  and  Minnesota  Territory, 
of  which  he  was  secretary,  and  for  some  months  acting 

Mr.  Findlay  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  and  a  man 
of  unusual  strength  of  mind  and  character.  After  the 
land  office  was  established  here  in  i8or,  he  was  ap- 
pointed receiver,  and  served  for  many  years,  until  his 
resignation.  He  was  made,  a  few  years  after  the  date 
given,  major  general  commanding  the  first  division  of 
Ohio  militia,  but  served  as  colonel  of  one  of  the  Buck- 
eye regiments  in  the  War  of  181 2,  and  was  at  Hull's 
surrender.  In  1825  he  was  elected  to  Congress  and  re- 
mained in  the  House  until  1833.  He  also  held  accept- 
ably a  number  of  minor  offices  under  the  State  and  gen- 
eral Governments. 

Mr.  Asa  Holcomb,  a  well-known  citizen  of  the  early  day, 
was  among  the  arrivals  of  this  year;  also,  Captain  Spencer. 


In  March  came  another  freshet,  inundating  the  whole 
plain  below  the  hill.     Another  disaster  fell  by  and  by,  in 

a  terrible  visitation  of  the  small-pox,  after  the  encamp- 
ment of  Wayne's  army  at   Hobson's  Choice  and  its  de- 
parture for  the  north.      Nearly  one-third  of  the  citizens  1 
and  the  soldiers  left  in  the  garrison  died  of  the  scourge^/ 

One  of  the  early  traders  in  Cincinnati — who  had,  how- 
ever, but  a  transient  residence  here — was  Matthew  Hues- 
ton,  who  landed  on  the  seventeenth  of  April,  in  this  year. 
He  was  a  Virginia  tanner,  and  had  accumulated  a  small 
property,   which  he  invested  in  wares,  principally  leather 
goods,  for  a  trading  voyage  down  the  Ohio.    He  left  part 
of  them  to  be  sold  in  Cincinnati,  and  pushed  on  to  the 
falls  with  the  rest.     Returning  here  shortly,  he  sold  out 
what  stock  he  had  left,  about  three   hundred   dollars, 
worth,  to  a  ]Mr.   McCrea,  who  cleared  out  a  few  days 
after,  carrying  all   the  goods  with  him,  and  leaving  Mr. 
Hueston  without  either  goods  or  the  money  for  them. 
Hueston  took  work  for  a  few  weeks  in  the  tannery  after- 
ward Jesse  Hunt's,  and  then  engaged   with  Robert  and 
William  McClellan,  pack-horse  masters  for  Wayne's  army, 
to  assist  in  conducting  a  brigade  of  pack-horses  to  Fort 
Jefferson.     He   subsequently  served   as  commissary  in 
the  army,  resigning  in  1795  and  for  a  year  pursuing  the 
business  of  a  sutler  and  general  trader.     He  had  stores 
at   Greenville  and   Cincinnati,    the   one   here    being  in 
charge  of  Mr.  John  Sayre,  with  whom  he  had  formed  a 
partnership.    The  business  was  very  lucrative,  one  to  two 
hundred  per  cent,  profit  being  realized  on  many  articles. 
Mr.  Hueston's  property  soon  amounted  to  twelve  or  fif- 
teen  thousand  dollars,   which    was   swept   away,   as  he 
alleged,  by  the  misconduct  of  Sayre,   who  squandered 
the  means  of  the  firm  by  intemperance  and  gambling  , 
and  finally  sold  the  remaining  stock  and  ran  away,  leav- 
ing Hueston  to  pay  the  partnership  debts.     This  he  did, 
so  far  as  he  was  able,  and  began  the  world  anew  by  driv- 
ing a  large   herd   of  cattle  through  the  wilderness   to 
Detroit,  at  two  dollars  and  fifty  cents  a  head.    He  got  all 
through  safely,  and  returned  to  Cincinnati  within  forty 
days.     Other  gains  here  enabled  him  to  pay  the  remain- 
ing debts  of  Hueston  &  Sayre,  and  to  buy  a  two  hundred 
acre  tract  of  land,  near  Hamilton,  upon  which  he  settled 
and  kept  a  tavern  for  several  years.     He  died  at  his  later 
residence  on  Four  Mile  creek,  Butler  county,  April   16, 

In  the  same  month  arrived  David  McCash,  a  Scotch- 
man from  Mason  county,  Kentucky.  He  bought  a 
settler's  right  to  a  log-cabin  on  Walnut,  near  Third  street, 
and  also  an  out-lot,  paying  four  dollars  for  the  latter.  It 
was  of  the  usual  size,  four  acres,  and  covered  the  ground 
where  Greenwood's  foundry  and  the  Bavarian  brewery 
afterwards  stood.  His  oldest  sonlWilliam,  contrived  a 
rude  water-cart  of  two  poles,  with  a  cross-piece  in  the 
middle,  the  upper  ends  for  shafts^,  and  pegs  upon  the 
lower  parts  to  keep  the  barrel  on.  \With  this  apparatus  he 
furnished  the  first  water-supply  of  the  city  of  Cincinnati. 
Mr.  McCash  also  made  a  wheeled  cart,  which  was  a 
curiosity,  even  in  those  days,  the  wheels  being  of  wood, 
about  two  and  a  half  feet  in  diameter  and  six  inches 
thick.  They  were  fastened  to  an  axle,  which  revolved  in 
large  staples.     This  was  the  first  of  Cincinnati  drays.  :| 

On  the  ninth  of  November  appeared  the  first  news'pa- 



per  in  the  city — the  Centinel  of  the  Northwest  Territory, 
edited  and  published  by  William  Maxwell.     The  next 
month  Mr.  Maxwell  was   made  postmaster  for  the  office]) 
established  here  December  12th,  and  opened  the  office 
on  the  west  side  of  Sycamore,  near  the  river  bank. 

February  7th,  came  the  well-known  Colonel  John 
Johnston,  who  was  forty  years  in  the  service  of  the  Gov- 
ernment as  Indian  agent,  etc.  He  survived  until  the 
winter  of  1 860-1,  dying  then  at  the  age  of  eighty-six. 
Griffin  Yeatman  came  June  20th.  He  was  the  father  of 
Thomas  H.  Yeatman,  who  was  born  here  July  8,  1805. 

The  first  jail  was  built  early  this  year,  on  Water  street, 
just  west  of  Main.    y<7 

Lot  seventy-sevenl  bne  hundred  feet  on  Front  by  two 
hundred  on  Main  street,  bought  in  1789  for  two  dollars, 
was  tVus  year  offered  by  Colonel  Gibson  for  one  hundred 
dollars:^  It  was  accounted  worth  two  hundred  thousand 
dollars  in  1840,  and  is  of  course  worth  much  more  now. 



So  late  as  this  year,  the  daring  and  successful  Cincin- 
nati hunter,  John  S.  Wallace,  killed  bears  and  an  elk  on 
the  Kentucky  side.  In  those  days  the  breasts  of  wild 
turkeys  were  salted,  smoked  and  chipped  up  for  the  table 
like  dried  beef. 

On  the  twenty-second  of  February  the  only  celebration 
of  the  day  seems  to  have  been  the  starting  of  the  first 
through  mail  for  Pittsburgh,  in  a  canoe.  /On  the  first  of 
August  the  first  line  of  keel-boats  was  established  between 
Marietta  and  Cincinnati.  On  the  twenty-seventh  of 
December  the  first  Masonic  lodge  here — Nova  Caesarea 
Harmony,  No.  2 — was  organized.  J  On  the  twenty-seventh 
of  May  dangerous  fires  in  the  woqds  were  threatening  the 
town,  and  the  citizens  had  hard  work  to  save  their  dwell- 
ings and  clearings. 

In  the  spring  of  this  year  a  detachment  of  Kentucky 
volunteers,  accompanied  by  about  a  hundred  friendly 
Indians,  encamped  on  Deer  creek,  on  their  route  to  join 
Wayne's  army.  The  savages  had  with  them  a  young 
woman  who  had  been  captured  in  Western  Pennsylvania, 
and  was  supposed  to  have  relatives  in  this  place.  It 
proved  not  to  be  so;  but  a  man  from  near  Pittsburgh,  who 
happened  to  be  here,  knew  her,  and  gave  the  Indians  a 
barrel  of  whiskey  as  a  ransom  for  her.  The  exchange 
was  effected  at  a  tavern  on  Broadway,  near  Bartle's  store, 
and  the  redskins  were  soon  engaged  in  a  grand  drunken 
frolic.  The  next  day  they  declared  themselves  dissatis- 
fied with  the  trade,  and  threatened  to  take  the  girl  again 
by  force  and  arms.  They  were  resisted  peaceably,  but 
firmly  and  successfully,  by  the  -friends  among  whom  she 
had  taken  refuge,  principally  Irishmen.  A  short  time 
afterwards,  about  fifty  Indians  came  surging  down  Broad- 
way, and  met  the  crowd  of  whites  opposite  Bartle's  store. 
They  were  assailed  by  a  shower  of  loose  rocks,  followed 
by  an  attack  with  shillelahs,  which  drove  them  up  the  hill. 
In  the  thick  of  this  fight  was  Isaac  Anderson,  a  leading 
citizen,  who  had  been  taken  by  the  Indians  in  Lowry's  de- 
feat, and  had  a  mortal  grudge  against  the  race.  Captain 
Prince  sent  out  a  force  from  the  garrison  to  quell  the 
disturbance;  but  it  was  over  before  the  soldiers  arrived. 

Thenceforth  the  cabins  on  the  east  side  of  Broadway, 
along  the  front  of  which  the  tide  of  conflict  poured,  were 
known  as  Battle  row,  until  1810,  when  they  were  pulled 
down.  The  girl  was  restored  to  her  family  as  soon  as 

At  this  time  a  large  tract  of  out-lots,  with  some  in-lots, 
extending  from  about  Sixth  street  to  the  present  Court, 
and  from  Main  street  west  to  the  section  line,  about  one 
hundred  acres  in  all,  were  enclosed  in  a  Virginia  rail 
fence,  with  no  building  whatever  upon  the  entire  piece 
except  a  small  office  for  Thomas  Gowdy,  the  first  lawyer 
in  the  place,  which  was  not  occupied  by  him,  as  being 
too  far  out  of  town.  In  May  one  of  the  lot  owners, 
while  burning  brush,  set  fire  to  the  whole  clearing,  burn- 
ing the  deadened  timber  and  also  nearly  all  the  rails  of 
the  fence,  and  threatening  closely  Gowdy's  office.  This 
is  reckoned  the  first  fire  in  Cincinnati. 

A  distinguished  addition  to  local  business  and  society 
was  made  this  year,  in  the  advent  of  Francis  Menessier, 
formerly  a  prominent  Parisian  jurist  and  member  of  the 
French  parliament.  He  had  been  banished  from  France 
in  1789,  in  the  troubles  that  preceded  the  revolution, 
and  joined  the  Gallipolis  colony,  whence  he  came  to 
Cincinnati,  where  he  became  a  pastry  baker  and  inn- 
keeper on  the  southeast  corner  of  Main  and  Third  streets, 
where  the  Life  and  Trust  company's  building  afterwards 

Hezekiah  Flint,  one  of  the  original  forty-nine  who  set- 
tled Marietta,  came  to  Cincinnati  April  7,  1794,  arifl 
spent  the  rest  of  his  life  here.  He  bought  a  lot  one 
hundred  by  two  hundred  feet  on  Walnut,  below  Fourth, 
of  James  Lyon,  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  Three 
years  thereafter  he  sold  the  same  sized  lot  on  the  south- 
east corner  of  Fourth  and  Walnut  for  a  stallion  worth 
four  hundred  dollars.  From  1795  to  1800  he  cultivated 
the  square  between  Fourth,  Fifth,  Walnut  and  Vine,  op- 
posite the  college  building,  as  a  cornfield. 

Daniel  Gano  and  Jonathan  Lyon  were  also  among  the 
prominent  arrivals  of  the  year. 


The  town  this  year  contained  about  five  hundred  in- 
habitants, and  increased  but  two  hundred  and  fifty  from 
this  time  until  1800.  It  is  described  at  the  close  of  the 
year  as  a  small  village  of  log  cabins,  with  about  fifteen 
rough,  unfinished  frame  buildings,  some  of  them  with 
stone  chimneys.  More  statistical  statements  say  there 
were  then  here  ninety-five  log  cabins  and  ten  frames. 
A  new  log  jail  had  been  put  up  at  the  corner  of  Walnut 
and  Sixth  streets.  Not  a  brick  house  was  yet  to  be  seen 
here,  and  it  is  said  that  none  was  put  up  until  1806, 
when  the  St.  Clair  dwelling,  still  standing  on  St.  Clair 
alley,  between  Seventh  and  Eighth,  was  erected  with 
brick  brought  from  Pittsburgh.  A  frame  school-house 
had  been  put  up,  which,  with  the  new  Presbyterian 
church  and  the  new  log  jail,  constituted  the  public  build- 
ings. The  inhabitants  were  subjected,  every  summer 
and  fall,  to  agues  and  intermittent  fevers  from  the  malaria 
of  the  swamp  still  existing  at  the  foot  of  the  upper  level, 
about  Main  and  Sycamore  streets.     The  intersection  of 



Main  and  Fifth  streets  was  still  a  shallow  frog-pond, 
full  of  alder  bushes,  and  crossed  by  a  rude  causeway  of 
logs.     It  remained  for  a  number  of  years  longer. 

The  officers  at  the  fort,  according  to  Judge  Burnet, 
who  came  early  the  next  year,  were  much  given  to 
heavy  drinking;  and  he  was  afterwards  able  to  recall,  of 
all  the  officers  here  under  Wayne  and  St.  Clair,  only 
Harrison,  Ford,  Clark,  Strong,  Shomberg,  and  a  very 
few  others,  who  were  not  habitual  tipplers.  They  of 
course  greatly  affected  the  tone  of  society;  and  Judge 
Burnet  left  on  record  the  statement  that,  of  the  lawyers 
in  first  practice  with  him  here,  nine  in  number,  all  ex- 
cepting his  brother  died  of  intemperance. 

Benjamin  Perlee,  a  Jerseyman,  and  Jonah  Martin 
were  among  the  immigrants  of  this  year  whose  names 
and  dates  of  arrival  have  been, preserved.  In  the  winter 
Isaac  Anderson  came,  with  his  family.  He  had  been  here 
long  before,  having  passed  this  point  with  Colonel  Laugh- 
ery's  force,  in  which  he  was  a  lieutenant,  in  T781,  on  the 
way  to  their  terrible  defeat  ten  miles  below  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Miami,  in  which  every  man  of  the  expedi- 
tion was  killed  or  taken  prisoner  by  the  Indians.  Ander- 
son was  carried  to  Canada,  but  escaped  in  a  remarkable, 
manner,  and  reached  his  home  after  many  wanderings. 
He  is  the  one  who  described  Cincinnati,  as  he  saw  it  up- 
on arrival,  as  a  small  village  of  log  cabins,  including 
about  fifty  rough,  unfinished  frame  houses,  with  stone 
chimneys.  There  was  not  a  brick,  he  said,  in  the  place. 
He  bought  a  lot  near  the  northeast  corner  of  Front  and 
Walnut  streets,  on  which  there  was  already  a  cabin.  He 
afterwards  built  a  large  house  on  the  lot,  in  which  he 
kept  a  store  and  tavern,  the  latter  familiarly  known  to  the 
old  settlers  as  "  the  Green  Tree."  He  also  engaged  in 
brick-making,  and  in  the  business  of  transporting  emi- 
grants and  freight  into  the  interior.  In  i8or,  when  the 
public  lands  west  of  the  Great  Miami  came  into  market, 
he  bought  a  section  above  the  mouth  of  Indian  creek  in 
Butler  county,  to  which  he  removed  about  ten  years 
later,  and  there  spent  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  lived  to 
an  advanced  age,  dying  December  18,  1839,  in  his  eighty- 
second  year. 


Jacob  Burnet  came  with  his  brother,  George  W.  Burnet. 
Another  brother,  Isaac  G.  Bui  net,  came  later,  and  was 
for  many  years  editor  of  Liberty  Hall — was  also  mayor 
of  the  city.  David  G.  Burnet  was  still  another  brother 
who  came  early.  It  is  a  famous  family  in  the  annals  of 
Cincinnati.  All  were  fine  scholars,  well  read  in  literature, 
and  otherwise  liberally  educated.  George  died  here  after 
a  few  years'  residence.  David  emigrated  to  Texas  and 
rose  to  distinction,  becoming  the  first  president  of 
the  Texan  Republic.  Jacob  was  then  a  young  man 
fresh  from  his  professional  studies;  but  soon  achieved 
success  at  the  bar,  and  early  rose  to  important  official 
stations,  becoming  finally  a  senator  of  the  United  States 
and  judge  of  the  State  supreme  court.  Soon  after  his 
lamented  death  Mrs.  Sigourney,  the  poetess,  wrote  of  him, 
in  Past  Meridian: 

The  sunbeams  of  usefulness  have  sometimes  lingered  to  a  late  period  on 
the  heads  of  those  who  had  taken  part  in  the  pioneer  hardships  of  our 

new  settlements.  I  think  of  one  recently  deceased  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
five— Judge  Burnet — who  was  numbered  among  the  founders  of  Ohio, 
the  State  which  sprang  from  its  cradle  with  the  vigor  of  a  giant. 
His  health  had  been  originally  feeble;  but  the  endurance  of  hardship, 
and,  what  is  still  more  remarkable,  the  access  of  years,  confirmed  it. 
At  more  than  fourscore  he  moved  through  the  streets  with  as  erect  a 
form,  an  eye  as  intensely  bright,  and  colloquial  powers  as  free  and  fas- 
cinating as  at  thirty.  When,  full  of  knowledge  and  benevolence,  and 
with  an  unimpaired  intellect,  he  passed  away,  it  was  felt  that  not  only 
one  of  the  fathers  of  a  young  land  had  fallen,  but  that  one  of  the 
bright  and  beautiful  lights  of  society  had  been  extinguished. 

Judge  Burnet  remarked  of  the  town,  when  he  arrived, 
that  it  had  made  but  little  progress,  either  in  population 
or  importance,  though  it  contained  a  larger  number  of 
inhabitants  than  any  other  American  village  in  the  ter- 
ritory, excepting  Marietta;  and  if  the  soldiers  and  others 
attached  to  the  army  were  included  in  the  population,  it 
would  much  exceed  that  of  the  older  town.  He  notes 
his  share  in  the  severe  sickness  of  August,  1796,  when  he 
lay  in  a  room  in  Yeatman's  tavern,  which  was  at  the 
same  time  occupied  by  fifteen  or  sixteen  other  persons, 
all  sick. 

Samuel  Stitt,  an  Irishman  from  County  Down,  came  in 
May  and  settled  on  the  river  bank,  on  the  spot  afterwards 
.occupied  by  Thirkield  &  Company's  and  Shoenberger 
&  Company's  works.  He  became  purchaser  of  this  lot, 
sixty  by  one  hundred,  with  a  double  frame  house  there- 
on, in  1800,  for  one  thousand  two  hundred  dollars. 
Thirty-three  years  subsequently  he  rented  the  premises 
on  a  perpetual  lease,  for  the  same  sum  per  year.  Before 
Stitt's  purchase  it  had  been  bought  of  Scott  Traverse  by 
Colonel  Riddle,  1790,  for  s^xty-six  dollars  and  sixty- 
seven  cents.  Mr.  Stitt  saidfthere  was  not  even  a  horse- 
path then  on  Main  street,  but  a  very  steep  wagon  road 
went  up  Sycamore,  and  a  cow-path  up  Broadway.  The 
timber  on  the  town  plat  had  been  all  cut  down.  There 
were  no  houses  between  Front  and  Second  streets,  except 
a  few  one-story  frames,  as  Gibson's  store,  at  the  corner 
of  Main  and  Front,  and  Ludlow's  house  on  the  opposite 
corner,  ■wfaieh — was — rerrted— te — Q~. — &— Bales; — Above 
Resw'6  plan'  Ciurge  Guuier  kept'  a'  lavem.  William 
Ramsey  had  a  store  on  the  corner  of  the  alley  below 
Main,  wfaaFe-ferrgtraT  &  Taylui  wttfe-roTJg  after.  Isaac 
Anderson  arid  Samuel  Dick  owned  and  occupied  lots 
west  of  Front  as  far  as  Walnut.  William  McCann  kept 
a  tavern  at  "Liverpool's  corner,"  and  Freeman,  the 
printer,  resided  between  Walnut  and  Vine.  On  a  pas- 
ture lot  on  Deer  creek,  a  little  north  of  Fox's  saw-mill, 
was  a  large  hollow  sycamore,  which  was  used  as  a  shel- 
ter or  dwelling  by  a  woman  who  did  washing  for  the  gar- 
rison. A  broken  limb,  also  hollow,  served  for  a  chim-- 
ney.  General  Wilkinson,  commandant  at  the  fort,  had 
a  handsome  carriage  and  pair,  the  only  turnout  of  the 
kind  in  the  place^ 

Colonel  Taylor,  the  venerable  Newport  citizen,  still 
living,  says  that  James  Ferguson,  who  had  "been  a  ser- 
geant in  Wayne's  army,  was  also  a  merchant  here  this 

J.  W.  Browne  had  a  store  where  Manser's  iron  estab- 
lishment was  afterwards,  and  William  and  Michael  Jones 
had  a  store  across  the  alley;  Duffy  had  the  store  next 
east,  and  Martin  Baum  was  said  to  be  already  here,  and 


■  ■■  ■ 





in  business  at  Shoenberger  &  Company's  subsequent 
stand.  Major  Zeigler  had  a  store  adjoining  Yeatman's 
tavern,  on  the  corner  of  Front  and  Sycamore. 

Governor  St.  Clair  this  year  bought  sixty  acres  in  and 
adjoining  the  town  for  fifty  dollars  an  acre,  later  measured 
from  the  canal  to  Mrs.  Mener's  line,  and  from  Main  to 
Plum  streets.  The  half  of  lot  seventy-six,  on  Front, 
near  Main,  sold  on  the  thirtieth  of  September  for  four 
dollars.  The  corner  of  Main  and  Fifth,  the  old  drug 
store  corner,  was  offered  for  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 
Menessier  bought  the  Trust  company  lot  on  Main  and 
Third,  one  hundred  by  three  hundred,  for  an  old  saddle, 
hardly  worth  ten  dollars.  Another  lot  at  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Lower  Market,  one  hundred  by  two  hundred, 
was  offered  at  two  hundred  dollars,  payable  in  carpen- 
ters' work.  Salt  was  six  to  seven  dollars  per  barrel ; 
powder  one  to  one  dollar  and  a  half  per  pound ;  wheat 
seventy-five  cents  to  one  dollar  a  bushel;  corn  thirty- 
seven  and  one-half  cents;  pork  fifty  to  seventy-five  cents 
per  hundred,  and  wild  turkeys  twelve  and  one-half  to  fif- 
teen cents  a  pound. 

Rev.  William  Burke  and  Mr.  William  Saunders  were 
also  arrivals  of  this  year.  In  the  fall  no  less  a  personage 
dropped  down  upon  the  young  Cincinnati  than  the  cele- 
brated French  infidel  philosopher,  Volney,  then  on  a  tour 
of  travel  and  research  in  this  country,  the  results  of  which 
were  embodied  in  his  famous  "View."  He  had  made  his 
way  through  Kentucky  on  foot,  with  his  wardrobe  in  an 
oil-cloth  under  his  arm,  crossed  the  river  here,  and  took 
lodgings  at  Yeatman's.  He  awakened  much  curiosity,  as 
his  fame  had  preceded  him  hither,  and  Governor  St. 
Clair,  Judge  Burnet,  and  others,  tried  to  ascertain  the 
object  of  his  visit,  but  in  vain;  he  was  impenetrable. 
He  seems  to  have  made  no  published  record  of  his  visit 
here,  except,  perhaps,  such  undistiriguishable  remarks 
as  may  have  found  their  way  into  his  "View"  in  conse- 

On  the  twenty-fifth  of  November,  however,  arrived  a 
man  of  different  stamp — the  Hon.  Andrew  Ellicott,  com- 
missioner on  behalf  of  the  United  States  for  determining 
the  boundary  between  the  Federal  domains  and  those  of 
"his  most  Catholic  Majesty  in  America,"  with  a  large 
party.  One  of  their  boats  had  been  ruined,  in  the  low 
water  then  prevailing,  by  dragging  over  rocks  and  shoals; 
and  another  was  procured  here.  They  staid  in  Cincin- 
nati four  days.     Mr.  Ellicott  recorded  in  his  journal: 

Cincinnati  was  at  that  time  the  capital  of  the  Northwestern  Territory ; 
it  is  situated  on  a  fine  high  bank,  and  for  the  time  it  has  been  building 
it  is  a  very  respectable  place.  The  latitude,  by  a  mean  of  three  good 
observations,  is  39°  s'  54"  north.  During  our  stay  we  were  politely 
treated  by  Mr.  Winthrop  Sargent,  Secretary  of  the  Government,  and 
Canlain  Harrison,  who  commanded  at  Fort  Washington. 

/Another  newspaper  was  started  this  y  tax— Freeman's 
(journal,  by  Edmund  Freeman ;  which  was  maintained 
Uintil  1800.  J 

In  the  early  part  of  March  Cincinnati  was  visited  by 
a  young  Englishman  who  afterwards  attained  much  dis- 
tinction, writing  himself  at  last  "F.  R.  S.,  President  of 
the  Royal  Astronomical  society."  He  was  Francis  Baily, 
whose  life  was  written  by  Sir  John  Herschel,  and  pub- 
lished in  1856,  with  Baily's  Jonrnal  of  a  Tour  in  the  Un- 

settled Parts  of  North  America  in  1796  and  1797.     We 
extract  the  following  paragraph : 

Cincinnati  may  contain  about  three  or  four  hundred  houses,  mostly 
frame-built.  The  inhabitants  are  chiefly  employed  in  some  way  of  bus- 
iness, of  which  there  is  a  great  deal  here  transacted,  the  town  being  (if 
you  may  so  call  it)  the  metropolis  of  the  Northwestern  Territory.  This 
is  the  grand  depot  for  the  stores  which  come  down  for  the  forts  estab- 
lished on  the  frontiers,  and  here  is  also  the  seat  of  government  for  the 
Territory,  being  the  residence  of  the  Attorney-General,  Judges,  etc. , 
appointed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  for  the  administration 
of  justice.  On  the  second  bank  there  is  a  block  put  up  with  two  rave- 
lins; and  between  the  fort  and  the  river,  and  immediately  upon  the  borders 
of  the  latter,  is  the  Artificers'  Yard,  where  a  number  of  men  are  kept  con- 
tinually employed  in  furnishing  the  army  with  mechanical  necessaries, 
such  as  tubs,  kegs,  firearms,  etc. ,  etc.  On  the  second  bank,  not  far  from 
the  fort,  there  are  the  remains  of  an  old  fortification,  with  some  mounds 
not  far  from  it.  It  is  of  a  circular  form,  and  by  walking  over  it  I  found 
the  mean  diameter  to  be  three  hundred  and  twelve  paces,  or  seven  hun- 
dred and  eighty  feet,  which  makes  the  circumference  very  near  half  a 
mile.  There  are  on  the  ramparts  of  it  the  stumps  of  some  oak  trees 
lately  cut  down,  which  measured  two  feet  eight  inches  diameter,  at 
three  feet  from  the  ground.  The  mounds,  which  were  at  but  a  short 
distance  from  it,  were  of  the  same  construction  as  those  I  have  de- 
scribed at  Grave  creek. 

The  Fourth  of  July  was  observed  by  a  dinner  at  Yeat- 
man's tavern,  and  a  Federal  salute  from  the  guns  of  the 
fort.  The  observance  of  Independence  day  was  marked 
by  the  first  of  a  long  series  of  local  casualties  occurring 
in  this  connection.  Mrs.  Israel  Ludlow,  in  one  of  her 
graceful  letters  to  her  father,  thus  mentions  it : 

Our  brilliant  Fourth  of  July  celebration  was  terminated  by  a  sad  acci- 
dent. The  party  opposed  to  the  governor,  glowing  with  all  the  heroism  of 
' '  Seventy-six,"  mounted  a  blunderbuss  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  with 
a  few  hearts  of  steel  made  its  shores  resound,  rivalling  in  their  imagina- 
tion the  ordnance  of  the  garrison !  Delighted  with  their  success,  the 
load  was  increased  in  proportion  to  their  enthusiasm ;  and  when  the 
"Western  Territory"  was  toasted,  the  gun  summoned  every  power 
within  it,  carried  its  thunder  through  the  Kentucky  hills,  and  burst  in 
pieces !  Major  Zeigler,  on  taking  a  view  of  the  field  reports  as  follows: 
Wounded,  four  men — killed,  one  gun  ! 

About  the  same  time  the  Rev.  William  Kemper  offered 
to  sell  his  place  on  the  Walnut  hills,  one  hundred  and 
fifty-four  acres,  upon  which  Lane  seminary  and  many 
other  valuable  buildings  now  stand,  for  seven  dollars  per 

John  Mahard  came  this  year.  A  boy  named  John 
McLean,  of  only  twelve  years,  also  landed  here,  but 
.pushed  his  way  through  the  woods  on  foot,  with  blanket 
and  provisions  on  his  back,  to  Warren  county,  where  he 
made  his  home  the  rest  of  his  life,  coming  finally  and 
for  many  years  to  sign  himself  a  justice  of  the  supreme 
court  of  the  United  States. 


The  territorial  legislature  met  in  Cincinnati  this  year 
for  its  first  session.  Winthrop  Sargent,  secretary  of  the 
territory,  who  had  become  a  well  known  citizen  here,  was 
appointed  governor  of  Mississippi  Territory,  and  Captain 
William  H.  Harrison  became  secretary  in  his  stead. 

July  4th  there  was  a  muster  of  Captain  Smith's  and 
other  militia,  with  Daniel  Symmes  out  as  lieutenant  col- 
onel commanding  the  battalion. 

John  M.  Wright,  an  Irishman  from  the  District  of 
Columbia,  arrived  and  became  a  trader  here.  He  was  a 
soldier  in  the  War  of  181 2-15.  Other  arrivals  of  the 
year  were  Hugh  Moore,  Samuel  Newell,  Ebenezer  Pru- 



den,  David  Kantz,  William  Legg,  and  the  young  lawyer, 
Nicholas  Longworth. 

The  simplicity  of  trade,  and  perhaps  the  occasional 
scarcity  of  provisions  in  the  town  at  this  time,  are  illus- 
trated by  an  incident  related  in  McBride's  Pioneer  Biog- 
raphy, of  a  young  man  from  Massachusetts,  named  Jere- 
miah Butterfield,  who  took  a  voyage  in  the  spring  and  in 
a  flat-boat  down  the  Ohio,  and  visited  Cincinnati,  "which 
was  then  but  an  inconsiderable  village,  composed  mostly 
of  log  cabins,  with  few  good  brick  or  frame  buildings, 
containing  not  more  than  one  thousand  inhabitants.  It 
contained  one  bakery,  at  which  Mr.  Butterfield  applied 
for  bread  to  supply  the  boat's  crew;  but  without  success, 
the  baker  having  but  three  loaves  on  hand,  and  these 
engaged  by  other  persons."  It  seems  to  have  been 
necessary  then  to  engage  bread  in  advance,  in  order  to 
make  sure  of  it. 


.     On  the  twenty-ninth  of  May  a  third  newspaper,  the 
j  Western  Spy  and  Hamilton  Gazette,  was  startedpy  James 
\Carpenter.     In  it  Griffin  Yeatman  inserted  the  following 
unique  advertisement: 

Observe  this  Notice.  I  have  expended  too  many  expenses  attending 
my  pump,  and  any  FAMILY  wishing  to  receive  the  benefits  thereof  for 
the. future  may  get  the  same  by  sending  me  25  cents  each  Monday 

It  is  said  that  this  was  paralleled  June  2,  1801,  when 
two  advertisements  appeared  in  the  local  papers,  offering 
well-water  at  four  dollars  per  annum  to  subscribers,  pay- 
able quarterly  in  advance. 

Advertisements  also  appeared  in  the  Spy  of  hair  pow- 
der and  fair-top  boots.  July  23d,  Robert  McGennis 
advertises  a  runaway  apprentice,  and  offers  for  his  recov- 
ery a  sixpence  worth  of  cucumbers  the  next  December. 
The  times  were  hard,  and  dunning  advertisements  appear 
in  many  forms,  some  of  them  very  comical  in  their  terms, 
and  some  regretting  that  the  English  language  is  not 
strong  enough  to  express  the  demands  of  their  authors. 

On  the  eighteenth  of  June  there  are  rumors  of  Indian 
hostilities,  and  considerable  alarm  is  excited  for  some 
days.  On  the  twenty-fifth  of  August  the  governor  ad- 
dresses the  legislature  of  the  territory,  assembled  for  its 
first  session. 

/  Business  was  now  done  mainly  on  Main  street  below 
f  Second,  on  Front  street  near  the  Landrr\g,  and  on  Syca- 
Imore  within  a  short  distance  of  Front. \  Robert  Park, 
the  first  hatter  in  the  place,  was  at  theX:orner  of  Main 
and  Second.  In  May  he  advertises  hats  to  exchange  for 
country  produce;  also  that  he  buys  furs,  and  wants  an 
apprentice  on  good  terms,  preferring  one  from  the  coun- 

In  June  the  Spy  notes  the  heat  on  the  twentieth  as 
103°  above,  which  was  higher  than  had  been  known  here 
since  thermometers  came  in.  On  the  twenty-first  the 
figure  was  ioo°,  an  the  twenty-second  95",  twenty-third 
100°,  again,  twenty-fourth,  101°.  It  was  a  genuine 
"heated  term." 

On  the  Fourth  of  July  there  was  a  fine  celebration.  Fort 
Washington  thundered  forth  the  customary  salute.  The 
First  battalion  of  the  Hamilton  county  militia  paraded  at 

their  usual  mustering  place,  and  went  through  their  evolu- 
tions, loading  and  firing,  etc.,  in  a  style  to  elicit  the  com- 
pliments of  the  governor  in  his  subsequent  general  orders. 
St.  Clair,  the  garrison  and  militia  officers,  and  many  "re- 
spectable citizens"  dined  under  a  bower  prepared  for  the 
purpose.  Captain  Miller's  artillery  and  the  martial  music 
of  the  militia  furnished  ringing  responses  to  the  toasts, 
which  are  said  to  have  been  in  good  spirit  and  taste. 
Then,  says  the  primitive  account,  "the  gentlemen  joined 
a  brilliant  assembly  of  ladies  at  Yeatman's  in  town." 

The  Spy  for  July  23d  contained  the  following  note  con- 
cerning a_ well-known  citizen  of  the  county: 

Captain  E.  Kibby,  who  sometime  since,  undertook  to  cut  a  road  from 
Fort  Vincennes  to  this  place,  returned  on  Monday  reduced  to  a  perfect 
skeleton.  He  had  cut  the  road  seventy  miles,  when  by  some  means  he 
was  separated  from  his  men.  After  hunting  them  several  days  without 
success,  he  steered  his  course  this  way.  He  has  undergone  great  hard- 
ships, and  was  obliged  to  subsist  on  roots,  etc. ,  which  he  picked  up  in 
the  woods.     Thus  far  report. 

The  next  number  contains  the  obituary  of  the  Rev. 
Peter  Wilson,  the  first  minister  who  settled  in  the  com- 

Levi  McLean  appears  before  the  public  from  time  to 
time  this  year  in  the  multiform  capacity  of  jailer,  consta- 
ble, hotel-keeper,  butcher,  and  teacher  of  vocal  music. 

The  only  name  we  are  able  to  record,  as  that  of  an 
arrival  for  the  year,  is  that  of  Aaron  Lane,  from  New  Jer- 
sey. He  ultimately  removed  to  Springfield  township, 
where  he  died  in  1845. 



Within  the  decade  whose  annals  have  just  been  passed 
in  review,  fell  the  birth  of  Cincinnati  township,  to  which 
was  entrusted,  for  almost  twelve  years,  the  government 
of  Cincinnati  village,  which  it  of  course  contained.  The 
township  was  created,  after  Columbia,  by  the  court  of 
general  quarter  sessions  of  the  peace,  which  then  had 
jurisdiction  in  these  matters,  in  1791.  To  the  time  of 
the  erection  of  these  townships,  the  whole  county,  which 
contained  but  a  few  hundred  white  inhabitants,  was  most 
conveniently  governed  as  one  municipality. 

The  boundaries  of  the  new  township  were  as  follows: 
Beginning  at  a  point  where  the  second  meridian  east  of 
the  town  (Cincinnati)  intersects  the  Ohio;  thence  down 
that  stream  about  eleven  miles  to  the  first  meridian  east 
of  Rapid  Run;  thence  north  to  the  Big  Miami;  thence 
up  that  stream  to  the  south  line  of  the  military  range; 
thence  south  to  the  place  of  beginning.  It  comprised 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  present  city  of  Cincinnati,  the 
townships  of  Mill  Creek  and  Springfield,  almost  the  en- 
tire tract  of  Colerain,  Green  and  Delhi,  stopping  on  the 
north  beyond  the  present  dividing  line  of  Hamilton  and 
Butler  counties.     It  was  a  vast  township. 

In  1803  the  boundaries  were  changed  as  follows: 
Commencing  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Miami  township, 



on  the  Ohio  river;  thence  north  to  the  northwest  corner 
of  section  seventeen,  in  fractional  range  two,  township 
two;  thence  east  nine  miles;  thence  south  to  the  Ohio; 
thence  westward  along  the  Ohio  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning. These  lines  enclosed  more  than  half  of  Delhi 
township;  the  eastern  half  of  Green,  except  the  three 
northernmost  sections;  the  whole  of  Mill  creek,  except 
the  northern  sections ;  and  the  site  of  Cincinnati  to  the 
range  line  on  the  east. 

The  voters  were  now  instructed  to  meet  at  the  court 
house  and  vote  for  five  justices  of  the  peace.  The  cat- 
tle brand  for  the  township,  which  the  court  was  required 
to  fix  by  order,  was  directed,  at  the  time  of  the  original 
formation  of  the  township  to  be  the  letter  B,  A  having 
already  been  assigned  to  Columbia,  and  C  was  assigned 
to  the  use  of  Miami  township. 

The  boundaries  of  the  original  great  township  were  of 
course  rapidly  cut  down  as  the  county  filled  up.  Dayton 
and  other  townships  in  the  present  Butler  county,  then 
in  Hamilton,  were  early  set  off  north  of  it,  beyond  the 
northernmost  possessions  of  the  Cincinnati  municipality. 
Colerain,  Springfield,  and  South  Bend  townships  were 
erected  by  or  during  1795;  and  when  Mill  Creek  was  set 
off,  the  township,  being  already  bounded,  at  the  period  of 
its  formation,  by  Columbia  township  on  the  east,  was 
shut  in  to  the  narrow  limits  of  the  fractional  surveyed 
township,  now  bounded  by  Liberty  street  on  the  north; 
the  Ohio  river,  which  Liberty  intersects  a  little  above 
Washington  street,  near  the  southeast  corner  of  Eden 
park,  on  the  east  and  south ;  and  on  the  west  by  a  merid- 
ian not  very  clearly  defined,  but  probably  the  range  line 
two  miles  west  of  Mill  Creek,  and  now  the  western 
boundary  of  the  city.  Most  of  the  time  since,  it  may 
be  said,  in  general  terms,  that  the  limits  of  the  township 
have  been  nearly  coterminous  with  those  of  the  city  in 
its  several  extensions. 


of  Cincinnati  and  Cincinnati  township,  from  1790  to 
1792,  was,  as  the  oldest  records  show,  under  the  immedi- 
ate eye  of  the  court  of  quarter-sessions  and  the  supreme 
or  territorial  court,  in  one  or  the  other  of  which  sat  the 
Honorables  John  Cleves  Symmes,  George  Turner,  Sam- 
uel Parsons,  James  Varnum,  Winthrop  Sargent,  Govern- 
or St.  Clair,  and  the  associate  judges  and  justices  of  the 
quarter-sessions,  with  special  appointees  from  among  the 
local  prothonotaries,  sheriffs,  clerks,  and  constables.  At 
the  sitting  of  the  supreme  court  in  Cincinnati  in  1792, 
the  Honorable  John  Cleves  Symmes  presided,  assisted 
by  Judges  William  Goforth,  William  Wells,  and  William 
McMillan,  and  Justices  John  S.  Gano,  George  Cullum, 
and  Aaron  Cadwell.  Joseph  LeSure  acted  as  clerk  pro 
tempore,  Israel  Ludlow  and  Samuel  Swan  being  otherwise 
engaged.  John  Ludlow,  high  sheriff,  was  assisted  by 
Isaac  Martin,  deputy;  while  in  the  call  of  court  appeared 
Robert  Bunten,  coroner,  and  constables  Benjamin  Orcutt 
(the  crier),  Robert  Wheelan,  Samuel  Martin  and  Sylvanus 
Revnolds.  This  court  exercised  both  original  and  ap- 
pellate jurisdiction  in  all  things  of  law,  equity,  and  fact, 
and  that,   too,  with  more  force  than  formality.     When 

convicted,  a  prisoner  was  turned  over  to  Sheriff  Brown 
or  Ludlow,  who,  having  no  sufficient  jail,  could  seldom 
keep  a  prisoner  more  than  twenty-four  hours.     Witnesses 
were  necessarily  excused  when  "taken  by  the  Indians," 
or  "scalped."     Plaintiffs  and  defendants  frequently  had 
their  cases  laid  over  "until  they  got  back  from  the  cam- 
paign;" and  the  honorable  court  often  vibrated  between 
Isaac  Martin's  and    "the   Meeting  house,"  in  order  to 
give  themselves  a  chance  to  lay  aside  for  awhile  their 
official  dignity  and  get  ready  to  appear  in  their  turn  in  the 
role  of  defendants,  as  very  few  of  the  officials  escaped  from 
actions  of  every  sort,  from  top  to  bottom  of  the  calendar. 
During  the  year  1792,  and  for  some  years  thereafter, 
Cincinnati   was  governed  by  these  judicial  dignitaries. 
In  .  the  quarter   sessions  court  Judge  William  Goforth 
generally  presided,  assisted  by  McMillan  and  Wells,  asso- 
ciate justices,  and  by  'Squires  Gano,  Cullum  and  Cadwell, 
justices  of  the  peace  for  the  county.     This  year  Samuel 
Swan   succeeded  Israel   Ludlow  as  clerk  of  the  court; 
John  Ludlow  became  sheriff;  Samuel  Martin,  constable; 
John  Ludlow  and  David  E.  Wade,  overseers  of  the  poor; 
Isaac  Martin,  Jacob  Reeder,  and  Ezekiel  Sayre,  over- 
seers of  highways;  James  Miller,  Jacob  Miller,  and  John 
Vance,  viewers  of  enclosures  and  appraisers  of  damages. 
If  to  these  we  add  the  military  authorities,  who  some- 
times ordered  everybody  into  line,  it  will  be  seen  that 
Cincinnati  was  sufficiently  governed,  containing,  as  the 
city  and  township  then  did,  less  than  five  hundred  peo- 
ple.    The  county  commissioners  had  charge  of  the  pub- 
lic improvements,  attended  to  the  taxes  and  their  collec- 
tion, watched  the  tax  duplicates,  managed  collectors,  and 
paid  out  the  funds  for  wolf  scalps,  for  building  jails  and 
court  rooms,  and  their  own  bills  for  services.     The  cog- 
nomens of  those  who  left  their  names  and  deeds  on  the 
pages  of  "the  last  and  only"  old  worn  record  are  here 
given  as  follows :     William  McMillan,  Robert  Wheelan, 
and  Robert  Benham,   1795-6;  Joseph  Prince, .,1797-8; 
David  E.  Wade,  1799;  Ichabod  B.  Miller,  1800;  William 
Ruffin,  1801-2;  John  Bailey,  1802-3;  William  Ludlow, 
1803-4,    and   John   R.    Gaston,    1804-5.     These  men 
served,. three  at  a  time,  for  a  year;  some  were  in  office  but 
a  year,  while  others  served  two  or  three  terms.     The 
commissioners'  clerks,  under  the  territorial  government, 
from  1790  to  1803,  were  Tabor  Washburne,    1790  to 
1798;   John  Kean,   1798  to  1799;   Reuben  Reynolds, 
1799  to  1800,  and  Aaron  Goforth,  1800  to  1803. 


The  following-named  gentlemen  were  the  earliest  offi- 
cers in  Cincinnati  township: 

1 79 1. — Levi  Woodward,  township  clerk;  Samuel  Mar- 
tin, constable;  John  Thompson  and  James  Wallace, 
overseers  of  the  poor;  James  Gowdy,  overseer  of  roads; 
Isaac  Martin,  Jacob  Reeder,  and  James  Cunningham, 
street  commissioners. 

1792. — Samuel  Martin,  constable;  John  Ludlow  and 
David  E.  Wade,  overseers  of  the  poor;  James  Miller, 
Jacob  Miller,  and  John  Vance,  viewers  of  enclosures 
and  appraisers  of  damages;  Isaac  Martin,  Jacob  Reeder, 
and  Ezekiel  Sayre,  overseers  of  highways. 



1793. — Nathaniel  Barnes  and  Robert  Gowdy,  consta- 
bles; Jacob  Reeder  and  Moses  Miller,  overseers  of  the 
poor;  Joseph  McHenry,  Samuel  Freeman,  and  Stephen 
Reeder,  viewers  of  enclosures  and  appraisers  of  dam- 
ages; Isaac  Martin,  Usual  Bates,  and  John  Schooley, 
overseers  of  highways. 

1794. — Nathan  Barnes,  Darius  C.  Orcutt,  and  Robert 
Gowdy,  constables;  James  Brady  and  David  E.  Wade, 
overseers  of  the  poor;  James  Wallace,  Levi  Woodward, 
and  James  Lyon,  viewers  of  enclosures  and  appraisers  of 
damages;  Isaac  Martin,  Jacob  White,  and  William  Pow- 
ell, overseers  of  highways. 

1795- — Nathan  Barnes,  Ephraim  Carpenter,  and  Ben- 
jamin Van  Hook,  constables;  James  Brady  and  Samuel 
Freeman,  overseers  of  the  poor ;  Samuel  Dick  and  Rich- 
ard Benham,  viewers  of  enclosures  and  appraisers  of 
damages;  James  Brady,  Levi  Woodward,  and  Samuel 
Freeman,  overseers  of  highways. 


It  may  also  be  of  interest  to  see  here  the  names  of  all 
the  constables  who  attended  the  courts  of  Hamilton 
county  during  the  first  thirteen  years,  so  far  as  the  rec- 
ords exhibit  their  names.  Many  of  them  were  consta- 
bles of  Cincinnati  township,  but  others  were  from  the 
county  at  large,  though  the  court  records  present  no  fa- 
cilities for  locating  them  in  their  respective  townships : 

1790 — William  Paul,  Joseph  Gerard,  Daniel  Griffin, 
Robert  Wheelan;  Levi  Woodward,  crier;  1791 — Isaac 
Martin,  Joseph  Jeuet,  Gerard;  Woodward  and  John  Mor- 
ris, criers;  1792 — Wheelan,  Martin,  Morris,  Gerard,  Syl- 
vanus  Reynolds;  Benjamin  Orcutt,  crier;  1793 — Wheelan, 
Reynolds,  Martin,  Nathan  Barnes;  1794 — Same,  with 
Samuel  Edwards,  Robert  Gowdy,  B.  and  D.  Orcutt,  and 
Samuel  Campbell;  Barnes,  crier:  1795 — Wheelan,  B.  Or- 
cutt, Edwards,  Campbell,  Gowdy,  Ephraim  Carpenter,  B. 
Vanhook;  1797 — Woodward,  Josiah  Crossly,  Parvin 
Dunn;  Abraham  Cary,  crier;  1798 — Darius  C.  Orcutt; 
Cary,  crier;  1799— Crossly;  Cary,  crier;  1800— Robert 
Terry,  John  Wilkinson,  Samuel  Armstrong,  William 
Sayres,  Isaac  Mills,  Thomas  Morris,  Enos  Potter,  David 
Kelly;  John  Daily,  crier;  1801 — Thomas  Larrison,  John 
Robinson,  Joseph  Case,  Terry,  Kelly,  Orcutt;  Cary, 
crier;  1802 — Armstrong,  Kelly,  Isaac  Dunn,  Jacob 
Allen,  Josiah  Decker;  Cary,  crier;  1803 — Samuel  and 
James  Armstrong,  David  J.  Poor,  Jerome  Holt,  Jacob 
R  Compton. 

The  following  names  and  dates  of  public  officers  in 
Cincinnati  township,  belonging  to  the  later  times,  have 
also  been  picked  up  in  the  course  of  our  investigations : 

Justices  of  the  peace,  18 19 — -Ethan  Stone,  John 
Mahard;  1824 — Trustees:  Benjamin  Mason,  Benjamin 
Hopkins,  William  Mills;  clerk,  Thomas  Tucker;  con- 
stables: David  Jackson,  jr.,  Richard  Mulford,  Zebulon 
Byington;  justices:  Elisha  Hotchkiss,  Beza  E.  Bliss, 
James  Foster;  1829 — Trustees:  Benjamin  Hopkins, 
William  Mills,  George  Lee;  clerk,  John  Gibson;  con- 
stables: James  McLean,  jr.,  James  Glenn,  William  B. 
Sheldon;  trustees  and  visitors  of  common  schools:  A 
M.  Spencer,  N.  G.  Guilford,  J.  Buckley,  D.  Root,  Calvin 

Fletcher;  magistrates:  James  Foster,  Elisha  Hotchkiss, 
Richard  Mulford;  1831— Trustees:  John  Rice,  William 
Mills,  Richard  Ayres;  clerk,  John  T.  Jones;  magistrates: 
James   Foster,    Richard   Mulford,   Isaiah   Wing,  James 
Glenn,  James  McLean;  constables:  Ebenezer  Harrison, 
Josiah  Fobes,  William  B.  Sheldon,  Ephraim  D.  Williams, 
James   Saffin,    Livius   Hazen,  J.  A.   Wiseman;  1834 — 
Trustees:  Richard  Ayres,  Isaac  Pioneer,  William   Bor- 
land; clerk,  John  Jones;  justices:  Isaac  Wing,  Richard 
Mulford,  Josiah  Fobes,  James  Glenn,  A  W.   Sweeney; 
constables:  Ebenezer  Harrison,   Ephraim   D.   Williams, 
James  Saffin,  J.   A.   Wiseman,  Livius  Hazen,  Thomas 
Wright,     Benjamin     Smith;    1836 — Trustees:    William 
Crossman,   D.  A.   King,  Josiah   Fobes;    clerk,   Samuel 
Steer;  justices:  Richard   Mulford,    John   A.   Wiseman, 
Ebenezer  Harrison,  William  Doty,  Livius  Hazen,  Rancil 
A.    Madison;    1839-40 — Trustees:    William    Crossman, 
Josiah  Fobes,  Thatcher  Lewis;  clerk,  David  Churchill; 
1841 — Justices:  James  Glenn,  Richard  Mulford,  William 
Doty,  John  A.  Wiseman,  R.  A.  Madison,  Ebenezer.  Har- 
rison; 1844 — Justices:  R.  A.  Madison,  Richard  Mulford, 
Ebenezer   Harrison,  John  A.  Wiseman,  E.  V.  Brooks, 
Samuel  Perry,  E.  Singer;  constables:  Robert  P.   Black, 
P.    Davidson,   A.    Delzell,   Even  Ewan,  Thomas  Frazer, 
Thomas  Hurst,  Jesse  O'Neill,  James  L.  Ruffin,  Rode- 
camp;  trustees:  John  Wood,   William  Crossman,  John 
Hudson;  clerk,  David  Churchill;  1846 — Trustees:  Wil- 
liam Crossman,  John  Wood,  J.  B.  Bowlin;  clerk,  David 
Churchill;  justices:  Mark  P.  Taylor,  Samuel  Perry,  Eri 
V.    Brooks,  Ebenezer  Harrison,    David  T.    Snellbaker, 
Erwin  Singer,   John  Young;   1850 — Trustees:  William 
Crossman,  James  Hudson,  Jesse  B.   Bowman;    185 1 — 
Trustees:    Messrs.    Crossman   and    Hudson,   and   John 
Hauck;  clerk,  John  Minshall;  justices:  John  W.  Reilly, 
David  T.   Snellbaker,  F.   H.  Rowekamp,  Jacob  Getzen- 
danner,  Elias  H.   Pugh,  Joseph  Burgoyne,   Wick  Roll; 
1852 — Same  trustees. 



^  The  first  census  of  the  town  and  county  was  taken  this 
year,  and  exhibited  for  Cincinnati  (township  probably) 
but  seven  hundred  and  fifty  inhabitants,  an  increase  of 
but  two  hundred  and  fifty  in  about  five  years.  This, 
however,  was  fifty  per  cent,  of  growth,  and,  relatively  con- 
sidered, was  by  no  means  to  be  despised.  ) 

Many  valuable  citizens  were  added  teethe  community 
during  this  opening  year  of  the  decade.  Dr.  William  Go- 
forth,  of  whom  more  will  be  related  in  our  chapter  on 
medicine  in  Cincinnati,  came  in  the  spring,  and  his  pu- 
pil, to  become  yet  more  distinguished,  Dr.  Daniel  Drake, 
came  in  December.  Stephen  Wheeler;  Mr.  Pierson,  from 
New  Jersey,  the  father  of  William  Pierson,  long  a  resident 



of  Springfield  township;  Charles  Cone,  probably;  John  B. 
Enness,  Edward  Dodson,  Charles  Faran,  A.  Valentine, 
John  Wood,  Caleb  Williams,  Rev.  Dr.  Joshua  L.  Wilson, 
pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  others  who  added 
character  and  possibly  capital  to  the  young  city,  were 
among  the  new  comers  of  1800. 

Probably  this  year,  but  perhaps  earlier,  according  to  a 
note  in  chapter  VIII,  came  one  of  the  most  enterprising, 
able,   and  successful  of  the  pioneer  Germans — Martin 
Baum.      He   engaged   in  merchandizing,    and    was  for 
about  thirty  years  in  active  business  here,  being  connected 
also  with  the  Miami  Exporting  company's  operations,  the 
old  sugar  refinery,  and  many  other  large  enterprises  of 
this   day,  carrying  throughout,  notwithstanding  reverses 
as  well  as  successes,  the  highest  reputation  for  financial 
ability  and  personal  integrity.     He  was  one  of  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  site  of  Toledo  when  it  was  laid  out  for  a 
town.     Late  in  life  he  built  the  elegant  mansion  on  Pike 
street  afterwards  occupied  by  Nicholas  Longworth,  and 
now   by   the  millionaire   philanthropist,  David    Sinton. 
Like  many  other  early  business  men  in  the  city,  he  be- 
came involved  in  debt  to  the  United  States  bank,  and  hon- 
estly  surrendered   to  it   in  payment  his  residence  and 
grounds.     He  still  has  a  reputation  as  one  of  the  most 
honorable  and  public  spirited  Cincinnatians  of  his  day. 
Further  notice  will  be  given  him  in  our  chapter  on  the 
Teutonic  element  in  Cincinnati. 

In  the  spring  or  summer  we  hear  anew  from  Jeremiah 
Butterfield,  of  whom  mention  is  made  in  our  notes  on 
1798.  He  came  again  down  the  river,  this  time  with  his 
brother  and  a  brother-in-law,  young  Mr.  Campbell,  pros- 
pecting. They  staid  a  little  while  at  Columbia,  and  then, 
came  to  Cincinnati,  where  they  engaged  in  harvesting  for 
Colonel  Riddle,  on  his  section  near  town.  All  were 
bright,  strong,  faithful  young  fellows,  and  obtained  work 
without  difficulty.  Jeremiah  was  soon  engaged  by  Colonel 
Ludlow  as  chain-carrier,  during  the  survey  he  was  or- 
dered to  make  of  the  boundary  line  established  by  the 
treaty  of  Greenville,  during  which  the  party  went  three 
months  without  seeing  a  white  man's  dwelling,  and  at 
one  time  came  near  starving;  going  without  provisions 
for  five  days.  When  the  public  lands  west  of  the  Great 
Miami  were  opened  to  entry,  in  April,  1801,  he  formed 
a  partnership  with  several  Cincinnatians— Knoles  Shaw 
and  Albin  Shaw,  Squire  Shaw,  their  father,  Asa  Harvey, 
and  Noah  Willey— and  with  them  bought  a  large  tract  of 
land  in  the  north  part  of  the  present  Crosby  township, 
extending "  into  Butler  county.  He  made  his  own  home 
on  the  other  side  of  the  line,  and  died  there,  full  of  years 
and  honors,  June  27,  1863.  Several  of  his  sons  con- 
tinue to  reside  in  this  county. 

On  the  other  hand,  Cincinnati  was  called  upon  this 
year  to  part  with  one  of  her  favorite  sons,  who  remained 
away  from  the  town  and  county  for  a  series  of  years,  en- 
gaged elsewhere  in  important  public  duties.  William 
Henry  Harrison  was  appointed  governor  of  Indiana  Ter- 
ritory, and  went  to  take  up  his  residence  at  Vincennes, 
while  Mr  Charles  Wylling  Byrd  was  appointed  to  the  sec- 
retaryship of  the  Northwest  Territory.  William  McMil- 
lan esq   was  chosen  by  the  territorial  legislature  delegate 

to  Congress,  to  fill  the  unexpired  term  of  General  Harri- 
son, and  Paul  Fearing,  of  Marietta,  for  the  succeeding 
two  years. 

March  nth  there  was  a  meeting  of  citizens  at  Yeat- 
man's  tavern,  to  consider  the  merits  of  an  invention  said 
to  be  "  capable  of  propelling  a  boat  against  the  stream 
by  the  power  of  steam  or  elastic  vapor."  This  was,  in 
one  sense,  a  herald  of  the  "New  Orleans,"  which  came 
proudly  puffing  down  the  Ohio  eleven  and  a  half  years 

No  mails  came  for  four  consecutive  weeks  in  January 
and  February.  There  is  now  but  one  newspaper  in  the 
place,  and  that  weekly;  so  that  the  failure  of  mail  matter 
is  seriously  felt. 

In  March  the  Rev.  James  Kemper  offers  for  sale  his 
farm  of  one  hundred  and  fifty-four  acres  upon  the  Wal- 
nut Hills,  on  which  Lane  seminary  and  many  other  valu- 
able buildings  are  now  situated,  for  seven  dollars  per 
acre.  He  did  not  sell,  however,  and  lived  upon  it  over 
thirty-five  years  thereafter,  when  it  had  risen  in  value  to 
fivp  thousand  dollars. 
/On  the  twenty-seventh  of  May  a  tremendous  hail-storm 
visits  this  region,  breaking  out  all  the  glass  windows  in 
town.  ) 

Independence  day  was  observed  this  year  by  the  mem- 
bers of  a  political"  party,  the  Republicans,  who  had  a  din- 
uer  at  Major  Ziegler's,  next  door  to  Yeatman's  tavern. 
The  memory  of  Washington  had  been  duly  honored  in 
February  by  a  procession,  in  which  were  Captain  Miller 
and  his  troops  from  the  fort,  the  Hamilton  county  mili- 
tia, Captain  James  Findlay  commanding  the  dragoon 
company,  the  civil  authorities,  the  Masonic  order,  and 
citizens  at  large.  An  address  was  pronounced  by  Gov- 
ernor St.  Clair. 

About  the  middle  of  December  a  good  deal  of  incen- 
diarism occurred,  and  the  people  were  considerably 
alarmed.  Fires  broke  out  in  various  places  about  town, 
but  nobody  was  caught  and  punished  as  the  author  of 
the  mischief. 

The  business  notes  of  the  year  are  uncommonly  inter- 
esting. Imperial  or  gunpowder  tea  was  three  dollars  a 
pound;  hyson,  two  dollars  and  twenty-five  cents;  hyson 
skin,  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents;  bohea,  one  dollar,  and 
very  poor  stuff  at  that;  loaf  sugar,  forty-four  cents  per 
pound;  .  pepper,  seventy-five  cents;,  allspice,  fifty  cents. 
Andrew  Dunseth  begins  business  in  November  as  the 
first  gunsmith  in  Cincinnati.  August  27th,  Messrs.  Wil- 
liam and  M.  Jones  advertise  that  "they  still  carry  on 
the  bakery  business,  and  as  flower  is  getting  cheap,  they 
have  enlarged  their  loaf  to  four  pounds,  which  is  sold  at 
one-eighth  of  a  dollar  per  loaf,  or  flour  pound  per  pound, 
payable  every  three  months."  In  September,  Francis 
Menessier  advertises  a  coffee-house  at  the  foot  of  the  hill, 
on  Main  street,  open  from  two  to  nine  p.  m.,  also,  differ- 
ent kinds  of  liquors,  all  kinds  of  pastry,  etc.  His  sign  is 
"Pegasus,  the  bad  poet,  fallen  to  the  ground."  He  also 
teaches  the  French  language.  The  same  month  John 
Kidd  opened  a  bakery  on  the  corner  of  Front  and  Main. 
In  October  William  McFarland  begins  the  manufacture 
of  earthenware,  the  first  of  the  kind  in  the  place.  James 



White,  the  same  month,  advertises  a  day  and  night 
school,  and  R.  Haughton  puts  himself  in  print  as  a  pro- 
fessor of  dancing.  There  was  great  demand  for  money 
from  creditois  afflicted  with  delinquents,  and  one  pathetic 
appeal  for  his  dues  is  sent  out  from  the  Hamilton  county 
jail  by  an  unlucky  physician  who  is  himself  immured  for 
debt.  ( Real  property  remained  cheap,  and  Hezekiah 
Flint  bought  the  lot  upon  which  he  lived,  on  Walnut 
street  below  Fourth,  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 
Some  of  the  Main  street  property  below  the  upper  level 
was  injured  in  value  by  the  overhanging  of  the  brow  of 
the  hill,  which  depreciated  the  values  of  the  threatened 
lots  until  it  was  removed.  People  now  began  to  prefer 
to  go  to  the  hill,  although  it  was  further  from  the  Land- 
ing; and  settlement  up  there  progressed  more  rapidly.] 

Some  curious  illustrations  appear  in  the  newspaper  riles 
of  this  year  of  the  morals  of  Cincinnati,  or  the  want  of 
them.  A  sergeant  at  the  fort  advertises  that  his  wife 
has  not  only  left  his  bed  and  board,  but  has  taken  up 
with  another  fellow.  A  citizen,  with  a  charming  frank- 
ness, quite  uncommon  nowadays,  boldly  announces  that 
he  has  caught  his  wife  Rachel  and  a  male  offender  in 
flagrante  delicto.  Another  cautions  the  public  against  a 
certain  woman  who  calls  herself  Mary,  "and  has  for  a 
long  time  passed  as  my  wife,  but  who  is  not,  as  we  were 
never  lawfully  married,"  thus  plainly  Indicating  the  rela- 
tions in  which  they  had  lived.  Still  another  advertises 
his  wife  as  having  abandoned  him  for  the  second  time, 
"without  any  provocation,  in  any  possible  shape  what- 

A  clear,  graphic,  and  detailed  picture  of  Cincinnati,  as 
it  appeared  at  the  close  of  this  year,  is  presented  in  a 
published  address  of  Dr.  Daniel  Drake,  who  entered  it 
on  the  eighteenth  of  December,  1800,  as  a  boy  of  fifteen, 
coming  from  Kentucky  hither  to  begin  his  medical 
studies.  The  address  was  delivered  before  the  Cincin- 
nati Medical  Library  association  January  9,  1852,  in  the 
hall  of  the  Mechanics'  institute : 

(in  the  first  year  of  this  century  the  cleared  "lands  at  this  place  did  not 
equal  the  surface  which  is  now  completely  built  over.  North  of  the 
canal  and  west  of  the  Western  row  there  was  forest,  with  here  and 
there  a  cabin  and  small  clearing,  connected  with  the  village  by  a  narrow, 
winding  road.  J  Curved  lines,  you  know,  symbolize  the  country, 
straight  lines  the  city.  South  of  where  the  Commercial  [later  the  Cin- 
cinnati] Hospital  now  administers  relief  annually  to  three  times  as 
many  people  as  then  composed  the  population  of  the  town,  there  were 
half-cleared  fields,  with  broad  margins  of  blackberry  vines;  and  I,  with 
other  young  persons,  frequently  gathered  that  delicious  fruit,  at  the 
risk  of  being  snake-bitten,  where  the  Roman  Catholic  church  now 
sends  tys  spire  into  the  lower  clouds.  Further  south  the  ancient  mound 
near  Fifth  street,  on  which  Wayne  planted  his  sentinels  seven  years  be- 
fore, was  overshadowed  with  trees  which,  together  with  itself,  should 
have  been  preserved;  but  its  dust,  like  that  of  those  who  then  delighted 
to  play  on  its  beautiful  slopes,  has  mingled  with  the  remains  of  the 
unknown  race  by  whom  it  was  erected.  The  very  spot  on  which  we 
are  now  assembled,  but  a  few  years  before  the  time  of  which  I  speak, 
was  part  of  a  wheat-field  of  sixteen  acres  owned  by  Mr.  James  Fergu- 
son and  fenced  in  without  reference  to  the  paved  streets  which  now  cut 
through  it.  The  stubble  of  that  field  is  fast  decaying  in  the  soil  around 
the  foundations  of  the  noble  edifice  in  which  we  are  now  assembled. 
/Seventh  street,  then  called  Northern  row,  was  almost  the  northern 
limit  of  population.  Sixth  street  had  a  few  scattering  houses;  Fifth  not 
many  more.  Between  that  and  Fourth  there  was  a  public  square,  now 
built  over.  In  one  corner,  the  northeast,  stood  the  court  house,  with  a 
small  marketplace  in  front,  which  nobody  attended.  In  the  north- 
west corner  was  the  jail,  in  the  southwest  the  village  school-house;  in 

the  southeast,  where  a  glittering  spire  tells  the  stranger  that  he  is 
approaching  our  city,  stood  the  humble  church  of  the  pioneers,  whose 
bones  lie  mouldering  in  the  centre  of  the  square,  then  the  village  ceme- 
tery. Walnut;  called  Cider  street,  which  bounds  that  square  on  the 
west,  presented  a  few  cabins  or  small  frames;  but  Vine  street  was  not 
yet  opened  to  the  river.  Fourth  street,  after  passing  Vine,  branched 
into  roads  and  paths.  Third  street,  running  near  the  brow  of  the  upper 
plain,  was  on  as  high  a  level  as  Fifth  street  is  now.  The  gravelly  slope 
of  that  plain  stretched  from  east  to  west  almost  to  Pearl  street.  On 
this  slope,  between  Main  and  Walnut,  a  French  political  exile,  whom  I 
shall  name  hereafter,  planted,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century,  a 
small  vineyard.  This  was  the  beginning  of  that  cultivation  for  which 
the  environs  of  our  city  have  at  length  become  distinguished.  I  suppose 
this  was  the  first  cultivation  of  the  foreign  grape  in  the  valley  of  the 
Ohio.  Where  Congress,  Market,  and  Pearl  streets,  since  opened,  send 
up  the  smoke  of  their  great  iron  foundries,  or  display  in  magnificent 
warehouses  the  products  of  different  and  distant  lands,  there  was  a  belt 
of  low,  wet  ground  which,  upon  the  settlement  of  the  town  twelve  years 
before,  had  been  a  series  of  beaver-ponds,  filled  by  the  annual  over- 
flows of  the  river  and  the  rains  from  the  upper  plains.  Second,  then 
known  as  Columbia  street,  presented  some  scattered  cabins,  dirty  with- 
in and  rude  without;  but  Front  street  exhibited  an  aspect  of  consider- 
able pretension.  It  was  nearly  built  up  with  log  and  .frame  houses, 
from  Walnut  street  to  Eastern  row,  now  called  Broadway .J  The  people 
of  wealth  and  the  men  of  business,  with  the  Hotel  de  Ville,  kept  by 
Griffin  Yeatman,  were  chiefly  on  this  street,  which  even  had  a  few 
patches  of  sidewalk  pavement.  In  front  of  the  mouth  of  Sycamore 
street,  near  the  hotel,  there  was  a  small  wooden  market-house  built  over 
a  cove,  into  which  pirogues  and  other  craft,  when  the  river  was  high, 
y»re  poled  or  paddled,  to  be  tied  to  the  rude  columns. 
V  The  common  then  stretched  out  to  where  the  land  and  water  now 
meet,  when  the  river  is  at  its  mean  height.  It  terminated  in  a  high, 
steep,  crumbling  bank,  beneath  which  lay  the  flat-boats  of  immigrants 
or  of  traders  in  fiomi  whiskey,  and  apples,  from  Wheeling,  Fort  Pitt, 
or  Redstone  Old  FortJ  Their  winter  fires,  burning  in  iron  kettles,  sent 
up  lazy  columns  of  smoke,  where  steamers  now  darken  the  air  with 
hurried  clouds  of  steam  and  soot.  One  of  these  vessels  has  cost  more 
than  the  village  would  then  have  brought  at  auction.  ([From  this  com- 
mon the  future  Covington,  in  Kentucky,  appeared  as  a  cornfield,  culti- 
vated by  the  Kennedy  family,  which  also  kept  the  ferry.  Newport, 
chiefly  owned  by  two  Virginia  gentlemen,  James  Taylor  and  Richard 
Southgate,  but  embracing  the  Mayos,  Fowlers,  Berrys, '  Stubbses,  and 
several  other  respectable  families,  was  a  drowsy  village  set  in  the  side 
of  a  deep  wood,  and  the  mouth  of  Licking  rivej  was  overarched  with 
traes,  giving  it  the  appearance  of  a  great  tunnel^ 

Lifter  Front  street,  Sycamore  and  Main  were  the  most  important  of 
the  town.  A  number  of  houses  were  built  upon  the  former  up  to  Fourth, 
beyond  which  it  was  opened  three  or  four  squares.  The  buildings  and 
business  of  Main  street  extended  up  to  Fifth,  where,  on  the  northwest 
corner,  there  was  a  brick  house,  owned  by  Elmore  Williams,  the  only 
one  in  town.  Beyond  Seventh  Main  street  was  a  mere  road,  nearly  im- 
passable in  muddy  weather,  which  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  divided  into 
two,  called  the  Hamilton  road  and  the  Mad-river  road.  The  former, 
now  a  crooked  and  closely  built  street,  took  the  course  of  the  Brighton 
house;  the  latter  made  a  steep  ascent  over  Mount  Auburn,  where  there 
was  not  a  single  habitation.  Broadway,  or  Eastern  row,  was  then  but 
thirty-three  feet  wide.  The  few  buildings  which  it  had  were  on  the  west 
side,  where  it  joins  Front  streejl  on  the  site  of  the  Cincinnati  hotel  there 
was  a  low  frame  house,  with  whiskey  and  a  billiard  table.  It  was  said 
that  the  owner  paid  seven  hundred  dollars  for  the  house  and  lot  in  nine- 
fences;  that  is,  in  small  pieces  of  "cut  money"  received  for  drams. 
(North  of  this,  towards  Second  street,  there  were  several  small  houses 
inhabited  by  disorderly  persons  who  had  been  in  the  army.  The  side- 
walk in  front  was  called  Battle  row.  Between  Second  and  Third  streets, 
near  where  we  now  have  the  eastern  end  of  the  market-house,  there  was 
a  single  frame  tenement,  in  which  I  lived  with  my  preceptor'in  1805. 
In  a  pond,  directly  in  front,  the  frogs  gave  us  regular  serenades)  Much 
of  the  square  to  which  this  house  belonged  was  fenced  in,  and  served 
as  a  pasture  ground  for  a  pony  which  I  kept  for  country  practice. 

(Between  Third  and  Fourth  streets,  on  the  west  side  of  Broadway, 
there  was,  in  1800,  a  cornfield  with  a  rude  fencejsince  replaced  by  man- 
sions of  such  splendor  that  a  Russian  traveller,  several  years  ago,  took 
away  drawings  of  one  as  a  model  for  the  people  of  St.  Petersburgh. 
Above  Fourth  street  Broadway  had  but  three  or  four  houses,  and  ter- 
minated at  the  edge  of  a  thick  wood,  before  reaching  the  foot  of  Mount 

feast  of  Broadway  and  north  of  Fourth  street,  the  entire  square  had 



been  enclosed  and  a  respectable  frame  house  erected  by  the  Hon.  Win- 
throp  Sargent,  secretary  of  the  Northwest  Territory}    He  had  removed 
to  Mississippi   Territory,  of  which  he  was  afterwards  Governor;  and 
his  house  and  grounds,  the  best  improved  in  the  village,  were  occupied 
by  the  Hon.  Charles  Wyling  Byrd,  his  successor  in  office.     Governor 
Sargent  merits  a  notice  amon?  the  physicians  of  the  town,  as  he  was 
thefirst  who  made  scientific  observations  on  our  climate. 
{Immediately  south  of  his  residence,  from  Fourth  street  to  the  river, 
east  df  Broadway,  there  was  a  military  reserve.  That  portion  of  it  which 
laid  on  the  upper  plain  was   covered   by  Fort  Washington,  with  its 
bastions,  port-holes,  stockades,  tall  flag-staff,  evening  tattoo,  and  morn- 
ing reveille.     Here  were  the  quarters  of  the  military  members  of  our 
profession,  and  for  a  time  for  one  of  its  civil  members  also;  for,  after 
its  evacuation  in  1803,  my  preceptor  moved  into  the  rooms  which  had 
been  occupied  by  the  commander  of  the  post.  *In  front  of  the  fort, 
where  Congress  street  now  runs,  there  was  a  duck  pond,  in  which  ducks 
and  snipes   were   often   shot:    and   from  this  pond  to  the  river,  the 
tract  through  which  East  and  Front  streets  now  run  was  overspread 
with  the  long,   low  sheds  of  the  commissaries,  quartermasters,  and 
artificers  of  the  armyjj 

The  post  office  was  then  and  long  after  kept  on  the  east  side  of  this 
military  common,  where  Lawrence  street  leads  down  to  the  Newport 
ferry.  Our  quiet  and  gentlemanly  postmaster,  William  Ruffin,  per- 
formed all  the  duties  of  the  office  with  his  own  hands.  The  great 
Eastern  mail  was  then  brought  once  a  week  from  Maysville,  Kentucky, 
in  a  pair  of  saddle-bags. 

/East  of  the  fort,  on  the  upper  plain,  the  trunks  of  large  trees  were 
still  lying  on  the  ground.  A  single  house  had  been  built  by  Dr.  Alli- 
son where  the  Lytle  house  now  stands,  and  a.  field  of  several  acres 
stretched  off  to  the  east  and  north.  On  my  arrival  this  was  the  resi- 
dence of  my  preceptor.  The  dry  cornstalks  of  early  winter  were  still 
standing  near  the  door.  But  Dr.  Allison  had  planted  jjeach  trees,  and 
it  was  known  throughout  the  village  as  Peach  Grove.JjThe  field  ex- 
tended to  the  bank  of  Deer  creek;  thence  all  was  deep  wood.  Where 
the  munificent  expenditures  of  Nicholas  Longworth,  esq.,  have  col- 
lected the  beautiful  exotics  of  all  climates— on  the  very  spot  where  the 
people  now  go  to  watch  the  unfolding  of  the  night-blooming  cereus — 
grew  the  red-bud,  crab-apple,  and  gigantic  tulip  tree,  or  the  yellow 
poplar,  with  wild  birds  above  and  native  flowers  below.  Where  the 
Catawba  and  Herbemont  now  swing  down  their  heavy  and  luscious 
clusters,  the  climbing  winter  vine  hung  its  small,  sour  branches  from 
the  limbs  of  high  trees.  fThe  adjoining  valley  of  Deer  creek,  down 
which,  by  a  series  of  locks,  the  canal  from  Lake  Erie  mingles  its  waters 
with  the  Ohio,  was  then  a  receptacle  for  drift- wood  from  the  back  water 
of  that  river,  when  high.  The  boys  ascended  the  little  estuary  in 
canoes  during  June  floods,  and  pulled  flowers  from  the  lower  limbs  of 
the  trees  or  threw  clubs  at  the  turtles,  as  they  sunned  themselves  on  the 
floating  logs.  In  the  whole  valley  there  was  but  a  single  house,  and 
that  was  a  distillery.'  The  narrow  road  which  led  to  it  from  the 
garrison— and,  I  am  sorry  to  add,  from  the  village  also— was  well 

{Mount  Adams  was  then  clothed  in  the  grandeur  and  beauty  which 
belongs  to  our  own  primitive  forests.  The  spot  occupied  by  the  reser- 
voir which  supplies  our  city  with  water,  and  all  the  rocky  precipices  that 
stretch  from  it  up  the  river,  where  buried  up  in  sugar-trees^  On  the 
western  slope  we  collected  the  sanguinaria  Canadensis,  geranium, 
maculatum,  gillenia  trifoliata,  and  otter  natural  medicines,  when  sup- 
plies failed  to  reach  us  from  abroad,  rrhe  summit  on  which  the  ob- 
servatory now  stands  was  crowned  withMofty  poplars,  oaks,  and  beech; 
and  the  sun  in  summer  could  scarcely  be  seen  from  the  spot  where  we 
now  look  into  the  valleys  of  the  moon  or  see  distant  nebulse  resolved 
into  their  starry  elements. 

Over  the  mouth  of  Deer  creek  there  was  a  crazy  wooden  bridge,  and 
where  the  depot  of  the  railroad  which  now  connects  us  with  the  sea 
has  been  erected,  there  was  but  a  small  log  cabin.  From  this  cabin  a 
narrow  rocky,  and  stumpy  road  made  its  way,  as  best  it  could,  up  the 
river  where  the  railway  now  stretches.  At  the  distance  of  two  miles 
there  was  another  cabin-that  from  which  we  expelled  the  witch.  Be- 
yond this  all  was  forest  for  miles  furtherj>when  we  reached  the  residence 
of  Tohn  Smith.  .  .  The  new  village  of  Pendleton  now  covers 
that  spot.  Then  came  the  early,  but  now  extinct,  village  of  Columbia, 
of  which  our  first  physicians  were  the  only  medical  attendants. 

On  the  twentieth  of  February,  Dr.  William  Goforth, 
first  of  the  physicians  of  Cincinnati  to  do 'so,  introduced 
vaccination  as  a  preventive  of  small-pox. 

March  20th,  the  Republicans  met  and  had  a  jollifica- 
tion at  Menessier's  coffee-house,  to  celebrate  the  election 
of  Jefferson  to  the  Presidency.  There  is  a  touch  of  Red 
Republicanism  in  the  published  report  of  the  proceed- 
ings, that  "Citizen  John  C.  Symines"  was  in  the  chair. 
When,  however,  the  Fourth  of  July  observances  came  to 
be  noticed,  it  was  again  Citizen  J.  C.  Symmes  as  presi- 
dent, Citizen  Dr.  William  Goforth  vice-president  of  the 
day;  and  so  on.  There  were  two  celebrations  of  the 
Fourth  this  year — one  at  Yeatman's,*  and  one  at  the  big 
spring  on  the  river-bank,  just  above  Deer  Creek  bridge, 
where  a  broad  rock  served  as  a  table. 

April  27th,  the  brig  St.  Clair,  Whipple  commander, 
came  down  from  Marietta,  where  it  had  been  built,  and 
anchored  off  the  village.  It  was  the  first  vessel  of  the 
kind  to  appear  at  this  port. 

In  May,  upon  the  expiration  of  the  term  for  which 
Mr.  McMillan  was  elected  to  Congress,  and  his  return, 
a  public  dinner  was  given  him  by  his  friends,  as  a  testi- 
monial of  appreciation  of  his  valuable  services. 

On  the  nineteenth  of  August,  the  first  public  recog- 
nition, probably,  of  the  omnipotent  and  lucrative  Cincin- 
nati hog  is  made  in  the  shape  of  the  following  advertise- 

For  Sale. — A  quantity  of  GOOD  BACON.     Inquire  at  the  office. 

For  a  week,  beginning  the  twenty-third  of  September, 
the  remarkable  migration  of  squirrels  from  Kentucky 
across  the  river  at  this  point  was  going  on.  Large  num- 
bers were  killed  by  the  settlers — as  many  as  five  hundred 
in  one  day  —  between  Cincinnati  and  Columbia.  The 
invasion  of  these  little  animals  was  thought  to  portend 
an/uncommonly  mild  winter. 
(On  the  thirtieth  of  this  month  there  was  a  meeting  of 
citizens  at  Yeatman's,  to  secure  an  act  of  incorporation 
for  the  village.  The  same  day  an  announcement  ap- 
peared of  horse  races  and  the  Cincinnati  theatre — both 
the  first  amusements  of  their  species  here.  The  Thes- 
pians gave  their  performance  in  Artificers'  Yard,  below 
the  fort.^) 

On  the  nineteenth  of  December  the  Territorial  legisla- 
ture gave  Cincinnati  a  sad  stroke,  by  passing  a  bill  on  a 
vote  of  twelve  to  eight,  for  the  removal  of  the  seat  of 
government  from  this  place  to  Chillicothe.  The  resi- 
dence of  the  governor  and  other  officers  of  the  terri- 
tory had  been  here  since  1790,  and  had  contributed  not 
'  a  little  to  the  prosperity  and  fame  of  the  place.  Novem- 
ber 24th,  however,  some  consolation  was  afforded  by  the 
passage  of  the  act  desired  for  the  incorporation  of  Cin- 
cinnati. At  the  same  time  Chillicothe  and  Detroit  were 
incorporated  by  this  legislature. 

During  the  same  month  several  fires  occurred,  and 
measures  began  to  be  considered  for  the  procurement  of 
a  fire  engine^) 

Some  time  this  year  General  Findlay  was  appointed 
United  States  Marshal  for  the  district  of  Ohio,  and  Wil- 
liam McMillan  district  attorney.  They  were  the  first 
incumbents  of  these  offices. 

*  This  famous  old  tavern,  which  makes  so  conspicuous  a  figure  in  the 
early  annals  of  Cincinnati,  was  situated  on  lot  twenty-seven,  east  side 
of  Sycampre  street,  corner  of  Front. 



Business  this  year  was  not  specially  noticeable,  save  the 
formation  of  a  company  of  Cincinnati  gentlemen  for  the 
purchase  of  a  silver  mine  in  some  locality  not  stated,  but 
"situated  at  a  convenient  distance  from  the  Ohio." 
Mining  engineering,  we  fear,  then  or  since,  has  failed  to 
discover  or  develop  that  bonanza  of  the  precious  metal. 
Salt  was  bringing  two  dollars  a  barrel,  powder  seventy-five 
cents  a  pound,  lard  twelve  and  one-half  cents,  tar  fifty 
cents  per  gallon — "for  ready  money  only."  Joseph  Mc- 
Henry,  the  first  flour  inspector,  was  appointed  near  the 
close  of  1 8c  i. 

Among  the  immigrants  of  the  year  were  Robert  Wal- 
lace and  John  Whetstone.     Among  the  others  known  to 

have  arrived  by  this  time,  and  not  heretofore  noticed,  di- 
rectly or  incidentally  in  these  annals,  were  Robert  Park- 
halter,  Ephraim  Morrison,  William  Austin,  C.  Avery, 
Thomas  Frazer,  Levi  McLean,  Dr.  Homes,  Thomas 
Thompson,  Michael  Brokaw,  James  and  Robert  Cald- 
well, Aaron  Cherry,  Daniel  Globe,  Andrew  Westfall, 
Nehemiah  Hunt,  Thomas  Williams,  Benjamin  Walker, 
Edmund  Freeman  (a  plasterer),  John  C.  Winans,  James 
Conn,  Uriah  Gates,  Richard  Downes,  Lawrence  Hilde- 
brand,  D.  Conner  and  company,  Larkin  Payne,  Henry 
Furry,  George  Fithian,  Lewis  Kerr,  Joseph  Blew,  Isaac 
Anderson,  Willia'm  McCoy,  James  Wilson,  and  Andrew 

CINCINNATI    IN    1802. 


iThe  great  event  of  this  year  was  the  erection  of  Cincin- 
nati as  a  village  under  the  act  of  incorporation  of  the  ter- 
ritorial legislature.  The  limits  were  Mill  creek  on  the 
west;  the  township  line  (now  Liberty  street)  about  a  mile 
from  the  river  at  the  furthest  point  of  the  river  bank,  on 
the  north;  the  east  boundary  line  of  fractional  section 
twelve,  on  the  east;  and  the  river  on  the  south  J  Tem- 
porary officers  were  provided  by  the  act  of  incorporation ; 
but  the  first  municipal  election  was  held  the  first  Monday 
in  the  month.  April  3,  Major  David  Zeigler,  formerly 
commandant  of  Fort  Washington,  who  had  settled  as  a 
citizen  in  Cincinnati,  was  elected  president  of  the  village; 
Charles  Avery,  William  Ramsey,  David  E.  Wade,  John 
Reily,  William  Stanley,  Samuel  Dick,  and  William  Ruffin, 
trustees;  and  Jacob  Burnet,  recorder.  Other  officers, 
elected  or  appointed,  were:  Joseph  Prince,  assessor; 
Abram  Cary,  collector;  James  ("Sheriff")  Smith,  marshal. 
Ten  of  these  twelve  "city  fathers"  had  previously  held 
local  offices,  under  the  dozen  years  of  territorial  or  town- 
ship rule  that  had  prevailed.  Among  the  candidates  for 
constable  was  the  versatile  Levi  McLean,  who  issued  an 
electioneering  address  "to  the  free  and  candid  electors 
of  the  town  of  Cincinnati."  This  was  the  first  and  only 
election  of  officers  in  the  village  under  territorial  govern- 
ment, Ohio  becoming  a  State  November   19th  of  this 

year,  upon  the  adjournment  of  the  Constitutional  Con 
vention  at  Chillicothe,  after  its  members  had  signed  the 

The  first  court  house  for  the  county -was  built  this  year, 
near  the  northwest  corner  of  the  public  square;  and  one 
of  the  first  uses  of  it  was  for  a  meeting  of  citizens,  to 
gravely  determine  as  to  the  proposed  expenditure  of  forty- 
six  dollars  by  the  city  council,  of  which  twelve  were  to  go 
for  fire-ladders  and  as  much  more  for  fire-hooks.  Things 
changed  seventy  years  later,  when  millions  at  a  dash  were 
being  voted  away  for  a  railroad  project. 

The  first  picture  of  Cincinnati,  so  far  as  known,  was 
made  this  year,  and  has  since  been  repeatedly  printed.* 
It  marks  the  dwellings  or  places  of  business  of  Major 
Ruffin;  Charles  Vattier,  corner  of  Broadway  and  Front; 
James  Smith,  first  door  west  of  Vattier;  Major  Zeigler, 
Second  street,  east  of  Sycamore;  Griffin  Yeatman's,  north- 
east corner  of  Front  and  Sycamore;  Martin  Bautn's,  just 
opposite;  Colonel  Gibson,  northeast  corner  Front  and 
Main;  Colonel  Ludlow,  opposite  corner;  Joel  Williams, 
north  side  of  Water,  near  Main;  Samuel  Burt,  a  log  house, 
northwest  corner  Walnut  and  Front,  and  two  little  cabins 
west  of  him;  and  Dr.  Allison  ("Peach  Grove"),  on  the 

*A  large  painting  of  Cincinnati  in  1800  has  recently  been  made  by 
Mr.  A.  B.  Swing,  a  local  artist,  from  careful  studies  of  the  subject,  and 
exhibited  in  one  of  the  picture  stores  on  Main  street. 



hill  near  Fort  Washington.  The  Fort  and  Artificers' 
Yard,  the  Presbyterian  church,  the  Green  Tree  hotel,  on 
Front  street,  about  midway  between  Main  and  Wal- 
nut, and  another  hotel  on  a  street  corner,  are  all  the  pub- 
lic buildings  that  are  shown  in  the  picture,  which  obvi- 
ously does  not  represent  buildings  enough  for  the  nine 
hundred  inhabitants,  more  or  less,  there  must  have  been 
he^e  at  that  time. 
(About  the  middle  of  1802,  the  first  school  for  young 
ladies  was  opened  in  the  place  bv  a  Mrs.  Williams,  in  the 
house  of  Mr.  Newman,  a  saddler.  \ 

Some  time  this  year  Ethan  Stoiie  paid  Joel  Williams 
two  hundred  and  twenty  dollars  for  lots  eighty-nine, 
ninety  and  ninety-one,  being  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet 
on  Vine  by  two  hundred  on  Fourth  street.  Thirty-seven 
years  thereafter,  in  1839,  tne  larger  part  of  the  same 
property  was  sold  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  the 
front  foot. 

A  well-known  citizen  publicly  advertises  that  "the  part- 
nership between  the  subscriber  and  his  wife,  Alice,  has 
been  dissolved  by  mutual  consent.  Another  remark  in 
the  notice  provokes  the  retort  next  week,  from  his  wife, 
that  she  "has  never  yet  stood  in  need  of  his  credit." 

The  commerce  of  the  village  begins  to  look  up.  From 
the  sixteenth  of  February  to  the  sixteenth  of  May,  ex- 
ports of  flour  amounted  to  four  thousand  four  hundred 
and  fifty-seven  barrels. 

The  known  arrivals  of  1802  are  Ethan  Stone,  Samuel 
Perry  and  William  Pierson. 


The  annals  of  this  twelve-month  are  brief,  but  not 
wholly  devoid  of  interest.  Early  in  the  year  incendiary 
fires  occurred,  as  many  as  three  in  rapid  succession. 
The  citizens  were  thoroughly  alarmed,  and  a  night-watch 
was  organized  and  maintained  for  some  time.  One  man 
was  arrested  and  imprisoned  on  suspicion;  but  nothing 
was  proved  against  him,  and  the  real  incendiary  remained 
undisclosed.  {The  garrison  was  removed  this  year  from 
Fort  Washington  to  Newport  Barracks;  and  to  this 
change,  possibly,  may  be  attributed  the  infrequency  of 
incendiary  fires  in  Cincinnati  thereafter.  The  occasional 
feuds  between  soldier  and  citizeiL  may  have  had  some- 
thing to  do  with  them  before  that.) 
(On  the  sixteenth  of  June  the  Miami  Exporting  Com- 
pkny'stoank  was  opened— the  first  banking  institution  in 

town.  J 

Some  notable  arrivals  occurred;  as  of  Christopher  and 
Robert  Cary,  grandfather  and  father  of  the  celebrated 
Cary  sisters.  They  came  from  New  Hampshire,  remained 
in  Cincinnati  several  years  and  then  removed  to  a  farm 
near  Mount  Pleasant,  now  Mount  Healthy,  on  the  Ham- 
ilton road,  where  their  descendants  and  other  relatives 
are  now  to  be  found  in  some  number.  On  New  Year's 
day  came  Thomas  and  Thankful  Carter,  grandparents  of 
Judge  A.  G.  W.  Carter,  with  their  promising  family  of 
five  boys  and  three  girls.  The  judge's  maternal  grand- 
father, the  Rev.  Adam  Hurdus,  founder  of  the  New 
Church  or  Swedenborgianism  in  the  west  came  from 
England  with  his  family  to  Cincinnati  April  4,  1806. 

Judge  A.  H.  Dunlevy,  in  an  address  to  the  Cincinnati 
Pioneer  association,  April  7,  1875,  gives  the  following 
picture  of  the  Queen  City  of  this  year : 


Cincinnati  was  then  a  very  small  place.     The   hotel  where  I  put  up 
as  near  the  northeast  corner  of  Main  and  Fifth  streets,  and  was  kept 
by  one  James  Conn,  or  rather  by  his  wife,  who  was  the  most  efficient 
of  the  family.  .      From  the  customers  of  this  hotel,  I  think  it  was 

considered  the  best  then  in  Cincinnati.  But  at  this  time  the  forest  trees 
stood  on  the  south,  east,  and  north  of  this  hotel  property.  Directly 
south,  across  Fifth  street,  Tom  Dugan,  an  old  bachelor  who  left  a 
large  property  in  Cincinnati,  had  a  rough-iron  store;  and  there  were 
very  few  buildings  of  any  size  south  along  Main  street,  until  the  corner 
of  Main  and  Fourth,  where,  on  the  north  side,  James  Ferguson  had 
the  best  store,  I  think,  then  in  Cincinnati.  The  only  access  to  the 
Ohio,  where  wagons  could  descend,  was  at  the  foot  of  Main  street;  and 
this  consisted  simply  of  a  wide  road  cut  diagonally  down  the  steep 
bank  of  the  river.  In  high  water  there  was  no  other  levee  than  this 
road.  In  low  water,  however,  there  was  a  wide  beach ;  but  this  could 
only  be  reached  by  this  road.  It  may  be  there  was  a  similar  approach 
to  the  river  at  the  foot  of  Broadway;  but  if  so,  I  did  not  see  lit.  All 
north  of  Fifth  street,  with  the  exception  of  one  or  two  houses,  was  in 
woods  or  inclosed  lots,  without  other  improvements.  In  coming  to 
Cincinnati  from  Lebanon,  miles  of  the  route  were  in  the  woods,  out  of 
sight  of  any  improvements^  and  from  Cumminsville,  then  only  a  tav- 
ern, kept  by  one  Cummins  ([ohn,  I  think),  there  were  but  two  resi- 
dences on  the  road  until  you  came  near  to  Conn's  hotel.  One  of  these 
was  the  residence  of  Mr.  Cary — I  think  father  of  General  Samuel  Cary, 
of  Hamilton  county,  as  well  known. 

In  May  a  very  useful  and  honored  resident,  William 
McMillan,  one  of  the  first  colonists  of  Losantiville,  died, 
greatly  lamented  by  his  fellow-citizens.  His  life  and 
public  services  will  be  further  noticed  in  our  chapter  on 
the  Bar. of  Cincinnati.  Mr.  Cist  wrote  of  him  in  Cincin- 
nati in  1 84 1 : 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Mr.  McMillan  was  the  master  spirit  of 
the  place  at  that  day,  and  a  man  who  would  have  been  a  distinguished 
member  of  society  anywhere.  It  is  impossible  to  contemplate  his  char- 
acter and  career  without  being  deeply  impressed  with  his  great  superi- 
ority over  every  one  around  him,  even  of  the  influential  men  of  the  day; 
and  there  were  men  of  as  high  character  and  abilities  in  Cincinnati  in 
those  days  as  at  present.  He  was  lost  to  the  community  at  the  age  of 
forty-four,  just  in  the  meridian  of  his  course,  and  left  vacant  an  orbit  of 
usefulness  and  influence  in  the  community  in  which  no  one  since  has 
been  found  worthy  to  move. 

A  town  meeting  was  held  this  year,  to  consider  the 
adoption  of  measures  for  a  general  vaccination  of  the  in- 
habitants of  the  village. 

On  the  fourth  of  December  was  issued  the  first  num- 
ber of  Liberty  Hall  and  Cincinnati  Mercury,  edited  and 
published  by  the  Rev.  John  W.  Browne. 

A  large  number  of  immigrants  are  registered  for  this 
year.  Among  them,  in  the  fall,  was  Colonel  Stephen 
McFarland,  father  of  the  venerable  Isaac  B.  McFarland, 
still  living  in  Cincinnati,  and  Mr.  John  McFarland  and 
a  sister,  of  Madisonville.  General  Findlay,  who  knew 
him  in  Franklin  county,  Pennsylvania,  had  written  for 
him.  His  wife  and  children  came  the  next  year.  H.  M., 
Jacob,  and  Andrew  H.  Ernst  came  this  year  with  their 
father,  Zachariah  Ernst.  The  family  became  quite  prom- 
inent here.  Jacob  was  a  printer  and  author,  writing 
books  on  Masonry,  etc.,  while  Andrew  wrote  treatises  on 
gardening  and  arboriculture.  Ernst  station,  on  the  Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton  &  Dayton  railroad,  is  named  from  the 
family.  Other  arrivals  were  Peaton  S.  Symmes,  Benja- 
min Smith,  P.  A.  Sprigman,  George  P.  Torrence  (long 
presiding  judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas),  Jonathan 



Pancoast,  Robert  Richardson,  James  Perry,  Peter  M. 
Nicoll,  Adam  Moore,  William  Moody,  Benjamin  Mason, 
Casper  Hopple,  Andrew  Johnston,  Ephraim  Carter,  James 
Crawford,  William  Crippen,  and  Henry  Craven. 


(The  village  now  had  twenty-five  merchants  and  grocers, 
fifteen  joiners  and  cabinet-makers,  twelve  bricklayers, 
eleven  inn-keepers,  nine  attorneys,  eight  physicians,  eight 
blacksmiths,  .seven  shoemakers,  five  saddlers,  seven  tail- 
ors, five  bakers,  three  each  of  tobacconists,  silversmiths, 
and  tanners,  four  hatters,  two  each  of  printers,  brewers, 
tinners,  and  coppersmiths,  and  one  book-binder.  Its 
population  was  nine  hundred  and  sixty,  housed  and  doin 
business  in  one  hundred  and  seventy-two  buildings 
Jesse  Hunt,  on  Second  street,  near  Eastern  row;  Aaron 
Goforth,  on  Walnut,  below  Fourth;  Andrew  Lemon,  on 
Water  street;  and  Joel  Williams,  also  on  Water  street, 
had  the  only  stone  buildings  in  town;  while  the  six  brick 
buildings  were  the  Miami  bank  building,  on  Front,  near 
Main;  Elmore  Williams',  on  Main  and  Fifth  streets;  Nim- 
mo's,  on  Main,  near  Fourth;  Judge  Burnet's,  Vine,  near 
Fourth,  where  the  Burnet  house  now  is;  and  two  others; 
to  which  was  presently  added  the  Rev.  John  W.  Browne's 
Liberty  Hall  office,  at  the  east  end  of  the  lower  market 
house.  unfty-three  log  cabins  were  still  remaining,  and 
there  were  a  little  more  than  twice  as  many  (one  hundred 
and  nine)  frame  buildings) 

Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield,  long  afterwards  recalling  his  Per- 
sonal Memories  of  the  coming  of  his  father  and  family 
here,  said: 

We  arrived  at  Cincinnati,  I  think,  the  last  part  of  October,  1805 
But  what  was  Cincinnati  then?  One  of  the  dirtiest  little 
villages  you  ever  saw.  Of  course  I  was  not  driven  around  to  see  its 
splendors;  but  the  principal  street  or  settlement  was  Front  street — and 
\  that  I  saw.  The  chief  houses  at  that  time  were  on  Front  street,  from 
I  Broadway  to  Sycamore.  They  were  two-story  frame  houses,  painted 
I  white.  One  was  that  of  General  Findlay,  receiver  of  the  land  office, 
I  .         .     and  subsequently  member  of  Congress  for  the  Cincin- 

!    nati  district. 

Mr.   Josiah  Espy,  who  made  a  tour  this  year  through 

Ohio,  Kentucky,  and  the  Indian  Territory,  and  published 

a  journal  of  his  travels,  came  here  September  4th,  and 

stayed  two  days,  making  the  following  note  of  the  place: 

Cincinnati  is  a  remarkably  sprightly,  thriving  town,  on  the  northwest 
!  bank  of  the  Ohio  river,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  river  Licking,  and 
[  containing,  from  appearance,  about  two  hundred  dwelling-houses — 
'  many  of  these  elegant  brick  buildings.  The  site  of  the  town  embraces 
both  the  first  and  second  banks  of  the  river,  the  second  bank  being,  I 
\    suppose,  about  two  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  water.  - — 

\Jn  March  a  great  freshet  occurred  in  the  Ohio,  over- 
flowing everything  on  the  lower  levels,  and  sweeping 
away  houses,  stock,  and  other  property./ 

May  8th,  General  John  S.  Gano  was  appointed  clerk 
of  the  courts  for  Hamilton  county.  This  is  noteworthy 
simply  as  the  beginning  of  a  very  long  and  useful  career 
for  the  Ganos  in  this  capacity,  lasting  far  down  the  century. 

In  the  same  month,  on  the  fifteenth  instant,  came 
Aaron  Burr  to  this  village,  en  route  for  New  Orleans, 
while  his  expedition  was  preparing  and  he  was  meditating 
his  ambitious,  if  not  treasonable,  projects.  He  does  not 
seem  to  have  done  much  mischief  here,  except  to  involve 
in  trouble  United  States  Senator  John  Smith,  through 

the  evident  friendship  of  the  two  and  Smth's  hospitality 
to  Burr  while  here. 

The  Republicans  of  that  time  (the  political  ancestors 
of  the  present  Democracy)  held  the  Fourth  of  July  cele- 
bration by  themselves  this  year,  at  a  bower  in  front  of 
the  court  house.  Judge  Symmes  was  president,  Matthew 
Nimmo  vice-president,  and  Thomas  Rawlins  orator  of 
the  day.  The  light  dragoons,  Lieutenant  Elmore  Wil- 
liams commanding,  made  a  street  parade  for  this  section 
of  the  Cincinnati  patriots.  Others  went  with  Captain 
Smith's  company  of  light  infantry  to  the  Beechen  grove, 
in  the  western  part  of  the  town,  where  there  was  a  din- 
ner, succeeded  by  nineteen  toasts.  Some  of  the  toasts 
were  quite  unique.  Captain  McFarland  volunteered  one 
as  follows:  "A  hard-pulling  horse,  a  porcupine  saddle, 
a  cobweb  pair  of  breeches,  and  a  long  journey,  to  the 
enemies  of  America." 

The  Cincinnati  Thespians  held  their  meetings  during 
a  part  of  this  year  in  the  loft  of  a  stable  in  rear  of 
General  Hndlay's  place,  on  the  site  of  the  old  Spencer 

On  the  eleventh  of  December  an  ordinance  was  passed 
by  the  town  council  for  the  establishment  of  a  sort  of 
night-watch,  without  pay. 

This  year  came  John  M.  Wozencraft,  a  Welshman 
from  Baltimore,  who  remained  here  for  a  time,  and  after- 
wards died  in  South  Carolina  on  his  way  to  England. 
The  arrival  from  the  same  city  of  forty  to  fifty  families, 
with  about  as  many  unmarried  men,  chiefly  mechanics, 
gave  to  the  town,  says  the  directory  of  181 9,  the  first 
spring  of  anything  like  improvement. 

Joseph  Coppin,  the  aged  president  of  the  Cincinnati 
Pioneer  association  for  this  year  1880-1,  came  to  the  town 
of  Cincinnati  December  16th.  He  is,  doubtless,  the 
oldest  man  living,  who  was  a  resident  of  the  city  at  that 
time.  Mr.  Coppin  was  born  in  Norwich,  England,  April 
8,  1791,  and  was  brought,  when  a  boy,  to  this  country  by 
his  father,  who  settled  in  New  York  city.  Young  Coppin 
walked  in  the  funeral  procession  organized  in  that  city  in 
December,  1799,  to  do  honor  to  the  memory  of  Washing- 
ton, then  just  deceased.  He  afterwards  marched  in  the 
processions  that  followed  to  tomb  the  remains  of  Alex- 
ander Hamilton,  slain  by  Burr  in  1804,  and  of  Major 
David  Zeigler,  a  native  of  Prussia,  and  commandant  of 
Fort  Washington,  who  died  and  was  buried  in  Cincinnati 
in  September,  181 1.  He  was  a  boy  in  his  fifteenth  year 
when  brought  to  this  place,  and  remembers  distinctly  the 
Cincinnati  of  that  day.  He  worked  as  a  boat-joiner 
upon  the  first  barges  that  were  built  here  for  the  New  Or- 
leans trade,  and  as  a  house-carpenter  labored  upon  the 
famous  "Bazaar"  built  by  the  Trollopesin  1828-9.  The 
aged  pioneer  is  spending  the  evening  of  his  days  tran- 
quilly at  Pleasant  Ridge,  in  this  county. 

By  far  the  most  distinguished  arrivals  of  this  year,  or 
of  the  decade,  were  those  of  General  Jared  Mansfield 
and  his  family,  which  included  a  son,  then  a  little  boy  of 
four  years,  Edward  D.  Mansfield,  who  became  one  of  the 
most  useful  men  of  his  time,  and  died  only  last  year — 
October  27,  1880,  at  his  "Yamoyden"  farm  near  Morrow, 
thirty  miles  from  Cincinnati.     General  Mansfield  was  of 



English  stock,  and  immediately  from  an  old  New  Hamp- 
shire family;  a  graduate  of  Yale  college,  and  thorough 
scientist  for  his  day;  a  teacher  in  his  native  State,  and  at 
the  Friends'  academy,  in  Philadelphia;  author  of  a 
learned  work  comprising  essays  on  mathematical  topics ; 
appointed  surveyor-general  of  the  United  States  by  Pres- 
ident Jefferson  in  1803,  particularly  to  establish  correct 
meridian  lines,  which  had  given  previous  surveyors  much 
trouble;  resident  at  Marietta  1803-5,  and  at  or  near 
Cincinnati  (at  Ludlow's  station,  and  at  Bates'  place,  near 
the  present  workhouse,  afterwards  called  Mount  Comfort), 
1805-12;  wrote  a  series  of  papers  signed  "Regulus,"  op- 
posing the  schemes  of  Burr;  established  three  principal 
meridians  in  Ohio  and  Indiana;  returned  to  West  Point 
as  an  instructor  1814-28,  and  remained  at  the  east  until 
his  death. 

Edward  D.  Mansfield  was  also  born  in  New  Hamp- 
shire; was  educated  here,  in  New  Hampshire,  and 
Cheshire,  Connecticut,  and  at  the  Military  academy,  from 
which  he  was  graduated  the  fourth  of  his  class,  and  the 
youngest  graduate  in  the  history  of  West  Point.  He  was 
commissioned  a  second  lieutenant  in  the  engineer  corps, 
but,  at  the  instance  of  his  mother,  resigned  to  become  a 
lawyer.  He  first  prepared  regularly  for  college,  entered 
the  junior  class  at  Princeton,  and  was  graduated  with  the 
first  honor.  After  a  course  at  the  Litchfield  Law  school 
he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  returned  to  Cincinnati 
the  same  year,  where,  or  near  which  city,  he  thenceforth 
remained.  He  practiced  law  but  a  short  time,  however, 
and  gave  his  time  mostly  to  journalism  and  other  literary 
pursuits.  He  was  author  of  the  Political  Grammar,  still 
published  as  a  text-book  for  schools;  of  a  work  on  Amer- 
can  Education;  of  Personal  Memories,  a  life  of  Dr. 
Drake,  and  many  other  books  and  reports,  and  pamph- 
lets of  addresses,  lectures,  etc.  He  was  the  first  and  only 
commissioner  of  statistics  for  the  State,  and  filled  the 
place  admirably.  While  a  young  lawyer  here  he  had  for 
a  time  as  a  partner  Professor  O.  M.  Mitchel,  founder  of 
the  Cincinnati  observatory.  In  1835  he  was  professor  of 
constitutional  law  and  history  in  the  Cincinnati  college, 
and  was  then  also  editor  of  the  Cincinnati  Chronicle. 
He  subsequently  filled  many  other  stations  of  usefulness, 
and  continued  his  intellectual  activity  almost  to  the  day 
of  his  lamented  death. 

The  arrival  of  General  Mansfield  and  family  was  pleas- 
antly chronicled  nearly  forty  years  afterwards,  by  Dr.  S. 
P.  Hildreth,  of  Marietta,  in  a  history  of  an  early  voyage 
on  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  rivers,  with  historical 
sketches  of  the  different  points  along  them,  etc.,  etc., 
contributed  to  the  American  Pioneer  for  March,  1842. 
Dr.  Hildreth  says: 

General  Mansfield  possessed  a  high  order  of  talents,  especially  as  a 
mathematician,  with  every  qualification  necessary  to  conduct  the  de- 
partment under  his  control  with  honor  to  himself  and  advantage  to  h.s 
country  To  a  handsome  personal  appearance  was  added  the  most 
bland  and  pleasant  address,  rendering  him  a  very  desirable  companion. 

Among  the  sailing  vessels  built  at  Marietta  between 
the  years  1801  and  1805,  was  a  beautiful  little  seventy- 
ton  schooner  called  the  Nonpareil,  constructed  by  Cap- 
tain Jonathan  Devoll,  one  of  the.  earliest  shipwrights  on 
the  Ohio,  for  himself  and  sons,  and  Mr.  Richard  Greene. 

In  the  spring  of  1805  she  was  finished  and  loaded  for  a 
voyage  down  the  Mississippi,  and  General  Mansfield  de- 
termined to  take  passage  upon  her  with  his  family — a 
son,  a  nephew,  and  a  servant  girl — for  his  new  station  at 
Cincinnati,  which  would  be  "more  central  and  nearer  to 
the  new  tracts  of  government  lands  ordered  to  be  sur- 
veyed in  Ohio  and  the  adjacent  western  territory." 

The  vessel  left  Marietta  April  21st.  Dr.  Hildreth  thus 
records  the  arrival  at  Cincinnati,  and  gives  a  rapid  but 
vivid  picture  of  the  town  as  it  then  appeared : 

The  Nonpareil  now  unmoored  and  put  out  into  the  stream,  proposing 
to  stop  at  Cincinnati  to  land  General  Mansfield  and  family.  The  dis- 
tance between  the  two  towns  was  one  hundred  and  sixty  miles.  New 
settlements  and  improvements  were  springing  up  along  the  bank  of  the 
river  every  few  miles;  and  the  busy  hum  of  civilization  was  heard  where 
silence  had  reigned  for  ages,  except  when  broken  by  the  scream  of  the 
panther,  the  howl  of  the  wolf,  or  the  yell  of  the  savage.  In  this  dis- 
tance there  are  now  no  less  than  twelve  towns,  some  of  which  are  of 
considerable  importance.  They  reached  Cincinnati  after  a  voyage  of 
seventeen  days,  being  protracted  to  this  unusual  length  by  adverse 
winds,  a  low  stage  of  water,  and  the  frequent  stops  of  General  Mans- 
field on  business  relating  to  his  department,  especially  that  of  deter- 
mining the  meridian  and  latitude  of  certain  points  on  the  Ohio  river, 
fit  was  now  the  eighth  of  May;  the  peach  and  the  apple  had  shed 
tVeir  blossoms,  and  the  trees  of  the  forest  were  clad  in  their  summer 
dress.  ^Cincinnati,  in  1805,  contained  a  population  of  nine  hundred 
and  fifty  souls.  The  enlivening  notes  of  the  fife  and  drum  at  reveille 
were  no  longer  heard,  and  the  loud  booming  of  the  morning  gun,  as  it 
rolled  its  echoes  along  the  hills  and  the  winding  shores  of  the  river,  had 
ceased  to  awaken  the  inhabitants  from  their  slumbers.  Cincinnati  had 
been  from  its  foundation  until  within  a  short  period  the  headquarters  of 
the  different  armies  engaged  in  the  Indian  wars;  and  the  continual  ar- 
rival and  departure  of  the  troops,  the  landing  of  boats  and  detach- 
ments of  pack-horses  with  provisions,  had  given  to  this  little  village  all 
the  life  and  activity  of  a  large  city.  Peace  was  now  restored;  and  the 
enlivening  hum  of  commerce  was  beginning  to  be  heard  on  the  land- 
ings, while  the  bustle  and  hurry  of  hundreds  of  immigrants  thronged 
the  streets  as  they  took  their  departure  for  the  rich  valleys  of  the 
Miami,  the  intended  home  of  many  a  weary  pilgrim  from  the  Atlantic 
States.  The  log  houses  were  beginning  to  disappear— brick  and  frame 
buildings  were  supplying  their  places.  Large  warehouses  had  arisen 
near  the  water  for  the  storing  of  groceries  and  merchandise,  brought  -. 
up  in  barges  and  keel-boats  from  the  far  distant  city  of  New  Orleans.     I 


This  was  a  transition  year,  or  rather  the  beginning  of  a 
transition-period,  for  the  little  place.  Says  Mr.  Mansfield , 
in  his  biography  of  Dr.  Drake  (it  will  be  observed  that 
he_was  writing  about  1855): 

(Cincinnati  was  then  emerging  out  of  a  village  existence  into  that,  not 
of  a  city,  but  of  a  town,  In  1806  it  was  but  a  small  and  dirty  county- 
town.  But  about  that  time  commenced  a  career  of  growth  and  success 
which  is  unequalled  in  history.  Such  success,  notwithstanding  all  / 
natural  advances,  is  always  due  as  much  to  the  mind  and  energy  of  its 
citizens  as  to  all  physical  causes.  If  we  look  to  the  young  men  then 
aasociated  with  Dr.  Drake  and  to  the  older  citizens  whom  I  have  all 
ready  mentioned,  it  will  be  found  that  no  young  place  in  America  has 
gathered  to  itself  a  greater  amount  of  personal  energy  and  intellectual 
ability.1)  I  have  named  among  the  pioneers  the  St.  Clairs,  Symmeses, 
Burners,  Ganos,  Findlays,  Goforths  and  Oliver  M.  Spencer.  In  the 
class  of  young  men,  about  1806-7-8,  were  John  McLean,  now  supreme 
judge;  Thomas  S.  Jessup,  now  quartermaster-general;  Joseph  G.  Tot- 
ten,  now  general  of  engineers;  Ethan  A.  Brown,  afterwards  governor, 
judge  and  canal  commissioner;  George  Cutler,  now  colonel  in  the  army; 
Mr.  Sill,  since  member  of  congress  from  Erie,  Pennsylvania;  Joseph 
Crane,  afterwards  judge;  Judge  Torrence,  Dr.  Drake,  Nicholas  Long- 
worth,  Peyton  S.  Symmes,  David  Wade,  Samuel  Perry,  Joseph  Pierce, 
a  poet  of  decided  talent;  Mr.  Armstrong  and  John  F.  Mansfield.* 
The  last  two  died  early— the  former,  a  young  man  of  great  ability, 
and  the  latter  of  distinguished  scientific  attainments  and  high  promise. 

*Mr.  Mansfield's  foot-note:  "  I  do  not  pretend  to  give  a  list  of  all  the  prom- 
inent young  men  at  that  time,  but  only  those  of  whom  I  have  some  knowledge.' 




Such  a  circle  of  young  men  would  grace  any  rising  town,  and  imr. 
to  its  mind  and  character  a  tone  of  energy  and  a  spirit  of  ambition.     / 

During  the  year  this  part  of  the  country  was  visited 
and  partly  explored,  after  a  fashion,  by  an  Englishman 
named  Thomas  Ashe,  who  chose  to  palm  himself  off 
during  his  travels  among  the  western  barbarians  as  a 
Frenchman  named  DArville.  He  pottered  around 
somewhat  among  the  antiquities  of  the  Ohio  valley,  pro- 
mulgated the  highly  probable  theory  that  the  earthworks 
then  still  remaining  in  Cincinnati  were  the  ruins  of  an 
ancient  city,  and  after  his  return  to  the  Old  World,  be- 
sides publishing  a  ponderous  account  of  his  travels  in 
America,  in  three  volumes,  he  issued  a  smaller  volume 
entitled,  "Memoirs  of  Mammoth  and  various  extraordi- 
nary and  stupendous  Bones,  of  Incognita  or  Nonde- 
script Animals  found  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Ohio,  Wabash, 
Illinois,  Mississippi,  Missouri,  Osage  and  Red  rivers,  etc. 
Published  for  the  information  of  the  Ladies  and  Gentle- 
men whose  taste  and  love  of  science  tempt  them  to  visit 
the  Liverpool  Museum.''  He  was  helped  to  this  latter 
publication  by  the  indiscretion  of  that  fine  gentleman  of 
the  old  school,  Dr.  William  Goforth,  of  Cincinnati,  who 
intrusted  the  fellow  with  a  large  collection,  in  ten  boxes, 
which  the  doctor  had  made,  with  great  trouble  and  at 
some  expense,  from  the  Big  Bone  Lick,  in  Kentucky. 
Ashe  was  to  take  them  abroad  and  exhibit  them  through 
Europe  and  the  United  Kingdom,  and  send  the  owner  a 
specified  share  of  the  profits.  Instead  he  coolly  sold 
them  to  the  Liverpool  museum  for  a  round  sum,  after 
exhibiting  them  in  London,  and  is  said  to  have  made  a 
fortune  out  of  them  and  his  book.  He  never  accounted 
for  a  penny  to  Dr.  Goforth,  who  must  have  felt  the  loss 
seriously,  as  he  was  not  a  man  of  large  means. 

Mr.  Ashe  is  regarded  as  very  poor  authority  in  scien- 
tific speculation  or  statement  of  fact;  yet  his  narrative 
is  undoubtedly  correct  in  parts,  and  where  he  had  no 
object  to  accomplish  in  telling  a  falsehood,  it  is  probable 
he  can  be  believed.  The  following  is  his  view  of  Cincin- 
nati in  1806: 

The  town  consists  of  about  three  hundred  houses,  frame  and  log, 
built  on  two  plains,  the  higher  and  the  lower,  each  of  which  commands 
a  fine  view  of  the  opposite  shore,  the  mouth  of  Licking,  the  town  of 
Newport,  and  the  Ohio  waters  for  a  considerable  way  both  up  and 
down.  The  public  buildings  consist  of  a  court  house,  prison,  and  two 
places  of  worship;  and  two  printing-prt'ssei  are  established,  which 
issue  papers  once  a  week.  Cincinnati  is  also  the  line  of  communication 
with  the  chain  of  forts  extended  from  Fort  Washington  to  the  west- 
ward, and  is  the  principal  town  in  what  is  called  Symmes'  Purchase. 
The  garrison  end  of  the  town  is  now  in  a  state  of  ruin.  A  land  office 
for  the  sale  of  Congress  lands  at  two  dollars  per  acre  is  held  in  the 
town,  and  made  no  less  than  seventeen  thousand  contracts  the  last  year 
with  persons  both  from  Europe  and  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  So 
very  great  and  extensive  is  the  character  of  the  portion  of  the  State  of 
which  this  town  is  the  fort  and  capital,  that  it  absorbs  the  whole  repu- 
tation of  the  country,  deprives  it  of  its  topographical  name,  and"  is 
distinguished  by  that  of  the  "Miamis."  In  Holland,  Germany,  Ire- 
land, and  the  remote  parts  of  America,  persons  intending  to  emigrate 
declare  that  they  will  go  to  the  "Miamis." 

The  commerce  at  present  is  conducted  by  about  the  keepers  of  thirty 
stores.  .  .  The  merchants  make  an  exorbitant  profit.  Those 
of  four  years'  standing,  who  came  with  goods  obtained  at  Philadelphia 
and  Baltimore  on  credit,  have  paid  their  debts,  and  now  live  at  their 

In  general  the  people  of  Cincinnati  make  a  favorable  impression; 
they  are  orderly,  decent,  sociable,  liberal,  and  unassuming;  and  were 
I  compelled  to  live  in  the  western  country,  I  would  give  their  town  a 

decided  preference.     There  are  among  the  citizens  several  gentlemen  of 
integrity,  intelligence,  and  worth. 

He  names  with  special  commendation  Generals  Find- 
lay  and  Gano,  Dr.  Goforth,  and  Messrs.  Dugan  and 

The  amusements  consist  of  balls  and  amateur  plays,  the  former  of 
which  going  to  literary  and  humane  purposes,  disposes  me  to  think 
them  both  entertaining  and  good. 

On  the  sixth  of  February,  the  brig  Perseverance,  from 
Marietta  for  New  York,  via  New  Orleans  and  the  Gulf, 
dropped  anchor  at  Cincinnati.  Commerce  with  domes- 
tic and  foreign  ports,  from  the  Ohio  Valley  over  the  high 
seas,  is  obviously  looking  up. 

On  the  nineteenth  of  the  month  rumors  are  heard  that 
excite  considerable  alarm  concerning  the  movements  of 
the  Indians  at  Greenville,  where  the  artful  Tecumseh  has 
his  lodge,  and  is  daily  stirring  up  strife  between  the  red 
and  white  men.  It  is  this  time,  however,  a  harmless 

March  31st,  the  United  States  gunboats,  built  by  the 
order  of  President  Jefferson  with  some  reference,  it  is 
supposed,  to  the  stoppage  of  Burr's  expedition,  were 
launched  from  the  shipyards  at  Columbia. 

From  May  4th  to  August  22dno  rain  falls,  and  a  great 
cry  goes  up  for  showers.  The  whole  Miami  country  is 
athirst;  the  river  threatens  to  disclose  the  lowermost 
stratum  ot  its  rocky  bed.  A  great  eclipse  of  the  sun 
occurs,  in  its  gloomiest  movements  making  the  objects  in 
a  room  almost  invisible. 

A  graphic  picture  of  the  effect  in  Cincinnati  of  the 
Burr  conspiracy  is  furnished  in  the  journal  of  Mrs.  Israel 
Ludlow  (Charlotte  Chambers),  under  date  of  September 
28,  1806: 

A  report  has  been  circulating  that  Aaron  Burr,  in  conjunction  with 
others,  is  forming  schemes  inimical  to  the  peace  of  his  country,  and  that 
an  armament  and  fleet  of  boats  are  now  in  motion  on  the  Ohio,  and 
that  orders  have  actually  arrived  from  headquarters  for  our  military  to 
intercept  and  prevent  its  progress  down  the  river.  In  consequence  of 
these  orders,  cannon  have  been  planted  on  the  bank  and  a  sentinel 
stationed  on  the  watch.  The  light  horse  commanded  by  Captain  Fer- 
guson have  gallantly  offered  their  services,  and  Captain  Carpenter's 
company  of  infantry  are  on  the  alert.  Cincinnati  has  quite  the  appear- 
ance of  a  garrisoned  town.  A  tremendous  cannonading  was  heard 
yesterday,  and  all  thought  Burr  and  his  armament  had  arrived ;  but  it 
was  only  a  salute  to  a  fleet  oiflatboats  containing  military  stores  for  the 
different  stations  on  the  river. 

Mr.  Joseph  Coppin,  one  of  the  few  survivors  of  the  Cin- 
cinnati of  the  second  decade,  in  his  inaugural  address, 
March  27,  1880,  as  President  of  the  Pioneer  association, 
gives  the  following  amusing  reminiscence : 

We  had  plenty  of  snow,'  but  no  pleasure  sleighs;  so  the  old  pioneers 
thought  that  they  must  have  a  ride,  and  they  procured  a  large  canoe  or 
pirogue,  with  a  skiff  attached  behind  and  seated  for  the  ladies.  To  this 
pirogue-sleigh  were  hitched  ten  horses,  with  ten  boy-riders  to  guide 
them,  the  American  flag  flying,  two  fiddlers,  two  flute-players,  and  Dr. 
Stall  as  captain.  They  did  not  forget  to  pass  the  "old  black  Betty," 
filled  with  good  old  peach  brandy,  among  the  old  pioneers,  and  wine 
for  the  lady  pioneers— God  bless  them!  And  here  they  went  it,  merrily 
singing  "Gee-o,  Dobbin;  Dobbin,  gee-o!"  When  the  riding  ended, 
both  old  and  young  pioneers  wound  up  the  sport  with  a  ball — linsey- 
woolsey  dresses  in  place  of  silk  on  ladies,  many  buckskin  suits  on 
pioneer  men,  and  moccasins  on  their  feet  in  place  of  shoes. 


Herr  Schultze,  a  German  tourist  who  found  his  way  to 
the  Ohio  Valley  this  year  and  afterwards  published  his 




Travels  on  an  Inland  Voyage,  thus  remarks  upon  Ci 

It  contains  about  three  hundred  houses,  among  which  are  found  sev- 
eral very  genteel  buildings ;  it  has  a  bank,  market-house,  printing-office, 
and  a  number  of  stores  well  stocked  with  every  kind  of  merchandise  in 
demand  in  this  country.  The  markets  are  well  furnished,  both  as  to 
abundance  and  variety.  Superfine  flower  [sic]  is  selling  at  three  and  a 
half  and  four  dollars  by  the  single  barrel,  and  other  articles  are  pro- 
portionally cheap.  Ordinary  manufactures  they  have  likewise  in  plenty; 
and  the  country  round,  being  rich  and  level,  produces  all  the  necessaries 
of  life  with  but  little  labour.  Fort  Washington  is  situated  immediately 
at  the  upper  end  of  the  town ;  and  although,  from  the  increased  popu- 
lation of  the  country,  it  is  at  present  useless,  yet,  in  the  early  settlement 
of  this  place,  it  was  a  post  of  considerable  importance  in  checking  the 
inecfrsions  and  ravages  of  the  Indians. 

(February  third  the  Territorial  Legislature  passes  an  act 
authorizing  the  imposition  of  a  tax  to  the  amount  of  six 
thousand  dollars,  for  the  pecuniary  foundation  of  a  Cin- 
cinnati University.) 

March  eleven,  me  office  of  General  Findlay,  the  re- 
ceiver of  public  moneys  at  the  land  office,  is  robbed  of 
fifty  thousand  dollars,  which  creates  a  prodigious  sensa- 
tion. The  perpetrators  are  found,  tried,  and  sentenced 
to  be  publicly  whipped,  but  are  pardoned  through  the 
clerhency  of  Governor  Looker. 

f/The  third  of  September  brings  the  first  purchase  of 
fire-engines — hand  engines,  of  course — for  the  village; 
one  to  be  used  on  the  bottom,  the  other  on  the  hilu) 

November  third,  Judge  Burnet,  having  been  peppered 
with  paper  bullets  from  the  Rev.  John  W.  Browne,  ed- 
itor, in  turn  castigates  him,  but  with  a  more  material 
weapon.  Another  first-class  sensation  for  the  quid- 
nuncs of  the  village. 

Mr.  Coppin,/he  pioneer  before  referred  to,  says  that 
in  this  year  theffirst  barres  were  built  in  Cincinnati  for 
the  New  Orleans  tradeAby  Richardson  &  Nolan,  for 
whom  he  worked.  Thefy  were  built  for  Messrs.  Martin 
Baum,  James  Riddle,  Henry  Bechtle,  and  Captain  Sam- 
uel Perry,  and  were  rigged  like  schooners,  with  two 
masts,  and  the  cabins  finished  like  those  of  a  ship. 

Another  rather  notable  arrival  occurred  this  year,  June 
first,  in  the  landing,  from  a  flatboat  at  the  foot  of  Main 
street,  of  Evans  Price,  an  enterprising  Welshman,  his 
wife  and  four  children,  and  'the  large  amount,  for  that 
period,  of  ten  thousand  dollars'  worth  of  store  goods. 
He  had  thenceforth  a  long  and  active  business  career  in 

the  city. 

In  November  dies  the  Hon.  William  Goforth,  sr.,  the 
first  judge  named  for  Hamilton  county,  and  a  prominent 
member  of  the  first  State  constitutional  convention. 


Mr  F  Cuming,  a  Philadelphian,  came  down  the  Ohio 
in  May,  and  in   his  Sketches  of  a  Tour  to  the  Western 

CWenstoyppSeadyat  Cincinnati,  which  is  delightfully  situated  just  opposite 
the  mouth  of  the  Licking  rive,  This  town  occupies  more  ground ^and 
eems  to  contain  nearly  as  many  houses  as  Lexington^  It  is  on  a 
douWebank,  like  Steubenville,  and  the  streets  are  ,n  right  lines,  inter- 
double  oan  ,  are  of  them  of  bncki  and 

Te^rea  t  gent\  well  built,  well  painted,  and  have  that  air  of 
nearness  which  is  so  conspicuous  in  Connecticut  and  New  Jersey,  from  State  this  part  of  the  State  of  Ohio  ,s  principally  settle* 
Some  of  the  new  brick  houses  are  of  three  stones  with  flat  roofs,  and 
fheTe  .s  one  of  four  stories  now  building.  Mr.  Jacob  Burnet,  an  emi- 
nent lawyer,  has  a  handsome  brick  house,  beautifully  s.tuated,  just  out- 

side  the  west  end  of  the  town.  Cincinnati,  then  named  Fort  Washing- 
ton, was  one  of  the  first  military  posts  occupied  by  the  Americans  in 
the  western  country,  but  I  observed  no  remains  of  the  old  fort.  It  is 
now  the  capital  of  Hamilton  county,  and  is  the  largest  town  in  the 

By  this  time,  according  to  Mr.  Cuming,  the  remains  of 
the  fort  must  have  been  thoroughly  cleared  away.  The 
building  and  other  material  had  besn  sold  in  March  by 
order  of  the  Government,  and  had  probably  by  this  time 
all  been  broken  up  and  carted  off.  The  reservation  on 
which  it  stood  had  also  been  cut  up  into  lots,  and  sold 
through  the  land  office. 

On  the  twentieth  of  April,  in  that  one  day,  two  brigs 
and  two  "ships"  passed  Cincinnati,  on  their  way  to  New 

The  vote  in  Cincinnati  this  year  was  two  hundred  and 
ninety-eight;  in  Hamilton  county  one  thousand  one 
hundred  and  sixteen. 


There  is  much  excitement  and  alarm  a  part  of  this 
year,  under  the  belief,  which  is  general  through  the  Ohio 
and  Indiana  country,  that  Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet, 
still  at  Greenville,  are  about  to  lead  the  confederated 
tribes  to  another  war  of  devastation  and  massacre.  The 
movements  in  the  southwest  part  of  the  State  are  re- 
counted in  another  chapter  on  the  military  record  of 
Hamilton  county. 

The  tax  levy  for  this  year  is  but  one-half  of  one  per 
cent. ;  for  the  next  year  but  two-fifths  of  one  per  cent., 
and  for  1811  but  thirty -five  cents  on  the  hundred  dollars. 
In  the  early  afternoon  of  Sunday,  May  28th,  a  terrible 
tornado  swept  through  the  eastern  part  of  town.  Dr. 
Drake  says,  in  his  Picture  of  Cincinnati,  that  "it  demol- 
ished a  few  old  buildings,  threw  down  the  tops  of  several 
chimneys  and  overturned  many  fruit  and  shade  trees." 
Another  gale  swept  the  central  part  of  the  village,  and  a 
third  the  west  end.  The  last  was  the  most  destructive 
of  all,  blowing  down,  wrote  Dr.  Drake,  "a  handsome 
brick  edifice  designed  for  tuition,  .  .  in  con- 
sequence of  having  a  cupola  disproportioned  to  its  area; 
and  various  minor  injuries  of  property  were  sustained, 
but  the  inhabitants  escaped  unhurt."  The  tornado 
made  a  broad  track  of  devastation  through  the  forest  on 
the  hill  northeast  of  town.  It  was  accompanied  by  copi- 
ous showers  of  rain  and  hail,  with  much  thunder  and 

The  "edifice  designed  for  tuition"  was  the  "Cincinnati 
University"  building;  and  its  destruction  extinguished 
the  hopes  of  the  enterprise  it  represented.  Some  smaller 
buildings  were  razed  to  the  ground,  and  the  roof  of  Win- 
throp  Sargent's  house  was  blown  off  "like  a  piece  of 
paper,"  as  Mr.  Mansfield  records  it.  This  house,  he  says, 
was  nearly  in  the  centre  of  the  square  north  of  Fourth 
street  and  east  of  Broadway,  with  McAllister  street  on 
the  northwest.  He  thinks  it  was  the  only  house  then  in 
that  part  of  the  city.  In  the  same  storm,  large  oak  trees 
were  torn  up  by  the  roots,  and  some  were  thrown  bodily 
across  the  roads.  Mr.  Mansfield's  account,  however, 
locates  this  storm  in  181 2 ;  but  he  was  probably  mistaken 
for  once. 

William    D.  Bigham  came  this  year,  from  Lewiston, 



Pennsylvania,  with  his  wife  and  family,  four  sons  and  two 
daughters.  Two  other  daughters — wives,  respectively,  of 
James  Patterson  and  James  Reed — had  already  removed 
to  Hamilton  county,  and  were  living  near  the  city.  He 
had  made  two  trips  through  this  country,  one  in  1795, 
and  the  other  in  1801,  during  the  latter  of  which  he 
bought  three  hundred  and  fifty  acres  of  land  a  mile  and 
a  half  from  the  town  (now,  of  course,  in  the  city),  sev- 
eral town  lots  here,  and  a  tract  in  Butler  county.  He  re- 
mained but  about  a  year,  and  then  moved  to  his  place 
near  Hamilton,  where  he  died  in  1815.  Two  of  his 
grandsons,  William  D.  and  David  L.,  sons  of  David  Big- 
ham,  became  residents  of  Cincinnati;  the  former  died 
here  November  23,  1866.  Several  of  his  sons  became 
public  officers  and  otherwise  prominent  men  in  Butler 




This  was  the  year  of  the  third  United  States  census — 
the  second  for  Cincinnati.  It  gave  the  place  two  thou- 
sand three  hundred  and  twenty  inhabitants — an  increase 
of  nearly  three  hundred  and  ten  percent,  and  the  great- 
est in  the  history  of  the  city  in  one  decade,  excepting  the 
marvelous  jump  in  the  sixth  decade  from  forty-six  thou- 
sand three  hundred  and  thirty-eight  in  1840  to  one  hun- 
dred and  fifteen  thousand  four  hundred  and  thirty-eight 
in  1850.  The  white  males  numbered  one  thousand  two 
hundred  and  twenty-seven,  white  females  one  thousand 
and  thirteen,  negroes  eighty.j  Children  under  sixteen 
years  counted  one  thousand  and  fifteen;  and  there  were 
but  one  hundred  and  eighty-four  over  forty-five  years.  The 
vote  of  the  town  was  three  hundred  and  eighty-eight;  of 
the  county,  two  thousand  three  hundred  and  twenty. 

(The  first  book  relating  to  the  place  was  published  this 
year — a  unique  fact  for  a  village  of  but  twenty-four  hun- 
dred people  and  twenty  years'  growths  and  one  which 
seemed  to  foreshadow  the  future  greatness  of  the  town. 
Drake's  Notes  concerning  Cincinnnati  is  now  a  very  rare 
and  valuable  book^and  still  reflects  honor  on  the  scien- 
tific and  literary  attainments,  as  well  as  the  enterprise  of 
the  young  physician  who  prepared  it.  It  is /a  thoroughly 
original  work,  upon  which  many  Cincinnati  books  have 
since,  in  part,  been  builtJ  To  the  fourth  and  fifth  chap- 
ters of  that  little  work  we  owe  the  notes  upon  the  village 
for,  this  year  that  follow :  , 

(About  two-thirds  of  the  houses  were  in  the  Bottom, 
the  rest  upon  the  Hill.  No  streets  were  yet  paved,  and 
the  alleys  were  still  few.  There  was  no  permanent  com- 
mon, except  the  Public  Landing.  The  primitive  forest 
having  been  thoroughly  cleared  away,  trees  had  been 
planted  along  some  of  the  sidewalks ;  but,  says  the  good 
doctor,  "they  are  not  sufficiently  numerous.)  The  absurd 
clamor  against  the  caterpillar  of  the  Lombardy  poplar 


caused  many  trees  of  that  species  to  be  cut  down,  and  at 
present  the  white  flowering  locust  very  justly  attracts  the 
most  attention.''  (The  place  contained  about  three  hun- 
dred and  sixty  dwellings,  chiefly  brick  and  frame,  and 
a  few  of  stone.  Scarcely  any  were  so  constructed  as  to 
afford  habitations  for  families  below  the  ground,  and 
not  many  had  even  porches.  There  were  two  cemeteries 
— one  for  the  dead  of  all  denominations  on  the  Public 
square,  between  Fourth  and  Fifth  streets,  "nearly  in  the 
center  of  the  Hill  population,''  and  was,  says  Dr.  Drake, 
"a  convenient  receptacle  for  the  town,  for  strangers,  and 
for  the  troops  in  Fort  Washington,  previous  to  the  erase- 
ment  of  that  garrison."  Its  area  was  something  less  than 
half  the  square.  The  other  cemetery  was  opened  by  the 
Methodists  about  1805,  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  the 
town,  and  also  on  the  Hill.  Eight  brickyards  were  in 
operation  in  the  western  part  of  the  Bottom,  on  the  low- 
est part  of  the  town  site,  near  the  second  bank.  That 
quarteflabounded  in  pools,  formed  by  water  drained  from 
almost  every  part  of  the  village.  The  butchers'  shambles 
were  on  the  bank  of  Deer  creek,  north  and  northwest  of 
town.     The  tanneries  were  in  the  same  region!} 

([The  American  emigration  to  this  time  had  been  chiefly 
from  the  States  north  of  Virginia;  but  representatives  were 
on  the  ground  from  every  State  then  in  the  Union  and 
from  most  of  the  countries  in  the  west  of  Europe,  espe- 
cially from  England,  Ireland,  Scotland  and  Germany. 
The  inhabitants  were  generally  laborious,  most  of  them 
mechanics,  and  the  rest  chiefly  merchants,  professional 
men,  and  teachers.  Very  few,  if  any,  were  so  independ 
ent  in  means  as  not  to  engage  in  some  business.  Most 
of  the  inhabitants  were  temperate,  but  some  would  get 
"daily  but  quietly"  drunk,  and  "no  very  inconsiderable 
number  had  been  known  to  fall  victims  to  the  habit." 
Whiskey  was  most  in  request  by  the  tipplers,  but  beer  and 
cider  were  the  beverages  of  the  more  sober.  Well  water 
furnished  the  plain,  summer  drink;  but  for  domestic  pur- 
poses river  water  was  supplied  in  barrels,  and  at  least 
half  the  inhabitants  also  drank  it  during  six  months  of 
the  year.  The  use  of  tobacco  by  the  male  inhabitants, 
from  the  age  of  ten  up,  was"  almost  universal.  The  aver- 
age food  was  similar  to  that  eaten  in  the  middle  and 
eastern  States;  fresh  meats  were  consumed  in  large  quan- 
tities.^ Beef,  fermented  wheat  bread,  and  Indian  corn 
bread  were  common;  but  hot  bread  of  any  kind  was 
rarer  than  in  the  southern  States.  Rye  flour  was  almost 
unknown  as  a  breadstuff.  Fish  was  not  a  leading  article 
of  diet,  although  abundant  in  the  streams. 

rThe  dress  of  the  people  by  this  time  did  not  vary 
greatly  from  that  worn  by  the  corresponding  classes  in  the 
middle  States^  The  ladies,  thought  the  doctor,  injured 
their  health  by  dressing  too  thin,  and  both  sexes  were 
not  sufficiently  careful  to  adjust  their  clothing  to  the  fre- 
quent changes  of  weather.  Female  health  was  further 
endangered  by  the  balls  and  dancing  parties  prevalent 
here  then,  as  elsewhere,  though  not  to  great  excess. 
Mineral  waters,  either  natural  or  artificial,  or  artificial 
baths,  were  not  yet  known  in  the  place.  Bathing  in  the 
river  was  practiced  by  some,  but  was  less  regular  and 
general'than  comports  with  health  and  cleanliness. 



The  back  part  of  the  bottom,  through  its  entire  length, 
is  described  by  the  doctor  as  "a  hot-bed"  of  animal  and 
vegetable  putridity.  Some  spots,  but  only  of  small  area, 
had  been  artificially  raised  to  make  them  cultivable.  At 
the  east  end  of  a  strip  of  low  ground  was  a  kind  of  broad, 
shallow  canal,  which  conveyed  water  from  all  parts  of  the 
town  site  to. the  pits  of  the  brickyards,  where  "it  could 
not  escape,  save  as  gas  or  malaria.  For  its  escape  in 
this  manner  the  heat  of  our  summer  sun,  increased  by 
the  reflection  from  the  contiguous  high  bank,  is  amply 
sufficient."  The  principal  febrile  diseases,  notably  ty- 
phus affections,  which  had  scourged  the  people  the  year 
before,  especially  in  December,  1809,  were  most  probably 
due  to  this  cause.  The  "drowned  lands"  in  the  valley 
of  Mill  creek  were  also  mentioned  as  a  fertile  source  of 
fever  and  ague;  likewise  the  tall  forest  trees  that  still 
overshadowed  large  spaces  between  the  valley  and  the 
town,  the  cemetery  in  the  heart  of  the  population,  and 
the  shambles  and  tanneries  when  winds  blew  from  the 
northwest.  Sunstroke  was  then  unknown  here,  and 
death  from  the  inordinate  use  of  well  water,  which  in 
those  days  killed  many  thirsty  ones  in  Philadelphia,  was 
very  rare  in  Cincinnati.  Few  diseases  could  be  traced 
directly  to  the  heats  of  summer. 

This  year  General  Lytle,  an  extensive  and  enterprising 
land  operator,  removed  to  Cincinnati  from  Williams- 
burgh,  Clermont  county.  He  was,  as  is  well  known,  the 
father  of  Colonel  Robert  T.  Lytle,  who  represented  the 
Cincinnati  district  in  Congress  1833-5,  and  tne  grand- 
father of  General  William  H.  Lytle,  who  was  killed  in  the 
late  war. 

On  the  twenty-sixth  of  October  arrived  the  families 
of  L'Hommedieu,  Fosdick,  and  Rogers,  after  a  tedious 
journey  from  Sagg  Harbor,  on  Long  Island,  having  con- 
sumed sixty-three  days  in  coming  from  New  York  city. 
Hon.  Stephen  S.  L'Hommedieu,  then  a  boy  in  one  of 
these  families,  says,  in  his  Pioneer  Address  of  1874: 

Cincinnati  was  then  a  village,  containing  about  two  thousand  inhab- 
itants. The  houses  were  mostly  frame  or  log  cabins,  located  generally 
on  the  lower  level,  below  what  is  now  Third  street.  The  principal 
street  was  Main,  and  was  pretty  well  built  upon  as  high  as  Sixth  and 
Seventh  streets,  the  latter  being  the  northern  boundary  of  the  village. 
It  had  its  Presbyterian  meeting-house,  a  frame  building  on  the  square 
between  Fourth  and  Fifth,  Main  and  Walnut  streets;  its  graveyard, 
court  house,  jail,  and  public  whipping-post,  all  on  the  same  square. 
Upon  the  same  ground,  between  the  court  house  and  meeting-house,  ; 
bands  of  friendly  Indians  would  have  war-dances,  much  to  the  amuse- 
ment of  the  villagers;  after  which  the  hat  would  be  passed  around  for  , 
the  benefit,  it  may  be,  of  the  pappooses. 

And  here  I  may  mention  the  fact  that  the  pew  and  pulpit  sounding-  [ 
board  of  that  same  old  pioneer  meeting-house,  built  in  the  years  1792-3.  j 
whose  pulpit  was,  in  1810,  occupied  by  that  able,  fine-looking,  hospit-  ; 
able  brave  old  Kentucky  preacher,  Dr.  Joshua  L.  Wilson,  are  still  in 
use  in  a  small  German   Lutheran  church,  on  the  river  road,  within  the 
present  corporate  limits  of  the  city.  : 

The  village  also  had  its  stone  Methodist  meeting-house,  built  in  1805- 
6,  situated  on  East  Fifth  street,  a  little  west  of  Eastern  row,  then  the  ; 
eastern  boundary  of  the  village,  now  Broadway.     It  also  had  its  post 
office,  on  the  corner  of  Lawrence  and  Front  streets,  and  its  David  Em- 
bree  brewery,  on  the  river  bank,  below  Race  street. 


"his  year  the  residents  of  this  region,  and  indeed  all , 
..ough  the  western  country,  were  much  in  alarm  through  1 
fear  of  the  renewal  of  Indian  depredations  and  hostili- : 

ities ;  which  fear,  happily,  was  not  realized  in  any  part  of 
the  Miami  valley^  After  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe,  in 
November,  the  Fourth  regiment  of  United  States  infan- 
try, commanded  by  Colonel  Boyd,  an  uncle  of  Judge 
Bellamy  Storer,  which  had  marched  away  from  Fort 
Washington  to  the  campaign,  returned  flushed  with  vic- 
tory, and  was  received  with  great  acclamation  by  the 
people  of  Cincinnati.  The  next  June,  we  may  mention 
here,  when  it  moved  northward  to  join  the  army  under 
General  Hull,  the  military  companies  of  the  city  met  it 
as  it  landed  after  crossing  from  Newport  Barracks,  and 
acted  as  an  escort  of  honor  on  the  march  up  Main  street. 
From  the  northeast  to  the  northwest  intersection  of  this 
street  with  Fifth,  a  triumphal  arch  had  been  erected, 
bearing  in  large  letters  the  inscription,  "To  the  Heroes 
of  Tippecanoe."  Three  hundred  soldiers,  all  that  re- 
mained of  this  gallant  regiment  from  the  inroads  of  dis- 
ease and  the  casualties  of  service,  passed  under  the  arch. 
One  soldier  marching  in  disgrace  as  a  prisoner,  for  deser- 
tion or  cowardice,  was  compelled  to  go  around  the  arch, 
as  a  further  stamp  of  .ignominy.  Upon  reaching  its  first 
camp  north  of  Cincinnati,  about  five  miles  out,  the  regi- 
ment was  bountifully  supplied  with  provisions  from  the 
city,  as  gifts  of  its  citizens.  Upon  arriving  at  Urbana, 
where  Hull's  army  was  then  encamped,  it  was  honored 
with  another  arch,  inscribed:  "Tippecanoe — The  Eagle 
— Glory."  Lieutenant  Colonel  Miller,  now  command- 
ing the  regiment,  was  the  hero  of  the  celebrated  reply  at 
the  battle  of  Chippewa,  to  the  question  of  General  Scott; 
"Can  you  take  that  battery?"  "I  will  try,  sir" — words 
which,  except  the  last,  were  worn  upon  the  buttons  of 
the-regimental  uniform. 

/In  August  of  this  year,  the  first  in  the  long  and  costly 
listof  Cincinnati  breweries  was  established  on  the  river 
bank,  at  the  foot  of  Race  street,  by  Mr.  David  Embree. 
On  the  twenty-seventh  of  the  same  month  the  hearts  of 
the  people  were  made  glad,  and  they  were  finally  relieved 
from  Indian  alarms,  by  the  notification  of  Colonel  John- 
ston that  he  had  made  peace  with  all  the  savage  tribes 
on  the  frontier./  Mourning  came  September  24th 
when  Major  Zjegler,  the  gallant  old  Prussian  sol- 
dier, and  the  first  of  Cincinnati's  executive  officers,  died. 
He  was  buried  with  military  honors.*  The  Farmers'  & 
Mechanics'  bank,  of  Cincinnati,  was  established  this  year, 
at  a  public  meeting  held  October  12th.  Nicholas  Long- 
worth  was  secretary  of  the  commissioners  of  the  bank. 

*  The  descendants  of  Major  Ziegler,  and  all  who  revere  the  memory 
of  the  gallant  soldier,  will  be  interested  in  the  following  extract  from 
the  military  journal  of  Major  Denny,  a  fellow  officer  of  the  First  regi- 
ment of  the  army  : 

"22d.  [February,  1789.]  Married,  this  evening,  Captain  David 
Ziegler,  of  the  First  legiment,  to  Miss  Sheffield,  only  single  daughter 
of  Mrs.  Sheffield,  of  Campus  Martius,  city  of  Marietta.  On  this  oc- 
casion I  played  the  captain's  aid,  and  at  his  request  the  memorandums 
made.  I  exhibited  a  character  not  more  awkward  than  strange  at  the 
celebration  of  Captain  Ziegler's  nuptials,  the  first  of  the  kind  I  had 
been  a  witness  to." 

This  was  at  Fort  Harmar,  near  Marietta.  Captain  Ziegler  was  sta- 
tioned with  his  company  at  Fort  Finney,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Great 
Miami,  more  than  two  years  before  Losantiville  was  founded.  Major 
Denny  elsewhere  records  a  high  compliment  to  Ziegler's  soldiership 
and  the  bearing  of  his  company— "always  first  in  point  of  discipline 
and  appearance. " 




t  The  first  steamboat  ever  seen  in  Cincinnati,  and  the 
first  built  on  western  waters,  the  New  Orleans,  arrived  on 
the  twenty-seventh  of  October,  naturally  exciting  great 
curiosity.)  She  is  noted  at  the  time  as  actually  making 
thirteen-niiles  in  two  hours,  and  against  the  current  at 
that!  Liberty  Hall  of  October  30,  181 1,  gives  a  still 
better  account  of  it.  After  noticing  the  departure,  on 
the  previous  Sabbath,  of  two  large  barges  rigged  as 
sloops  and  owned  in  Cincinnati,  for  New  Orleans,  the 
editor  includes  this  in  his  "ship  news"  : 

Same  day. — The  STEAMBOAT,  lately  built  at  Pittsburgh,  passed  this 
town  at  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  in  fine  stile,  going  at  the  rate  of 
about  ten  or  twelve  miles  an  hour. 

Only  these  three  lines — no  more — to  chronicle  the 
greatest  commercial  event  that  ever  occurred  at  Cincin- 

Mr.  William  Robson,  who  landed  here  in  June,  1818, 
and  was  long  at  the  head  of  the  coppersmith  and  brass- 
founding  business  in  Cincinnati,  was  originally  a  ship 
carpenter  by  trade,  and  as  such  worked  upon  the  Cler- 
mont, Fulton's  first  steamboat  upon  the  Hudson.  His 
service  upon  this  was  so  satisfactory  that  when  the  New 
York  company  determined  to  build  a  steamer  for  the 
western  waters,  in  181 1,  he  was  sent  to  Pittsburgh  to  su- 
perintend its  construction.  Thus  closely  is  Cincinnati 
related  to  the  introduction  of  steam  navigation  in  the 
great  west.  -■  •■      '■•  _ 

Mr.  Charles  Joseph  Latrobe,  of  the  celebrated  family 
of  engineers,  in  the  first  volume  of  his  Rambler  in 
North  America,  (1832-33),  has  left  an  exceedingly  read- 
able and  intelligent  account  of  this  first  voyage  of  the 
New  Orleans,  which  is  worth  extracting  in  full: 

Circumstances  gave  me  the  opportunity  of  becoming  acquainted 
with  the  particulars  of  the  very  first  voyage  of  a  steamer  in  the  west; 
and  their  extraordinary  character  will  be  my  apology  to  you  for  filling 
a  page  of  this  sheet  with  the  following  brief  relation  : 

The  complete  success  attending  the  experiments  in  steam  naviga- 
tion made  on  the  Hudson  and  the  adjoining  waters  previous  to  the  year 
1809,  turned  the  attention  of  the  principal  projectors  to  the  idea  of  its 
application  on  the  western  rivers;  and  in  the  month  of  April  of  that 
year,  Mr.  Roosevelt,  of  New  York,  pursuant  to  an  agreement  with 
Chancellor  Livingston  and  Mr.  Fulton,  visited  those  rivers,  with  the 
purpose  of  forming  an  opinion  whether  they  admitted  of  steam  navi- 
gation or  not.  At  this  time  two  boats,  the  North  River  and  the  Cler- 
mont, were  running  on  the  Hudson.  Mr.  Roosevelt  surveyed  the  riv- 
ers from  Pittsburgh  to  New  Orleans,  and,  as  his  report  was  favorable,  it 
was  decided  to  build  a  boat  at  the  former  town.  This  was  done  under 
his  direction,  and  in  the  course  of  i8n  the  first  boat  was  launched  on 
the  waters  of  the  Ohio.  It  was  called  the  "New  Orleans,"  and  intended 
to  ply  between  Natchez,  in  the  State  of  Mississippi,  and  the  city  whose 
name  it  bore.  In  October  it  left  Pittsburgh  for  its  experimental  voy- 
age. On  this  occasion  no  freight  or  passengers  were  taken,  the  object 
being  merely  to  bring  the  boat  to  her  station.  Mr.  Roosevelt,  his 
young  wife  and  family,  a  Mr.  Baker,  the  engineer,  Andrew  Jack,  the 
pilot,  and  six  hands,  with  a  few  domestics,  formed  the  whole  burden. 
There  were  no  woodyards  at  that  time,  and  constant  delays  were  una- 
voidable. When,  as  related,  Mr.  Roosevelt  had  gone  down  the  river 
to  reconnoitre,  he  had  discovered  two  beds  of  coal,  about  one  hundred 
and  twenty  miles  below  the  rapids  at  Louisville,  and  now  took  tools  to 
work  them,  intending  to  load  the  vessel  with  the  coal  and  to  employ  it 
as  fuel,  instead  of  constantly  detaining  the  boat  while  wood  was  pro- 
cured from  the  banks. 

Late  at  night,  on  the  fourth  day  after  quitting  Pittsburgh,  they  ar- 
rived in  safety  at  Louisville,  having  been  but  seventy  hours  descending 
upwards  of  seven  hundred  miles.  The  novel  appearance  of  the  vessel, 
and  the  fearful  rapidity  with  which  it  made  its  passage  over  the  broad 
reaches  of  the  river,  excited  a  mixture  of  terror  and  surprise  among 
many  of  the  settlers  on  the  banks,  whom  the  rumor  ]of  such  an  inven- 

tion had  never  reached;  and  it  is  related  that  on  the  unexpected  arrival 
of  the  boat  before  Louisville,  in  the  course  of  a  fine,  still,  moonlight 
night,  the  extraordinary  sound  which  filled  the  air,  as  the  pent-up 
steam  was  suffered  to  escape  from  the  valve  on  rounding-to,  produced 
a  general  alarm,  and  the  multitudes  in  the  town  rose  from  their  beds  to 
ascertain  the  cause.  I  have  heard  that  the  general  impression  among 
the  good  Kentuckians  was  that  the  comet  had  fallen  into  the  Ohio ; 
but  this  does  not  rest  upon  the  same  foundation  as  the  other  facts 
which  I  lay  before  you,  and  which  I  may  at  once  say  I  had  directly  from 
the  lips  of  the  parties  themselves.  The  small  depth  of  water  in  the  rap- 
ids prevented  the  boat  from  pursuing  her  voyage  immediately,  and 
during  the  consequent  detention  of  three  weeks  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
Ohio,  several  trips  were  successfully  made  between  Louisville  and  Cin- 
cinnati. In  fine,  the  waters  rose,  and  in  the  course  of  the  last  week  in 
November  the  voyage  was  resumed,  the  depth  of  water  barely  admit- 
ting their  passage. 

When  they  arrived  about  five  miles  above  the  Yellow  Banks  they 
moored  the  boat  opposite  to  the  first  vein  of  coal,  which  was  on  the 
Indiana  side,  and  had  been  purchased  in  the  interim  of  the  State  gov- 
ernment. They  found  a  large  quantity  already  quarried  to  their  hand 
and  conveyed  to  the  shore  by  depredators,  who  had  not  found  means  to 
carry  it  off;  and  with  this  they  commenced  loading  the  boat.  While 
thus  engaged,  our  voyagers  were  accosted  in  great  alarm  by  the  squat- 
ters of  the  neighborhood,  who  inquired  if  they  had  not  heard  strange 
noises  on  the  river  and  in  the  woods  in  the  course  of  the  preceding 
day,  and  perceived  the  shores  shake,  insisting  that  they  had  repeatedly 
felt  the  earth  tremble. 

Hitherto  nothing  extraordinary  had  been  perceived.  The  following 
day  they  pursued  their  monotonous  voyage  in  those  vast  solitudes.  The 
weather  was  ^observed  to  be  oppressively  hot ;  the  air  misty,  still,  and 
dull ;  and  though  the  sun  was  visible,  like  a  glowing  ball  of  copper,  his 
rays  hardly  shed  more  than  a  mournful  twilight  on  the  surface  of 
.the  water.  Evening  drew  nigh,  and  with  it  some  indications  of  what 
w'as  passing, around  them  became  evident.  And  as  they  sat  on  deck, 
"they 'ever  and  anon  heard  a  rushing  sound  and  violent  splash,  and  saw 
large. portions  of  the  shore  tearing  away  from  the  land  and  falling  into 
-tlie  river.  "  It  was,"  as  my  informant  said,  "an  awful  day  ;  so  still  that 
you  could  have  heard  a  pin  drop  on  the  deck."  They  spoke  little,  for 
every  one  on  board  appeared  thunderstruck.  The  comet  had  disap- 
peared about  this  time,  which  circumstance  was  noticed  with  awe  by 
the  crew. 

The  second  day  after  their  leaving  the  Yellow  Banks,  the  sun  rose 
over  the  forest  the  same  ball  of  fire,  and  the  air  was  thick,  dull,  and 
oppressive  as  before.  The  portentous  signs  of  this  terrible  natural  Con- 
vulsion continued  and  increased.  The  pilot,  alarmed  and  confused, 
affirmed  that  he  was  lost,  as  he  found  the  channel  everywhere  altered; 
and  where  he  had  hitherto  known  deep  water,  there  lay  numberless 
trees  with  their  roots  upwards.  The  trees  were  seen  waving  and  nod- 
ding on  the  bank,  without  a  wind;  but  the  adventurers  had  no  choice 
but  to  continue  their  route.  Towards  evening  they  found  themselves 
at  a  loss  for  a  place  of  shelter.  They  had  usually  brought  to  under  the 
shore,  but  everywhere  they  saw  the  high  banks  disappearing,  over- 
whelming many  a  flat-boat  and  raft,  from  which  the  owners  had  landed 
and  made  their  escape.  A  large  island  in  mid-channel,  which  was 
selected  by  the  pilot  as  the  better  alternative,  was  sought  for  in  vain, 
having  disappeared  entirely.  Thus,  in  doubt  and  terror,  they  proceeded 
hour  after  hour  till  dark,  when  they  found  a  small  island,  and  rounded 
to,  mooring  themselves  to  the  foot  of  it.  Here  they  lay,  keeping  watch 
on  deck  during  the  long  autumnal  night,  listening  to  the  sound  of  the 
waters  which  roared  and  gurgled  horribly  around  them,  and  hearing 
from  time  to  time  the  rushing  earth  slide  from  the  shore,  and  the  com- 
motion as  the  falling  mass  of  earth  and  trees  was  swallowed  up  by  the 
river.  The  mother  of  the  party,  a  delicate-female,  who  had  just  been 
confined  on  board  as  they  lay  off  Louisville,  was  frequently  awakened 
from  her  restless  slumber  by  the  jar  given  to  the  furniture  and  loose 
articles  in  the  cabin,  as,  several  times  in  the  course  of  the  night,  the 
shock  of  the  passing  earthquake  was  communicated  from  the  island  to 
the  bows  of  the  vessel.  It  was  a  long  night,  but  morning  dawned  and 
showed  them  that  they  were  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio.  The  shores 
and  the  channel  were  now  equally  unrecognizable;  everything  seemed 
changed.  About  noon  that  day  they  reached  the  small  town  of  New 
Madrid,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Mississippi.  Here  they  found  the  in- 
habitants in  the  greatest  distress  and  consternation;  part  of  the  popu- 
lation had  fled  in  terror  to  the  higher  grounds;  others  prayed  to  be 
taken  on  board,  as  the  earth  was  opening  in  fissures  on  every  side,  and 
their  houses  hourly  falling  around  them. 

Proceeding  thence,  they  found  the  Mississippi,  at  all  times  a  fearful 

Znjf-Tjy  jLEFrt''- 

^y^o&r'  nsf/r/.?2s 



stream,  now  unusually  swollen,  turbid  and  full  of  trees;  and,  after  many 
days  of  great  danger,  though  they  felt  and  perceived  no  more  of  the 
earthquakes,  they  reached  their  destination  at  Natchez,  at  the  close  of 
the  first  week  in  January,  i8iz,  to  the  great  astonishment  of  all,  the 
escape  of  the  boat  having  been  considered  an  impossibility. 

At  that  time  you  floated  for  three  or  four  hundred  miles  on  the  rivers, 
without  seeing  a  human  habitation. 

Such  was  the  voyage  of  the  first  steamer. 

(f  The  shocks  of  earthquake  were  felt  at  Cincinnati  al- 
most as  severely  as  at  some  points  in  the  Mississippi  val- 
ley. The  first  shock  occurred  at  2:24  A.  M.,  on  the 
morning  of  the  sixteenth  of  December.  The  motion 
was  a  quick  oscillation  or  rocking,  continuing  six  or  seven 
minutes,  and  accompanied,  as  some  averred,  by  a  rush- 
ing or  rumbling  noise.  Some  mischief  was  done  to 
brick-walled  houses  and  to  chimneys,  and  many  persons 
were  afflicted  by  it  with  vertigo  or  nausea.  A  brief  but 
graphic  picture  of  the  earthquake,  as  it  affected  this 
place,  is  given  by  Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield,  in  his  biography 
of  his  brother-in-law,  Dr.  Drake.  Mr.  Mansfield,  it 
should  be  remarked,  had  himself  personal  recollections  of 
this  event: 

In  the  morning  of  the  sixteenth  of  December,  181.1,  the  inhabitants 
of  the  Miami  country,  and  especially  of  Cincinnati  and  its  neighbor- 
hood, were  awoke  from  a  sound  sleep,  at  about  three  o'clock,  by  a 
shaking  of  their  houses,  and  by  rumbling  noises  which  sounded  like 
distant  thunder.  To  each  one  the  phenomenon  was  alike  unknown 
and  awful.  In  the  country  the  animals  soon  began  to  shriek,  and  all 
Nature  seemed  to  feel  the  shock  of  a  common  evil  and  the  dread  of  a 
common  danger.  The  most  intelligent  persons  soon  discovered  it  to  be 
an  earthquake;  but  this  discovery  by  no  means  allayed  the  alarm.  On 
the  contrary,  as  earthquakes  were  never  known  before  in  this  region, 
there  was  nothing  to  reason  upon,  and  full  scope  was  left  for  the  im- 
agination. Pictures  of  the  earth  opening  to  devour  the  inhabitants,  of 
burning  lava  bursting  forth,  of  yawning  gulfs,  and  to  many  of  a  general 
destruction  and  a  general  doom,  rose  to  the  visions  of  the  affrighted 
people,  filling  them  with  fears  and  anxieties. 

The  shock  of  the  sixteenth  of  December  was  so  violent  that  it  shook 
down  the  chimneys  of  several  houses.  In  the  midst  of  the  general 
alarm  there  was  some  amusement;  and  the  buoyant  spirits  of  young 
and  happy  people  will  often  extract  something  pleasant,  even  from  the 
most  fearful  circumstances.  Mrs.  Willis's  Columbian  inn  was  a  sort  of 
fashionable  hotel,  where  many  of  the  gay  people  of  the  town  boarded. 
I  remember  to  have  heard  a  great  deal  of  laughter  at  the  odd  and 
curious  appearance  and  grouping  of  maids  and  madams,  bachelors  and 
husbands,  as  they  rushed  into  the  street,  tumultuous,  in  midnight 
drapery.  But  this  cheerfulness  did  not  last  long;  for  the  earthquakes 
continued  during  the  winter,  and  although  they  were  better  understood, 
they  were  not  the  less  dreaded.  This  common  fear,  and  indeed  the 
common  necessity 'of  being  prepared  for  any  event,  had  a  great  influ- 
ence in  destroying  the  artificiality  of  society  and  bringing  friends  and 
neighbors  together.  Many  families  had  their  valuables  carefully  packed 
up,  that  they  might  take  a  rapid  flight,  in  case  of  the  destruction  of 
their  houses  or  of  chasms  in  the  earth,  which  would  render  their  de- 
parture necessary.  As  the  shocks  of  an  earthquake  were  generally  pre- 
ceded by  signs  of  their  approach,  such  as  rumbling  sounds  and  a  pe- 
culiar atmosphere,  families  would  often  sit  up  late  at  night,  in  dread  of 
a  night  shock,  and  neighbors  and  friends  would  assemble  together  to 
make  the  time  pass  more  pleasantly,  especially  to  the  young,  by  cheer- 
ful conversation.  In  this  manner  social  intercourse  and  friendly  feeling 
were  promoted,  and,  as  in  other  afflictions  of  Providence,  good  was 
still  educed  from  evil. 

The  scientific  observations  and  explanations  upon  this  (in  the  valley 
of  the  Ohio)  most  extraordinary  phenomenon  are  recorded  by  Dr. 
Drake  in  the  Appendix  to  the  Picture  of  Cincinnati.  Most  careful 
notes  of  the  duration  and  deviation  of  the  shocks  were  made  by  Col- 
onel Mansfield,  at  Bates's  place.  A  carefully  prepared  pendulum,  hung 
in  the  parlor  window  of  his  house,  never  ceased  its  vibrations  from 
December  to  the  following  May;  and  several  shocks  occurred  during 
the  remainder  of  the  year  1812. 

The  original  seat  of  this  shaking  of  the  earth  seems  to  have  been  near 
New  Madrid,  on  the  Mississippi,  a  point  four  hundred  miles,  in  a  direct 
line,  from  Cincinnati.    There  the  convulsion  was  terrific.     Boats  on  the 


river  were  thrown  into  a  boiling  whirpool,  and  seemed  for  a  time  to  be 
engulfed  in  an  endless  vortex.  The  banks  of  the  river  were  rent,  the 
earth  was  opened,  and  the  waters,  rushing  in,  formed  lakes  for  miles, 
where  the  land  was  dry  before.  Explosions  from  beneath  took  place, 
and  fossils  buried  in  the  alluvium  of  ages  were  forced  to  the  surface. 
The  power  of  the  original  cause  may  be  estimated  by  the  fact  of  such 
violent  effects  at  Cincinnati,  four  hundred  miles  distant,  and  that  the 
movements,  as  of  a  lever,  of  this  central  force,  were  felt  almost  through- 
out North  America,  diminishing  in  intensity  in  the  inverse  ratio  of  the 
distance.  \ 

The  hardest  shock  here  occurred  on  the  second  of 
February  following,  throwing  down  chimneys  and  doing 
other  mischief.  Slight  shocks  were  felt  from  time  to 
time  for  nearly  two  years,  the  last  being  observed  Decem- 
ber 12,  1 8 13.  They  are  said  to  have  been  much  severer 
in  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  than  on  the  uplands,  where,  in 
many  places,  the  convulsion  of  the  earth  was  scarcely 
felt.  Twenty  miles  from  Cincinnati,  and  on  the  ridges  of 
Kentucky,  it  is  recorded  there  were  whole  families  who 
slept  through  the  first  shock  without  being  awakened. 

A  literary  curiosity  appeared  this  year — and  seems  to 
have  been  published  for  some  years  before,  as  this  is  No. 
6 — in  the  shape  of  the  Cincinnati  Almanac,  the  first 
calendar  published  west  of  the  Alleghanies.  It  was  / 
printed  by  Rev.  John  W.  Browne,  and  prepared  by 
"Robert  Stubbs,  Philom.,"  an  English  clergyman,  who 
came  to  this  region  in  1800  and  took  charge  of  the  New- 
port Academyi  He  was  quite  noted  locally  as  a  scholar, 
and  used  to  excite  great  wonderment  in  the  minds  of  the 
people  as  he  paced  to  and  fro  before  his  front  door,  recit- 
ing scraps  of  Greek  and  Latin.  Colonel  James  Taylor, 
of  Newport,  is  reputed  to  be  the  sole  surviving  member 
of  his  school. 

This  year  Mr.  John  Melish,  another  Englishman 
abroad,  makes  Cincinnati  a  visit,  and  records  some 
shrewd  observations  in  manufactures  here,  which  will  be 
found  hereafter,  in  our  chapter  on  that  subject. 


This  was  the  great  historic  year  which  opened  the  last 
war  with  Great  Britain.  The  west  was  considerably  dis- 
turbed by  the  movements  of  the  British  and  Indians  and 
the  dread  of  approaching  hostilities,  for  months  before  the 
war  formally  opened.  It  was  determined  by  the  authori- 
ties to  form  an  army  of  Ohio  troops  on  the  northwest 
frontier,  and  Hamilton,  Butler,  Warren,  and  Clermont 
counties  were  called  upon  for  one  battalion,  which  was 
promptly  raised,  and  marched  to  the  rendezvous  at 
Camp  Meigs,  near  Dayton.  General  Gano  was  promi- 
nent in  these  early  movements,  as  afterwards  in  the  war; 
and  General  Findlay,  although  a  major-general  in  the 
militia,  consented  to  command  a  regiment  as  colonel. 
The  Governor  of  the  State  issued  the  following: 

The  situation  of  our  country  has  compelled  the  Government  to  resort 
to  precautionary  measures  of  defence.  In  obedience  to  its  call,  400 
men  have  abandoned  the  comforts  of  domestic  life  and  are  here  assem- 
bled in  camp,  at  the  distance  of  some  hundred  miles  from  home,  pre- 
pared to  protect  our  frontier  from  the  awful  effects  of  savage  and  of 
civilized  warfare.  But  the  unprecedented  celerity  with  which  they 
have  moved  precluded  the  possibility  of  properly  equipping  them. 
Many,  very  many  of  them,  are  destitute  of  blankets,  and  without  those 
indispensable  articles  it  will  be  impossible  for  them  to  move  to  their 
point  of  destination.  Citizens  of  Cincinnati!  this  appeal  is  made  to 
you.    Let  each  family  furnish  one  or  more  blankets,  and  the  requisite 



number  will  be  easily  completed.  It  is  not  requested  as  a  boon:  the 
moment  your  blankets  are  delivered  you  shall  receive  the  full  value  in 
money—  they  are  not  to  be  had  at  the  stores.  The  season  of  the  year  is 
approaching  when  each  family  may,  without  inconvenience,  part  with 
one.  Mothers!  Sisters!  Wives! — Recollect  that  the  men  in  whose  favor 
this  appeal  is  made,  have  connections  as  near  and  dear  as  any  which 
can  bind  you  to  life.  These  they  have  voluntarily  abandoned,  trusting 
that  the  integrity  and  patriotism  of  their  fellow-citizens  will  supply  every 
requisite  for  themselves  and  their  families,  and  trusting  that  the  same 
spirit  which  enabled  their  fathers  to  achieve  their  independence  will 
enable  theirsons  to  defend  it.  To-morrow  arrangements  will  be  made 
for  their  reception,  and  the  price  paid. 

R.  J.  MEIGS,    Governor  of  Ohio. 
Cincinnati,  April  30,  1812. 

The  appeal  was  promptly  and  generously  responded 
to,  and  the  brave  boys  in  camp  slept  warm  during  the 
cool  nights  of  spring. 

Most  of  the  prominent  names  or  events  connected 
with  the  war,  so  far  as  tradition  or  the  records  have 
handed  them  down,  have  been  recorded  in  Part  L,  chap- 
ter n,  of  this  book.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  more  of 
the  interior  history  of  the  struggle,  and  especially  the 
rolls  of  the  regiments  recruited,  are  not  now  accessible  to 

(fclncinnati  and  Newport  presented  many  stirring  scenes 
duVing  the  war.  A  recruiting  station  was  maintained  in 
each  place,  and  the  strains  of  martial  music  soon  became! 
familiar  sounds.  Business  at  first  fell  off,  through  the 
excitement  of  volunteering  and  drafting  and  the  equip- 
ment of  the  troops;  but  recovered  as  the  people  became 
accustomed  to  it  and  the  war  created  new  demands^ 
Mr.  L'Hommedieu  says,  in  his  Pioneer  Address  April  J, 

Everything  wore  a  military  aspect.  United  States  troops  from  the 
Newport  barracks  were  marched  under  arms,  on  Sunday,  to  the  pio- 
neer Presbyterian  meeting-house,  to  hear  the  stirring  words  of  our  good 
and  brave  Dr.  Wilson.  Kentucky  sent  her  thousands  of  volunteers  on 
their  march  to  join  the  Army  of  the  North  (soon  to  be  commanded  by 
General  Harrison),  to  give  battle  to  the  British  and  their  savage  allies. 
It  was  a  glorious  sight  to  see  these  brave  men  pass  up  Main  street;  and 
what  glory  they  earned  in  the  second  war  for  independence. 

On  the  twentieth  of  June  Liberty  Hall  published  the 
declaration  of  war,  and  patriotism  was  immediately  at 
fever  heat.  The  citizens  assembled,  passed  resolutions 
of  approval,  fired  cannon,  and  engaged  in  other  demon- 
stations.  Per  contra,  intense  indignation  was  manifested 
when,  on  the  eighth  of  September,  news  was  received  of 
General  Hull's  outrageous  surrender  at  Detroit. 

Lieutenant  Hugh  Moore  conducted  the  recruiting 
station  here.  Many  volunteers  were  already  in  the  field 
from  Hamilton  county,  marching  against  the  British  and 
Indians  at  the  northward,  while  a  company  of  home 
guards  was  organized  among  the  older  men  of  Cincin- 
nati and  commanded  by  General  William  Lytle.  The 
troops  and  the  cause  were  fitly  remembered  in  the  toasts 
at  the  celebration  of  Independence  day  this  year. 
Among  them  were  these:  "The  Northwestern  Army: 
Our  brethren  and  fellow-citizens  now  on  the  frontier — 
'Nor  do  they  sigh  ingloriously  to  return, 
But  breathe  revenge,  and  for  the  battle  burn.' 

May  they  have  pleasant  paths  and  unclouded  spirit." 
General  Harrison  was  responsible  for  a  toast  which 
would  certainly  have  been  withheld,  if  he  could  have 
forecast  the  near  future:     "General  Hull  and  his  Army 

— They  have  passed  that  scene  immortalized  by  the  vic- 
tory of  Wayne;  the  spirit  of  that  hero  will  animate  them 
to  deeds  like  his,  and  teach  them  the  lesson  of  victory 
or  death." 

Cincinnati  had  at  least  two  little  notices" abroad  this 
year — the  one  from  Alcedo ;  or  a  Geographical  and  His- 
torical Dictionary  of  America  and  the  West  Indies — an 
English  work  by  G.  A.  Thompson,  Esq.;  and  the  other 
from  the  Topographical  Description  of  Ohio,  Indiana 
Territory  and  Louisiana,  "by  a  late  officer  of  the  army," 
which  is  accompanied  by  an  engraving  of  the  best-known 
view  of  early  Cincinnati,  that  taken  by  Lieutenant  Jervis 
Cutler,  from  Newport,  in  1810: 

Cincinnati,  a  flourishing  town  in  the  territory  of  the  United  States 
northwest  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  present  seat  of  government.  It  stands 
on  the  north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Licking  river, 
two  miles  and  a  half  southwest  of  Fort  Washington  [!]  and  about  eight 
miles  west  of  Columbia.  Both  these  towns  lie  between  Great  and  Lit- 
tle Miami  rivers.  Cincinnati  contains  about  two  hundred  houses,  and 
is  eighty-two  miles  north  by  east  of  Frankfort;  ninety  northwest  of  Lex- 
ington, and  seven  hundred  and  seventy-nine  west  by  south  of  Philadel- 
phia. Latitude  thirty-eight  degrees  forty-two  minutes  north.  Longi- 
tude eighty-four  degrees  eleven  minutes  west. 

Mr.  Cutler's  Topographical  Description  is  mainly  use- 
ful as  introducing  another  and  better  notice,  from  a  well 
known  authority  of  the  olden  time.     The  writer  says: 

Returning  back  to  the  Ohio,  the  first  town  below  Columbia  is  Cin- 
cinnati, five  miles  distant.  In  the  Ohio  Navigator  a  concise  and  correct 
description  is  given  of  this  town: 

'/[Cincinnati  is  handsomely  situated  on  a  first  and  second  bank  of 
the  \)hio,  opposite  Licking  river.  It  is  a  flourishing  town,  has  a  rich, 
level,  and  well  settled  country  around  it.  It  contains  about  four  hun- 
dred dwellings,  an  elegant  court  house,  jail,  three  market  houses,  a 
land  office  for  the  sale  of  Congress  lands,  two  printing  offices,  issuing 
weekly  gazettes,  thirty  mercantile  stores,  and  the  various  branches  of 
mechanism  are  carried  on  with  spirit.  Industry  of  every  kind  being 
duly  encouraged  by  the  citizens,  Cincinnati  is  likely  to  become  a  consid, 
erable  manufacturing  place^  It  is  eighty-two  miles  north  by  east  from 
Frankfort,  and  about  three  hundred  and  eighty  by  land  south-south- 
west from  Pittsburgh,  north  latitude  thirty-nine  degrees,  five  minutes, 
fifty-four  seconds,  according  to  Mr~Ellicot,  and  west  longitude  eighty- 
five  degrees,  forty-four  minutes.  [  It  is  the  principal  town  in  what  is 
called  Symmes'  Purchase,  and  isShe  seat  of  justice  for  what  is  called 
Hamilton  county,  Ohio.)  It  has  a  bank  issuing  notes  under  the  author- 
ity of  the  State,  called  the  Miami  Exporting  company. /The  healthi- 
ness and  salubrity  of  the  climate;  the  levelness  and  luxuriance  of  the 
soil;  the  purity  and  excellence  of  the  waters,  added  to  the  blessings 
attendant  on  the  judicious  administration  of  mild  and  equitable  laws; 
the  great  security  in  the  land  titles;  all  seem  to  centre  in  a  favorable 
point  of  expectation  —  that  Cincinnati  and  the  country  around  it 
must  one  day  become  rich  and  very  populous,  equal,  perhaps,  if  not 
superior  to  any  other  place  of  an  interior  position  in  the  United  States.} 
The  site  of  Fort  Washington  is  near  the  centre  of  the  town.  It  was  a 
principal  frontier  post:  it  is  now  laid  out  in  town  lots. 

(^l  considerable  trade  is  carried  on  between  Cincinnati  and  New 
Orleans)  in  keel-boats,  which  return  laden  with  foreign  goods.  The 
passage  of  a  boat  of  forty  tons  down  to  New  Oileans  is  computed  at. 
about  twenty-five,  and  its  return  to  Cincinnati  at  about  sixty-five  days.)) 


The  population  of  the  village  this  year  is  estimated  to 
have  reached  four  thousand. 

The  death  of  the  Rev.  John  W.  Browne,  a  prominent 
editor  in  the  early  days  of  local  journalism,  occurred 
this  year.  Arrived,  Thomas  Pierce,  anon>mous  author  1/ 
of  the  amusing  satires  entitled  Horace  in  Cincinnati,  1 
and  also  writer  of  Hesperia,  a  prize  poem.  He  was  a 
merchant  till  1822,  then  studied  medicine,  but  resumed 
merchandising,  and  died  here  in  1850. 



February  2d,  news  of  Winchester's  defeat  on  the  river 
Raisin,  in  Michigan,  is  received. 

September  9th,  four  thousand  Kentucky  volunteers 
pass  through  town,  on  their  way  to  join  the  northern 
army.  On  the  twenty-first  the  glad  news  comes  of  Perry's 
great  naval  victory  at  Put-in  Bay. 

James  W.  Gazlay  came  to  the  village  this  year,  and 
opened  a  law  office  on  Main  street,  between  Sixth  and 
Seventh — then  quite  out  of  the  business  quarter. 


This  year,  February  26,  the  people  of  the  county  and 
of  the  State  sustained  the  loss  of  the  hero  of  the  Miami 
Purchase,  Judge  John  Cleves  Symmes.  He  died  in 
Cincinnati,  between  which  and  North  Bend  he  alternated 
his  residence.  The  following  notice  was  issued  to  his 
friends  and  the  general  community: 

The  citizens  of  Cincinnati  are  invited  to  attend  the  funeral  of  the 
Hon.  John  Cleves  Symmes,  at  the  dwelling  of  Gen.  Harrison  in  Front 
street,  to-morrow  at  10  o'clock  A.  M.,  from  whence  a  procession  will  be 
formed  to  the  landing  of  Mr.  Joel  Williams,  where  the  body  will  be 
embarked  for  North  Bend,  selected  by  the  Judge  as  the  place  of  his 
interment.  Such  of  his  friends  as  can  make  it  convenient  to  attend 
his  remains  to  that  place  can  be  accommodated  on  board  the  boat 
which  conveys  them. 

Cincinnati,  February  26,  1814. 

Sufficient  notice  of  the  life  and  public  services  of  this 
remarkable  man  has  been  made  in  chapter  V  of  the  first 
division  of  this  book.  We  are  in  addition  able  to  present 
here  a  document  of  great  interest,  which  we  are  assured 
has  never  before  been  in  print : 

The  last  will  and  testament  of  John  Cleves  Symmes.  In  the  name  of 
God,  amen.  I,  John  Cleves  Symmes,  of  North  Bend,  in  the  county  of 
Hamilton  and  State  of  Ohio,  being  grievously  afflicted  with  a  cancer  in 
my  under  lip,  chin,  and  throat,  which  will  undoubtedly  shortly  put  an 
end  to  my  life,  while  as  yet  I  remain  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  do 
think  it  my  duty  to  make  and  publish  this  my  last  will  and  testament, 
not  so  much  for  the  disposition  of  the  small  personal  property  which  I 
shall  possess  at  my  Death,  as  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  State  of 
Ohio  anticipates  the  necessity  of  my  making  will  in  that  respect,  my 
will  being  the  same  with  the  law  quo  ad  goods,  chattels,  rights,  and 
credits;  but  the  circumstance  which  renders  it  necessary  that  I  should 
make  and  publish  this  my  last  will  and  testament  is  to  authorize  my  ex- 
ecutors hereinafter  named,  and  the  survivor  of  them,  to  sell  and  dis- 
pose of  and  make  title  to  the  purchasers  of  those  few  fragments  of 
land  which  I  have  never  sold,  and  which  as  yet  has  not  been  torn  from 
me  under  color  of  law,  as  by  the  laws  of  the  State  administrators  can- 
not dispose  of  the  real  estate  of  their  intestate  without  a  rule  of  court 
authorizing  them  so  to  do.  Therefore  I,  the  said  John  Cleves  Symmes, 
do  hereby  declare  and  appoint  my  worthy  son-in-law  William  Henry 
Harrison,  Esquire,  and  my  beloved  grandson  John  Cleves  Short,  Es- 
quire, and  the  survivor  of  them,  my  true  and  lawful  executors  to  this 
my  last  will  and  testament,  hereby  giving  unto  them  and  the  survivor 
of  them  full  power  and  lawful  authority  to  sell  all  or  any  part  of  my 
lands  and  real  estate,  wherever  any  part  or  parcel  thereof  may  be  found 
or  discovered  within  the  said  State  of  Ohio,  and  proceeds  or  monies 
arising  from  such  sales  equally  to  divide  between  them  for  their  reward, 
in  compensation  for  their  trouble  and  services;  first,  however,  paying 
thereout  for  all  deficiencies  in  contents  or  number  of  acres  that  may  be 
found  wanting  in  the  several  tracts  of  land  which  I  have  heretofore  sold 
and  been  paid  for,  but  which  on  a  re-survey  may  have  been  deeded  by 
me  for  a  greater  number  of  acres  than  there  really  is  in  the  tract.  On 
the  other  hand,  many  sections,  quarter  sections,  fractions  of  sections, 
tracts  and  parcels  of  land,  by  me  heretofore  deeded  for  a  given  number 
of  acres,  strict  measure,  on  a  re-survey  will  appear  to  be  larger,  and 
contains  a  surplusage  of  land  over  and  above  the  quantity  of  land  sold 
or  ever  paid  for.  It  is  therefore  my  will  and  desire  that  my  executors 
and  the  survivor  of  them  seek  after  and  enquire  out  these  surplus  lands 
by  the  assistance  of  the  county  surveyor,  and  that  my  executors  dispose 

of  such  surplus  lands  at  the  same  price  with  which  they  remunerate 
those  whose  deeds  from  me  call  for  more  land  than  is  embraced  within 
the  limits  or  boundaries  of  my  deeds  to  them,  And  my  further  will 
.  and  request  is,  and  I  do  hereby  enjoin  upon  my  said  executors  and  the 
survivor  of  them,  hereby  investing  in  them  and  the  survivors  of  them 
all  lawful  authority  and  full  power  for  the  purpose,  to  carry  [out]  all  my 
special  contracts  with  individual  persons  into  full  effect  and  final  close, 
according  to  the  tenor  of  each  respective  contract;  provided,  however, 
that  the  other  party  named  in  each  several  contract  faithfully  fulfill  the 
conditions  on  their  part  stipulated  to  be  performed,  which  conditions 
will  appear  on  having  recourse  to  their  respective  contracts.  And  my 
will  is  that  my  said  executors  have  and  possess,  and  I  hereby  give  unto 
them,  and  the  survivor  of  them,  all  further  necessary  and  usual  powers 
to  sue  for  and  collect  all  or  any  part  of  my  dues  and  debts,  whether 
owing  to  me  on  bond,  on  note,  or  book  debt;  and  also  to  pay  all  such 
debts  as  I  justly  owe;  but  there  are  some  unjust  claims  against  me 
founded  in  the  deepest  conspiracy,  fraud  and  perjuries. 

(S  hope  I  need  make  no  apology  to  my  children  and  grandchildren  for 
nothaving  so  much  property  to  leave  to  them  as  might  have  been  ex- 
pected from  the  earnings  of  a  long,  industrious,  frugal,  and  adventur- 
ous life,  when  they  recollect  the  undue  methods  taken,  as  well  by  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  as  by  many  individual  private  char- 
acters, to  make  sacrifice  of  my  hardly  earned  property  at  the  shrine  of 
their  avarice.  It  has  been  my  particular  lot  to  be  treated  with  the 
blackest,  blackest  ingratitude,  by  some  who  now  laugh  at  my  calamity, 
but  who  would  at  this  day  have  been  toiling  in  poverty,  had  not  my  en- 
terprise to  this  country,  my  benevolence,  or  the  property  which  they 
have  plundered  from  me,  have  made  them  rich.  How  dark  and  mys- 
terious are  the  ways  of  Heavenj)  I  shall  add  nothing  further  save  that  it 
is  my  particular  desire  to  be  buried  m  the  graveyard  at  North  Bend, 
where  the  last  twenty.five  years  of  my  life  have  been  chiefly  spent. 

In  testimony  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  to  this,  my  last 
will  and  testament,  on  the  thirty-first  day  of  December,  in  the  year 
eighteen  hundred  and  thirteen. 

John  Cleves  Symmes.    [Seal] 
Subscribed  and  sealed  in  presence  of 
James  Findlay, 
Geo.  P.  Toekence, 
Joseph  Perry. 
Thos.  Sloo,  Junr, 

The  election  for  corporation  officers  was  held  this  year 
April  4th,  at  John  Wingate's  tavern.  Only  one  hundred 
and  forty-one  votes  were  cast,  though  the  town  is  to  have 
had  a  vote  of  four  hundred  and  eleven  in  1814.  Samuel 
W.  Davis  was  chosen  president  of  the  select  council; 
Jacob  Brown,  William  Corry,  Samuel  Stitt,  Davis  Em- 
bree,  John  S.  Wallace,  William  Irwin,  and  Jacob 
Wheeler,  members  of  the  council;  Griffin  Yeatman,  re- 
corder; John  Mahard,  assessor;  Jacob  Chambers,  mar- 
shal and  collector. 

Brilliant  auroras  were  observed  in  the  sky  April  19th 
and  September  nth. 

On  the  fifth  of  April  Jeremiah  Neave  &  Son  opened  a 
commission  warehouse  on  Main  street. 

October  2 2d  the  first  Bible  society  in  the  Miami  coun- 
try is  started  here. 

In  the  fall  or  early  winter  of  1814,  Cincinnati  lost  the 
office  of  surveyor  general  of  public  lands  in  the  north- 
west, by  its  removal  to  Chillicothe,  under  the  ap- 
pointment of  ex-Governor  Tiffin  as  surveyor  general, 
and  the  late  incumbent  of  that  office,  Josiah  Meigs,  to 
Dr.  Tiffin's  place  as  commissioner  of  the  general  land 
office.  This  post  had  been  created  by  act  of  Congress 
April  25,  1812,  and  Governor  Tiffin  appointed  by  Presi- 
dent Madison  as  the  first  commissioner.  In  the  autumn 
of  1814  he  conceived  a  strong  desire  to  return  to  the 
west,  and  wrote  to  Mr.  Meigs  proposing  an  exchange  of 
offices.  He  readily  consenting,  the  matter  was  arranged 
1   without   difficulty  with   the  President,  the   Senate  con- 



firmed  the  new  nominations,  and  the  ex-governor  came 
home  to  Chillicothe,  removing  the  surveyor  general's  of- 
fice thither,  while  Mr.  Meigs  removed  his  residence  tem- 
porarily to  Washington,  and  assumed  charge  of  the  gen- 
eral land  office — a  post  which  he  held  for  some  years. 

The  fine  old  Lytle  house,  at  No.  66  Lawrence  street, 
East  End,  was  erected  this  year  by  General  Lytle,  and 
has  been  continuously  occupied  by  the  family.  It  is  by 
far  the  oldest  building  of  its  grade  in  the  city.  Mr.  Jo- 
seph Jones,  who  worked  upon  it  in  1814,  then  a  full- 
grown  man,  is  still  living  in  Cincinnati. 

David  K.  Este,  a  young  lawyer,  afterwards  an  eminent 
judge,  settled  in  the  city. 


The  preparation  of  another  book  by  Dr.  Drake — the 
Natural  and  Statistical  View,  or  Picture  of  Cincinnati  and 
the  Miami  Country — was  the  local  literary  event  of  the 
year.  It  enables  the  reader  to  form  a  lull  and  no  doubt 
accurate  conception  of  the  now  large  and  rapidly  growing 
town,  in  nearly  all  respects.  The  preface  modestly  de- 
scribes the  work  as  "an  account  of  a  village  in  the  woods;" 
but  it  is  a  remarkable  and  valuable  account.  For  the 
first  time  to  a  book  on  Cincinnati,  a  map  is  prefixed; 
which  gives  us  the  opportunity  to  introduce  here  Mr. 
Charles  Cist's  article,  prepared  thirty  years  afterwards  and 
published  in  his  Miscellany,  on 


Streets. — West  of  the  section  line  separating  section  twenty-four 
from  the  west  of  the  city,  there  was  not  a  street  laid  out  at  the  date  of 
1815.  That  line  followed  a  due  north  course  from  a  point  at  the  river 
Ohio,  about  half-way  between  Mill  and  Smith  streets,  crossing  Fifth 
street  just  east  of  the  mound  which  lately  stood  there,  and  Western 
row  about  two  hundred  yards  south  of  the  corporation  line.  Plum ; 
Race,  and  Walnut  streets  extended  no  farther  north  than  Seventh 
street,  and  Sycamore  was  not  opened  beyond  the  present  line  of  the 
Miami  canal.  From  Walnut  street  west  as  far  as  Western  row,  not  a. 
street  was  opened  north  of  Seventh  street  north  of  the  canal  already  re- 
ferred to.  It  was  the  same  case  with  respect  to  Broadway  from  Fifth 
street  to  the  corporation  line  in  the  same  direction.  Court  street,  west 
of  Main,  was  called  St.  Clair  street,  and  Ninth  street,  its  whole  length 
at  that  time,  was  laid  out  as  Wayne  street.  Eighth  street,  east  of 
Main,  was  called  New  Market  street. 

Public  Buildings.. — Of  churches  there  were  only — the  Presbyterian 
church  which  preceded  the  present  building,  on  Main  street ;  the  Meth- 
odist church  on  Fifth,  where  the  Wesley  chapel  has  since  been  built ;  a 
Baptist  church  on  Sixth  street,  west  of  Walnut,  on  the  site  of  what  is 
now  a  German  church,  corner  of  Lodge  street ;  aud  the  Friends'  frame 
meeting-house  on  Fifth,  below  Western  row.  Of  all  these  the  last  only 
remains  on  its  original  site,  the  Presbyterian  church  having  been  re- 
moved to  Vine,  below  Fifth,  where  it  still  stands  under  the  name  of 
Burke's  church,  and  the  others  having  been  since  removed  to  make  way 
for  their  successors.  The  site  of  the  present  Cincinnati  college,  on 
Walnut  street,  at  that  date  was  occupied  by  the  Lancaster  seminary. 
Young  as  was  the  place,  it  furnished  business  for  three  banks.  The 
Bank  of  Cincinnati  was  on  Main,  west  side,  and  north  of  Fifth  street ; 
the  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  bank  on  Main,  west  side,  between  Front 
and  Second  streets ;  and  the  Miami  Exporting  company  on  the  spot 
now  [1844]  occupied  by  W.  G.  Breese's  store,  facing  the  Public  Landing. 
These,  with  the  court  house  and  jail,  which  stand  now  where  they  then 
stood,  made  up  the  public  buildings  for  1815.  The  brewery,  corner  of 
Symmes  and  Pike  streets ;  another,  corner  of  Race  and  Water  streets, 
immediately  east  of  Deer  creek ;  Gulick's  sugar  refinery  on  Arch  street ; 
a  glass-house  at  the  foot  of  Smith  street ;  a  steam  saw-mill  at  the  mouth 
of  Mill  street ;  and  the  great  steam  mill  on  the  river  bank,  half-way  be- 
tween Ludlow  street  and  Broadway,  constituted  in  1815  the  entire  man- 
ufactories of  the  place. 

Markets. — Besides  lower  market,  which  occupied  the  block  from 
Main  to  Sycamore,  as  well  as  that  from  Sycamore  to  Broadway,  in  the 

street  of  that  name,  and  upper  market,  which  stood  on  Fifth,  between 
Main  and  Walnut  streets,  there  was  ground  vacated  for  markets,  which, 
having  been  found  unsuitable  for  the  purpose,  was  never  occupied  for 
that  use.  One  of  these  embraces  the  front  of  Sycamore  street  on  both 
sides,  from  a  short  distance  north  of  Seventh  to  the  corner  of  Ninth 
street.  Another  is  on  McFarland  street,  west  of  Elm,  forming  a  square 
of  two  hundred  feet  in  the  centre  of  the  block.  A  slight  examination  of 
these  places  where  the  dwellings  have  been  built  back  from  the  line  of 
the  respective  streets,  will  point  out  at  once  the  space  dedicated  for  this 

The  blocks  marked  upon  this  map  as  fully  occupied  or 
settled  at  this  time  were  those  between  Front,  Water,  and 
the  river,  Main  and  Plum ;  south  of  East  Front,  between 
Broadway  and  Ludlow;  between  Second  and  Front,  from 
Vine  to  Ludlow,  and  Lawrence  to  Pike ;  between  Second 
and  Third,  from  Main  to  Sycamore,  and  Broadway  to 
Ludlow;  between  Third  and  Fourth,  Main  and  Sycamore, 
one  block;'  between  Fourth  and  Fifth,  from  Plum  to 
Sycamore;  between  Fifth  and  Sixth,  Walnut  to  Main 
only;  between  Sixth  and  Northern  row,  and  between 
Northern  row  and  New  Market  (Eighth  street),  only 
Sycamore  to  Broadway;  also  eleven  small  blocks  west  of 
Western  row,  on  Longworth,  London,  Kemble,  Rich- 
mond, and  Catherine  streets.  The  blocks  adjacent 
to  those  described  were  mostly  one-eighth  to  three- 
fourths  occupied;  but  there  were  still  some  magnificent 
distances  in  the  heart  of  the  town,  the  block  between 
Second  and  Third,  Race  and  Vine,  for  example,  being 
still  wjTOilyun^ccupied. 

Drake  is  jiow  able  to  remark: 

FAjm  Newpojt-6r  Covington  [then  just  laid  out  |,  the  appearance  of 
the  town  is  beantiful ;  and  at  a  future  period,  when  the  streets  shall  be 
graduated  from  the  Hill  to  the  river  shore,  promises  to  become  magnifi- 

it  Preparations  were  making,  he  says,  for  the  paving  of 
Main  street,  frum  the  tirer  to  Fourth,  and  the  next  year 
it  would  "no  doubt  be  followed  by  a  general  improve- 
ment of  the  town  in  this  respect.")  It  had  become  a 
question  where  the  drainage  from  the  town  should  be 
made  to  enter  the  river,  and^the  doctor  thought  that 
probably  all  gutters  west  of  Broadway  would  be  dis- 
charged into  a  common  sewer  at  Second  street,  "along 
which  in  an  open  channel  the  water  now  runs.  '*)  t It|fwas 
proposed  to  throw  up  a  levee  along  the  border  of  the 
town  plat,  six  feet  high  and  two  hundred  yards  long)  but, 
says  the  doctor,  "no  measures,  have  yet  been  taken  to  ef- 
fect this  important  object."  (Other  improvements,  pro- 
jected] at  least,  in  the  fertile  and  active  brain  of  Dr. 
Drake,(were  a  bridge  across  the  Ohio,  a  steam  ferry,  a 
new  and  permanent  bridge  across  the  mouth  of  Deer 
creek)  the  restoration  of  the  wooden  bridge  across  Mill 
creek,  near  its  confluence  with  the  Ohio,(a  great  road  via 
Dayton  toward  the  sources  of  the  Miamis,  an  improved 
road  to  Columbia,  andjnote  it  for  1815/a  canal,  to  con- 
nect the  Great  Miami  with  the  Maumee,  and  a  canal 
Irom  Hamilton  to  Cincinnati)  a  route  for  which  is  traced 
upon  his  map,  and  is  substantially  that,  which  the  Miami 
canal  afterwards  followed.  No  wonder  the  enterprising 
writer  was  now  able  to  register  his  opinion  that  "Cincin- 
nati is  to  be  the  future  metropolis  of  the  Ohio. 

(  It  is  the  permanent  mart  and  trading  capital 
of  a-tect  whose  area  equals  the  cultivated  part  of  New 
;!. ,  .  ■•f.-fj  aAM~  ) 


Steam  Mill. 

o  Ferries. 

4  Brewery. 

5  Potash  Factory . 

6  Presbyterian  Choroh. 

7  Court  House. 

8  JsiL 

9  Methodist  Church. 

10  Lanoaster  Seminary. 

11  Sugar  Refinery . 

12  Bank  of  Cincinnati. 

13  Bank— Miami  Exporting  Co. 

14  Bank— Fanners  &  Mechanics. 

15  Friends'  Meeting  House.  ' 

16  Remains  of  Ancient  Works .  / 
IT  Presbyterian  Bnrytng  Ground 
IB  Site  of  Old  Fort  Washington'. 

19  Glass  House. 

20  Steam  Saw  Mill. 

21  Baptist  Church. 

22  W.  Market. 

23  Market. 





Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  or  Maryland;  surpasses  the 
State  of  Connecticut,  and  doubles  the  States  of  Rhode 
Island  and  Delaware  taken  together;  with  a  greater  quan- 
tity of  fertile  and  productive  soil  than  the  whole  com- 

The  population  of  the  town,)  in  July  of  this  year,(was 
carefully  estimated  at  six  thousand — an  increase  of  fifty 
per  cent,  in  two  years.  The  average  was  nearly  ten  per- 
sons to  a  dwelling.  \  And,  says  the  doctor,  /no  part  of 
its  unexampled  progress  in  population  and  improvement 
can  be  ascribed  to  political  aids;  .  .  .  but 
the  whole  has  resulted  from  such  natural  and  commer- 
cial advantages  as  cannot  easily  be  transformed  or  de- 
stroyed." J 

(There  were  not  far  from  one  thousand  and  seventy 
houses  in  the  nlace^)  exclusive  of  kitchens,  smoke-houses, 
and  stables.  (Over  twenty  were  of  stone,  two  hundred 
and  fifty  brick,  about  eight  hundred  wood.  Only  six 
hundred  contained  families;  the  rest  were  public  or  busi- 
ness houses.)  (The  great  disproportion  of  frame  houses 
was  due  to  the  demand  created  by  rapid  immigration,  as 
they  could  be  so  speedily  built.  The  dwellings  were  gen- 
erally two  stories  high,  of  a  neat  and  simple  style,  with 
sloping  shingle  roofs)  and  Corinthian  or  Tuscan  cornices. 
Several  had  lately  Been  put  up  with  a  third  story,  "and 
exhibit,  for  a  new  town,  some  magnificence.  A  handsome 
frontispiece  or  balustrade  occasionally  affords  an  evidence 
of  opening  taste,  but  the  higher  architectural  orna- 
ments, elegant  summer-houses,  porticos,  and  colonnades, 
are  entirely  wanting."  (/Few  frame  houses  were  yet  even 
paintedA  Three  market-houses  were  already  among  the 
public  buildings  of  the  town.  ffThe  largest  and  highest 
structure  was  of  course  the  great  steam-mill  on  the  river 
bank!)  The  buildings  of  the  Cincinnati  Manufacturing 
company,  however,  on  the  bank  above  Deer  creek,  were 
numerous  and  extensive,  the  main  edifice  being  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  feet  by  twenty  to  thirty-seven  feet,  and  two 
to  four  stories  high. .  The  Columbian  garden  and  the 
great  mound  at  the  west  end  are  mentioned  as  favorite 
resorts  for  promenaders. 

On  the  tenth  of  January  the  legislature  passed  another 
act  of  incorporation  for  the  village,  essentially  modifying 
that  of  thirteen  years  before.  The  same  corporation 
limits  were  prescribed,  however.  The  town  was  divided 
into  four  wards,  each  electing  three  trustees  for  a  term  of 
three  years.  When  first  met,  the  trustees  were  to  choose 
a  mayor  from  their  own  number,  and  also  elect  a  recorder, 
clerk  and  treasurer.  The  council  was  empowered  to  pass 
j  and  enforce  all  ordinances  necessary  and  proper  for  the 
\  health,  safety,  cleanliness,  convenience,  morals,  and  good 
government  of  the  town  and  its  inhabitants.  Real  estate 
was  not  to  be  taxed  beyond  one-half  of  one  per  cent,  in 
any  year,  without  a  vote  of  the  people  authorizing  it.  It 
was  the  Mayor's  exclusive  duty  to  decide  upon  all  charges 
for  violations  of  ordinances,  subject  to  appeal  to  the 
council  or  court  of  common  pleas,  at  the  option  of  the 
party  aggrieved  by  his  decision.  He  also  exercised  the 
principal  functions  of  a  justice  of  the  peace,  within  the 

town  limits. 

About  four  weeks  after  the  battle  of  New  Orleans,  Jan- 

uary 8th,  the  news  reached  Cincinnati,  and  created  much 
rejoicing.     To  quote  Mr.  L'Hommedieu  again : 

What  a  glorification  our  people  had !  Some  now  present  will  remem- 
ber the  illumination,  the  grand  procession  that  moved  down  Main  street, 
with  a  bull  manacled  and  appropriately  decorated. 

Another  month  or  more  brought  news  of  peace,  made  before  the 
great  battle  of  the  eighth  was  fought ;  and  then  another  grand  illumin- 
ation of  our  village.  What  a  joyous  time  we  boys  had !  How  we 
equipped  ourselves  with  paper  soldier-caps,  with  red  belts  and  wooden 
swords,  and  marched  under  command  of  our  brave  captain  as  far  as 
Western  row,  now  Central  avenue,  where  we  reached  the  woods,  and, 
for  fear  of  Indians,  returned  to  our  mammas,  reporting  on  the  return 
march  to  old  Major-General  Gano,  who,  after  putting  us  through  a 
drill,  gave  each  boy  a  fip  to  purchase  gingerbread,  baked  by  a  venerable 
member,  formerly  president  of  this  association. 

On  the  eleventh  of  December  came  out  the  first  num- 
ber of  the  consolidated  journals,  Liberty  Hall  and  Cin- 
cinnati Gazette,  published  by  Looker,  Palmer  and  Rey- 
nolds. On  the  twenty-sixth  the  three  banks  mentioned 
in  Mr.  Cist's  notes  on  the  early  maps  together  suspended 
payment,  creating  great  excitement  and  no  little  real  dis- 
tress in  the  community. 

Timothy  Flint,  the  noted  writer,  came  with  his  family 
during  the  winter  of  this  year,  took  a  house,  and  re- 
mained until  spring.  He  afterwards  settled  here.  In 
his  volume  of  Recollections,  published  long  afterwards,  he 
records  some  pleasant  reminiscences  of  the  town  and  its 
people : 

(in  no  part  of  the  old  Continent  that  I  have  visited  are  strangers  treat- 
ed with  more  attention,  politeness,  and  respect  than  in  Cincinnati  J  and 
where,  indeed,  can  an  Englishman  forget  that  he  is  not  at  home,  except 
in  the  United  States  J  In  most  other  regions  he  must  forego  many  early 
habits,  prejudices,  and  propensities,  and  accommodate  himself  to  others, 
perhaps  diametrically  opposite  ;  he  must  disguise  or  conceal  his  religious 
or  political  opinions ;  must  forget  his  native  language  and  acquire  flu- 
ency in  another  before  he  can  make  even  his  wants  known  or  his  wishes 
understood ;  but  here  the  same  language  and  fashion  as  in  his  own  pre- 
vail in  every  State  ;  indeed,  it  is  necessary  for  him  to  declare  himself. a 
foreigner,  to  be  known  as  such,  and  I  have  always  found  this  declara- 
tion a  passport  to  increased  attention  and  kindness ;  for  every  man  in 
this  land  of  freedom  enjoys  his  opinions  unmolested.  Not  having  the 
slightest  intention  of  stopping  at  any  town  on  my  way  to  New  York,  I 
was  without  any  introductions ;  but  this  deficiency  by  no  means  pre- 
vented my  receiving  the  usual  benefit  of  the  hospitality  of  the  inhabi- 
tants, which  was  such  as  to  induce  us  at  first  to  remain  a  few  days,  and 
ultimately,  probably,  to  end  our  lives  with.  them. 
(  Sixteen  hundred  miles  from  the  sea,  in  half  an  age,  this  flourishing 
and  beautiful  town  has  emerged  from  the  woods,  and  when  as  old  as 
Petersburgh  now  is,  will  probably,  in  wealth  and  population,  emulate 
the  imperial  city.  No  troops  are  stationed,  no  public  money  lavished 
here.  It  is  not  even  the  State  metropolis.  The  people  build  and 
multiply  imperceptibly  and  in  silence.  Nothing  is  forced.  This  mag- 
nificent result  is  only  the  development  of  our  free  and  noble  institutions 
upon  a  fertile  soil. 

The  banks  of  ihe '  Ohio  are  destined  shortly  to  become  almost  a 
continued  village.  Eleven  years  have  produced  an  astonishing  change 
in  this  respect;  for  at  that  distance  of  time  by  far  the  greater  propor- 
tion of  the  course  of  the  Ohio  was.  through  a  forest.  When  you  saw 
the  city  apparently  lifting  its  head  from  surrounding  woods,  you  found 
yourself  at  a  loss  to  imagine  whence  so  many  people  could  be  furnished 
with  supplies. 


February  16th  William  Green  establishes  the  first  iron 
foundry  here.  An  order  is  passed  by  the  council  granting 
the  privilege  of  supplying  water  to  the  people  to  the 
Cincinnati  Woolen  Manufacturing  company.  On  the 
nineteenth  somebody  reports  the  population  at  six  thou- 
sand four  hundred  and  ninety-eight. 



November  25th  the  first  insurance  company  goes  into 
operation — the  "Cincinnati." 

December  2d  chronicles  the  building  of  the  first  brig 
at  the  Columbia  shipyards.  On  the  sixteenth  the  ocean- 
going barge  Mission  arrives  with  a  cargo  of  dry  goods 
from  Liverpool. 

The  more  pious  ladies  of  Cincinnati  start  this  year  a 
female  Bible  society,  auxiliary  to  the  American  Bible 

This  year  comes  Mr.  David  Thomas,  writer  of  Travels 
through  the  Western  Country,  and  favors  Cincinnatians 
with  this  notice: 

About  three  o'clock  we  descended  through  the  hills,  along  a  hollow 
way,  into  the  valley  of  the  Ohio,  and  Cincinnati  appeared  before  us. 
It  is  a  great  town.  Brick  buildings  are  very  numerous,  and  many  of 
these  are  elegant  ;  but  compactness  constitutes  much  of  the  beauty 
of  our  cities,  and  in  this  it  is  deficient.  Some  of  the  streets  may  form 
exceptions  to  this  remark;  and  we  ought  to  remember  that  few  towns 
(if  any)  ever  rose  from  the  forest  more  rapidly;  that  its  date  even  now 
is  within  the  memory  of  the  young;  and  that  its  mammoth  form  at  no 
distant  period  will  be  filled  up  and  completed.  By  some  it  is  suspected, 
however,  that  its  present  greatness  is  premature;  but  this  can  only 
apply  to  its  mercantile  concerns;  for  its  manufactories  cannot  be  mate- 
rially affected  by  any  change  in  the  amount  of  commerce.  Neither 
need  the  merchants  fear  a  rival  city,  unless  it  rises  to  the  north. 

Among  the  most  respectable  of  the  manufacturing  establishments  we 
notice  the  brewery  of  D.  &  J.  Embree.  The  works,  though  in  a  pro- 
gressive state,  are  now  sufficiently  extensive  to  produce  annually  five 
thousand  barrels  of  beer  and  porter,  and  the  quality  is  excellent.  A 
treadle-mill  is  attached  to  these  buildings,  similar  in  construction  to' 
that  at  Montgomery.  It  is  turned  by  horses,  and  grinds  one  hundred 
and  twenty  bushels  of  malt  a  day.  In  the  present  recess  of  business,  it 
is  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  mustard. 

Works  for  green  glass  have  lately  gone  into  operation ;  but  some  of 
.  the  articles  produced  are  very  imperfect.  We  can  sympathise  with  the 
proprietors  of  new  establishments;  for  we  are  aware  of  the  many 
inconveniences  and  discouragements  that  beset  them  at  the  commence- 
ment; but  we  cannot  too  strongly  inculcate  that  to  attain  excellence  will 
be  the  first  object  of  the  patriotic  manufacturer;  and  such  virtue  could 
scarcely  fail  of  its  reward. 

A  monthly  meeting  of  the  society  of  Friends,  comprising  about  forty 
families,  is  established  in  this  year. 


The  growing  town  had  special  and  distinguished  no- 
tice from  the  travellers  this  year.  First,  in  June,  came 
that  industrious  tourist  and  observer,  Mr.  Birkbeck, 
long  of  Illinois,  from  which  he  wrote  a  series  of  enter- 
taining letters  that  were  collected  in  a  book.  From  an- 
other volume,  his  Travels  in  America,  we  copy  the  fol- 
lowing extracts: 

Cincinnati,  like  most  American  towns,  stands  too  low;  it  is  built  on 
the  banks  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  lower  part  of  it  is  not  out  of  the  reach 
of  spring  floods.  As  if  life  was  not  more  than  meat,  and  the  body 
than  raiment,  every  consideration  of  health  and  enjoyment  yields  to 
views  of  mercantile  convenience.  Short-sighted  and  narrow  economy! 
by  which  the  lives  of  thousands  are  shortened,  and  the  comfort  of  all 
sacrificed  to  mistaken  notions  of  private  interest. 

Cincinnati  is,  however,  a  most  thriving  place,  and,  backed  as  it  is 
already  by  a  great  population  and  a  most  plentiful  country,  bids  fair 
to  be  one  of  the  first  cities  of  the  west.  We  are  told,  and  we  cannot 
doubt  the  fact,  that  the  chief  of  what  we  see  is  the  work  of  four  years. 
The  hundreds  of  commodious,  well-finished  brick  houses,  the  spacious 
and  busy  markets,  the  substantial  public  buildings,  the  thousands  of 
prosperous,  well-dressed,  industrious  inhabitants,  the  numerous  wagons 
and  drays,  the  gay  carriages  and  elegant  females;  the  shoals  of  craft 
on  the  river,  the  busy  stir  prevailing  everywhere — house-building, 
boat-building,  paving  and  leveling  streets;  the  numbers  of  country  peo- 
ple constantly  coming  and  going;  the  spacious  taverns,  crowded  with 
travellers  from  a  distance. 

All  this  is  so  much  more  than  I  could  comprehend  from  a  descrip- 

tion of  a  new  town  just  risen  from  the  woods,  that  I  despair  of  con- 
veying an  adequate  idea  of  it  to  my  English  friends..  It  is  enchant- 
ment, and  Liberty  is  the  fair  enchantress. 

June  27,  Cincinnati.  All  is  alive  here  as  soon  as  the  day  breaks. 
The  stores  are  opened,  the  markets  thronged,  and  business  is  in  full 
career  by  five  o'clock  in  the  morning;  and  nine  o'clock  is  the  common 
hour  for  retiring  to  rest. 

As  yet  I  have  felt  nothing  oppressive  in  the  heat  of  this  climate. 
Melting,  oppressive,  sultry  nights,  succeeding  broiling  days,  and  for- 
bidding rest,  which  are  said  to  wear  out  the  frames  of  the  languid  in- 
habitants of  the  Eastern  cities,  are  unknown  here.  A  cool  breeze  al- 
ways renders  the  night  refreshing,  and  generally  moderates  the  heat  of 
the  day. 

Then  came  Mr.  Burnet— a  New  England  traveller,  we 

believe — who  makes  many  and  judicious  remarks  upon 

the  town : 

As  Cincinnati  is  the  commercial  capital  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  a  State 
which  twenty-five  years  ago  contained  but  a  few  thousand  inhabitants, 
and  is  now  well  settled  by  half  a  million  white  inhabitants,  I  have  been 
somewhat  particular  in  describing  its  commerce,  manufactures,  and 

The  general  appearance  of  the  city  is  clean  and  handsome — indeed, 
elegant  and  astonishing,  when  we  reflect  that  less  than  forty  years  ago 
it  was  the  resort  of  Indians,  and  the  whole  surrounding  country  a  wil- 
derness, full  of  wild  beasts  and  savages. 

The  present  number  of  buildings  may  be  between  thirteen  and  four- 
teen hundred,  and  the  number  of  the  inhabitants'eight  thousand,  all 
whites,  the  laws  of  Ohio  prohibiting  free  negroes  (except  in  certain 
cases)  from  settling  in  the  State.  Near  five  hundred  of  the  houses  are 
built  of  stone  or  brick,  many  of  them  three-story  high,  and  in  a  very 
neat,  modern  style.  The  rest  of  the  houses  are  frame,  most  of  them 
neatly  painted. 

The  public  buildings  are  of  brick,  and  would  ornament  an  European 
city.  The  new  court-house  is  a  stately  edifice,  fifty-six  by  sixty-six  feet, 
and  one  hundred  feet  high;  the  apartments  are  fire-proof.  Presby- 
terians, Baptists,  Friends,  and  Methodists,  have  each  a  meeting-house. 
Those  belonging  to  the  Presbyterians  are  furnished  with  taste.  The 
Friends'  meeting-house  is  a  temporary  wooden  building.  The  Lancas- 
terian  seminary  is  a  capacious  structure,  calculated  to  contain  one 
thousand  one  hundred  scholars,  male  and  female.  There  are  three 
brick  market-houses,  the  largest  is  upwards  of  three  hundred  feet  long. 
I  have  counted  near  sixty  tilted  wagons  from  the 
country  on  a  market  day,  chiefly  with  produce,  which  is  brought  to 
market  by  the  farmer  and  sold  from  the  wagons. 

The  police  of  the  city  is  respectable;  they  have,  however,  no  lamps 
or  watch,  nor  do  they  require  any.  We  boarded  in  the  heart  of  the 
town,  and  our  doors  were  mostly  open  night  or  day.  Theft  is  very 
rare;  the  lowest  characters  seem  above  it. 

The  climate  is  healthy,  if  we  may  judge  from  the  appearance  of  the 
inhabitants.  At  this  season  (July)  the  mornings  and  evenings  are 
delightful ;  mid-day  hot,  but  not  too  hot  to  do  out-door  work.  The 
winters  are  short  and  pleasant. 

The  manners  of  most  of  the  inhabitants  are  social  and  refined,  with- 
out jealousy  of  foreigners  (which  is  sometimes  the  case  with  the  ignor- 
ant or  interested  in  the  eastern  and  middle  states) ;  they  are  pleased  to 
see  a  respectable  European  settle  amongst  them.  Many  cultivate  the 
fine  arts,  painting,  engraving  and  music.  With  few  exceptions,  we 
found  the  English  language  spoken  with  purity.-  .  .  .  The 
inhabitants  dress  much  in  the  English  fashion.  In  summer  many  of 
both  sexes  wear  domestic  or  home  manufactured  ginghams,  and  straw 
hats.  Gentlemen,  and  many  tradesmen,  wear  superfine  cloth  coats' 
blue  and  black  are  the  prevailing  colors.  The  ladies  dress  elegantly,  in 
muslin,  short-waisted  gowns,  vandyked  frill  or  ruffle  round  the  neck, 
and  an  English  cottage  or  French  straw  hat.  When  about  their  house- 
hold concerns,  they  wear  a  large,  long,  peaked  hat,  to  defend  their 
features  from  the  swarthing  influence  of  the  sun  and  air. 

The  city,  in  all  probability,  will  soon  be  the  largest  in  the  West;  it  is 
rapidly  improving  in  size;  sixty  new  brick  and  frame  houses  have  been 
occupied  since  last  fall;  and  at  least  as  many  more  are  now  building, 
besides  several  manufacturing  shops  and  factories.  There  is  more 
taste  displayed  in  building  and  laying  out  grounds  and  gardens  than  I 
have  yet  observed  west  of  the  Alleghany  mountains. 

The  price  of  town  lots  is  high,  and  houses  in  the  principal  streets  dif- 
ficult to  obtain  on  hire.  The  lots  in  Main,  First  and  Second  streets  sell 
for  two  hundred  dollars  a  foot,  measuring  on  the  front  line;  those  pos- 
sessing less  local  advantage  sell  from  fifty  to  ten  dollars;  out-lots,  and 

The  Bazaar. 

Erected  by  Mbs.  Tbolilofe,  1828-9;  Demolished  in  Mabch,  1881. 



land  very  near  the  town,  sells  for  five  hundred  dollars  per  acre.  Taxes 
are  very  moderate.  .  .  The  price  of  labor  is  one  dollar  per 
day.  Mechanics  earn  two  dollars.  Boarding  is  from  two  to  three,  and 
five  dollars  per  week.  Five  dollars  per  week  is  the  price  of  the  best 
hotel  in  the  city.  .  .  Living  is  very  cheap  here;  and  it  is  easily 
to  be  accounted  for,  in  the  cheapness  and  fertility  of  the  surrounding 
country,  the  scarcity  of  tax-gatherers,  and  the  distance  of  a  market  for 
the  supplies..  You  can  have  very  decent  board,  washing,  and  lodging, 
by  the  year  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 

Mr.  George  Warren,  an  old-time  resident  of  the  city, 
also  contributes  to  Cincinnati  Past  and  Present  the  fol- 
lowing interesting  reminiscences  of  this  period: 

jfl  Cincinnati,  in  the  year  1817,  was  a  bright,  beautiful,  and  flourishing 
Me  city.  It  extended  from  the  river  to  Sixth  street,  and  from  Broad- 
way to  Walnut  street,  and  not  much  beyond  those  limits.)  The  court- 
house, which  stood  upon  the  same  ground  as  the  present  one,  was  con- 
sidered to  be  in  the  country,  and  its  location  an  outrage  on  the  citizens. 
(The  houses  were  beautifully  interspersed  with  vacant  lots,  not  yet  sold, 
which  were  covered  with  grass.  The  city  contained  about  nine  thou- 
sand inhabitants.)  These  were  then  called  girls  and  boys,  and  men  and 
women,  frhe  fuel  was  wood,  except  in  factories.  The  people  generally 
had  clean  faces;  for  the  men  shaved,  and  did  not  allow  their  counte- 
nances to  be  covered  with  hair  and  dirt.  There  was  an  air  of  comfort 
pervading  everything  J  In  summer  the  women  dressed  as  they  pleased; 
but  the  men  usually  went  to  church  in  summer  dresses.  .Sometimes 
they  wore  linen  roundabouts  and  vests  and  woollen  pants.  I  The  people 
were  enterprising  and  industrious;  a  pedestrian  could  hardly  walk  a 
square  without  encountering  a  brick  wagon  or  stone  wagon,  or  seeing  a 
new  cellar  being  dug.  Industrious  mechanics  would  be  met  hurrying 
to  and  fro,  and  in  their  working  dress.  A  brick-la  yer  would  not  hide 
his  trowel,  nor  a  carpenter  his  hatchet,  under  his  coat.  Everything 
gave  promise  of  the  city's  continued  prosperity,  but  a  desire  to  become 
suddenly  rich  had  led  too  many  into  wild  speculations,  on  borrowed 
money,  from  the  United  States  and  other  banks.  They  were  willing  to 
lend  to  almost  anyone  who  could  get  two  indorsers.^  This  was  no  diffi- 
cult matter,  for  it  bad  got  to  be  a  maxim,  "You  indorse  for  me,  and  I 
indorse  for  you."  (Some  persons  not  worth  a  dollar  bought  lots  and 
built  houses  on  speculation.  Others  bought  wild  lands,  built  steam- 
boats, etc.  Some,  who  had  become  rich  jn  imagination,  began  to  live 
in,a  style  ill  suited  to  their  real  condition.^ 

(But  a  day  of  reckoning  was  at  hand.  In  1819  the  United  States 
bank  began  to  call  in  its  accounts;  others  were  obliged  to  do  the  same; 
and  those  speculators,  to  avoid  the  sheriff,  began  to  scatter  like  rats 
from  a  submerged  flour  barrel.)  Sheriff  Heckewelder  complained  that 
his  friends  had  taken  a  sudden  notion  to  travel,  at  the  very  time  he  most 
wanted  them.  Some  fled  east,  some  west,  some  to  Kentucky,  and  some 
the  Lord  knows  where,  (it  soon  became  impossible  to  get  money  any- 
where. Building  was  entirely  stopped.  The  spring  of  1820  was  * 
gloomy  time.  All  business  was  brought  to  a  sudden  stand)  No  more 
brick  wagons,  stone  wagons,  or  new  cellars  were  to  be' seen  in  the 
streets.  The  mechanics  lately  so  blithe  and  cheerful  had  gone  in  dif- 
ferent directions  in  search  of  work,  at  any  price,  to  keep  themselves 
and  families  from  starving.  Almost  any  mechanic  could  be  hired  for 
fifty  cents  a  day,  working,  as  was  then  the  custom,  from  sunrise  to  sun- 
set; few  could  get  employment  at  that.  They  were  willing  to  work  at 
anything  they  could  do,  and  at  any  price.  One  of  our  boss  carpenters 
bought  a  wood-saw  and  buck,  and  went  about  sawing  wood.  Our 
leading  brick-layer  procured  a  small  patch  of  ground  near  the  Brighton 
house,  and  raised  watermelons,  which  he  sold  himself,  in  the  market. 
The  only  professed  sashmaker  in  the  place,  the  lats  John  Baker,  esq., 
who  died  not  long  ago  a  millionaire  on  Walnut  Hills,  procured  u  piece 
of  woodland  in  the  country,  and  chopped  the  wood,  brought  it  to  mar- 
ket, sitting  on  his  load,  and  sold  it  for  a  dollar  and  a  half  a  cord. 
Other  good  mechanics  went  chopping  wood  in  the  country  for  thirty- 
seven  and  a  half  cents  a  cord.  One  of  these  was  the  late  A.  H.  Ernst, 
esq.  The  writer  would  have  done-  the  same,  but  no  chance  offered. 
There  was  no  money,  and  people  even  going  to  market  resorted  to 
barter.  A  cabinet  maker,  for  instance,  would  want  two  pounds  of  but- 
ter, amounting  to  twenty-five  or  thirty  cents.  Without  a  penny  in  his 
pocket,  he  would  take  his  basket,  go  te  the  market,  find  a  farmer  that 
had  some,  take  two  pounds,  and  give  him  a  table,  bedstead,  or  even  a 
bureau,  agreeing  to  take  the  rest  out  iii.truck,  as  he  would  call  it,  when 
he  should  want  it!  This  could  not  be  done  by  carpenters  and  masons. 
They  would  go  into  the  country  and  build  ovens  or  spring-houses,  and 
repair  buildings,  taking  their  pay  whenahe  work  was  done.  Our  mer- 
chants, being  unable  or  unwilling  to  bring  on  fresh  supplies  of  dry 

goods  and  groceries,  these  ran  up  to  enormous  prices;  coffee  was  sev- 
enty-five cents,  and  common  coarse  brown  sugar  thirty-seven  and  one- 
half  cents  a  pound.  Rye  coffee,  sweetened  with  molasses,  was  found  a 
poor  substitute;  and  we  suffered  considerably  for  want  of  our  custom- 
ary breakfast. 

Public  meetings  were  held  to  consider  what  was  to  be  done.  At  one 
of  these  Mr.  Blake,  an  attorney,  had  expressed  a  fear  that  our  wives 
and  children  would  starve.  Mr.  Gazlay,  the  next  speaker,  also  an  at- 
torney, said:  "  Brother  Blake  is  afraid  our  families  will  starve.  I  have 
but  one  child,  and  don't  fear  it  will  starve;  Brother  Blake  has  none,  and 
I  am  sure  it  won't  starve."  Country  produce  of  all  kinds  was  never  so 
low  before  nor  since;  but  the  difficulty  lay  in  getting  money  to  pay 
even  these  low  prices.  Flour  was  three  dollars  a  barrel,  corn  twelve 
and  one-half  cents  a  bushel,  beef  six  and  one-fourth  cents  a  pound, 
pork  in  quarters  from  the  wagons  three  cents  a  pound,  eggs  five  cents  a 
dozen,  and  chickens  four  cents  a  piece.  A  prominent  and  truthful  citi- 
zen now  living  relates  that,  being  then  a  young  man  and  living  in  the 
country,  he  brought  to  the  lower  market  two  dozen  chickens.  After 
standing  there  most  of  the  forenoon  a  man  offered  him  fifty  cents  a 
dozen  if  he  would  carry  them  to  the  Mill  Creek  bridge.  He  accepted 
the  offer  and  actually  carried  them  the  whole  distance  on  his  back.  If 
any  imagine  that  the  people  need  not  have  feared  starving  when  provis- 
ions were  so  cheap,  they  are  like  the  Queen  of  France  during  the  Revo- 
lution, who  said,  when  the  people  of  Paris  were  actually  starving,  that 
she  did  not  see  why  there  need  be  such  a  clamor  about  bread  when  ' '  a 
good-sized  loaf  may  be  got  at  the  baker's  for  five  sous." 

Finally  it  was  found  that  money  of  some  kind  must  be  had.  This 
induced  some  individuals  to  issue  tickets,  or  little  due-bills,  on  their 
own  credit.  They  were  sometimes  as  low  as  six  and  one-fourth  cents. 
Of  these  bankers  John  H.  Piatt  and  Mr.  Leathers,  of  Covington,  were 
the  chief.  This  currency  had  different  values,  according  to  people's  es- 
timate of  the  solvency  of  the  individuals.  The  corporation  had  issued 
tickets  before  this.  In  making  contracts  it  had  to  be  agreed  what  kind 
of  money  was  to  be  received;  so  much  in  "corporation,"  or  so  much 
in  "Piatt,"  or  so  much  in  "Leathers."  Sometimes  contracts  would 
call  for  "bankable  money."  By  this  was  meant  the  notes  of  those  few 
banks  that  had  not  already  broken.  If  any  specie  was  seen  it  was  gen- 
erally "cut  money,"  or  half-dollars  cut  into  five  triangular  pieces,  each 
passing  for  twelve  and  one-half  cents. 

f  Such  was  the  scarcity  of  money  that  many  who  had  purchased  prop- 
erty and  paid  large  amounts  on  it  were  willing  to  give  up  the  money 
already  paid  to  be  released  from  paying  the  remainder)  Real  estate 
had  indeed  fallen;  a  prominent  citizen  now  among  us  had  purchased  a 
lot  of  ground,  near  our  present  gas  works,  for  sixteen  thousand  dollars, 
paying  half  down  in  cash.  He  offered  to  give  up  all  the  money  paid  if 
the  owner  would  release  him ;  but  he  would  not.  Houses  and  stores, 
with  bills  on  them  offering  them  "for  rent,"  were  everywhere  seen,  and 
rents  were  low. 

On  the  thirty-first  of  May  arrived  a  young  lawyer 
named  Bellamy  Storer,  to  cast  in  his  fortunes  with  those 
of  the  rising  community.  Mr.  Joseph  Jonas,  rather 
doubtfully  reported  as  the  first  Israelite  in  town,  is  said 
also  to  have  come  this  year.  He  opened  a  watchmaker's 
shop  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Main  streets,  and  soon 
acquired  much  political  influence.  He  is  sometimes  re- 
puted to  have  been  the  father  of  Cincinnati  Democracy. 


The  sixth  edition  of  Kilbourne's  Ohio  Gazetteer,  or 
Topographical  Directory,  published  this  year,  gives  the 
town  this  notice: 

Cincinnati  is  a  large  commercial  city  and  the  seat  of  justice  for  Ham- 
ilton county.  August  18th  the  number  of  inhabitants  had 
increased  to  upwards  of  nine  thousand,  and  public  improvements  in 
proportion.  There  are  about  sixty  common  mercantile  stores,  several 
of  which  do  wholesale  business,  with  about  ten  book,  drug,  iron,  and 
shoe  stores.  .  The  Cincinnati  Manufacturing  Company  has 
erected  for  their  works  an  extensive  building,  one  hundred  and  fifty 
feet  long  by  thirty-seven  broad,  and  four  stories  high.  A  most  stupen- 
dously large  building  of  stone  is  likewise  erected  on  the  bank  of  the 
Ohio  river  for  a  steam  mill.  It  is  nine  stories  high  at  the  water's  edge, 
and  is- eighty-seven  feet  ldng  and  sixty-two  broad.  The  engine  is  one 
of  seventy  horse-power,  and  is  designed  to  drive  four  pair  of  stones,  be- 
sides an  oil-,  fulling-,  and  several  other  mills.     In  another  building  is 



also  a  valuable  steam  saw-mill.  Here  are,  likewise,  one  woollen  and 
four  cotton  factories,  two  glass-making  establishments,  >■  white  lead 
factory,  a  sugar  refinery,  and  two  extensive  breweries.  A  considerable 
business  is  also  done,  not  only  in  the  distilleries,  but  also  in  the  rectifi- 
cation of  spirits.  Here  are  also  four  printing  offices,  from  three  of 
which  weekly  papers  are  published ;  four  banking  companies,  besides  a 
wealthy  commercial  association  for  the  purpose  of  importing  goods 
direct  from  Europe,  by  way  of  New  Orleans. 

This  was  a  great  year  for  public  benefactions.  Seven 
persons  subscribed  twenty-seven  thousand  dollars  for  the 
Lancasterian  seminary.  A  site  for  a  poor-house  was  pur- 
chased by  public  authorities,  and  a  hospital  planned,  as 
preparatory  to  the  founding  of  a  medical  college.  A 
museum  society  was  formed,  and  contributions  were  solic- 
ited, Dr.  Drake  drawing  up  a  constitution  for  it  so  as  to 
make  it  a  school  of  natural  history.  The  Cincinnati 
reading-room  was  opened  by  Elam  P.  Langdon  and  Rev. 
William  Burke.  The  first  Roman  Catholic  church  in' 
town  was  founded. 

The  General  Pike,  said  to  be  the  first  steamboat  built 
on  the  western  waters  for  the  exclusive  conveyance  of 
passengers,  was  constructed  at  Cincinnati  this  year — of 
one  hundred  feet  keel,  twenty-five  feet  beam,  and  three 
and  three-tenths  feet  draft.  It  was  owned  by  the  Cin- 
cinnati Company,  and  intended  to  ply  between  Louis- 
ville, Cincinnati,  and  Maysville. 


This  was  an  important  year  in  the  annals  of  Cincinnati, 
marking  its  transition  from  a  village  to  a  city,  an  act 
passed  by  the  State  legislature  giving  it  the  deserved  pro- 
motion. )  The  new  city  was  divided  into  four  wards,  by 
lines  aiong  Main  and  Third  streets,  intersecting  at  the 
corner  of  these.  Isaac  G.  Burnet  was  the  first  mayor 
under  the  new  organization. 

The  population  of  the  city  this  year,  according  to  the 
census  taken  for  the  directory  in  July,  was  nine  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-three4-males,  five  thousand 
four  hundred  and  two;  females,  four  thousand  four  hun- 
dred and  seventy-one;  males  of  twenty-one  years  and 
over,  two  thousand  three  hundred  and  sixty-four ;  females, 
one  thousand  six  hundred  and  thirty-two;  males  from 
twelve  to  twenty-one,  eight  hundred  and  forty;  females, 
eight  hundred  and  twenty- three;  males  under  twelve,  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  forty-nine;  females,  one 
thousand  five  hundred  and  forty-five;  colored  persons, 
three  hundred  and  sixty-seven — males,  two  hundred  and 
fifteen;  females,  one  hundred  and  ninety-five.  The 
directory  contains  the  following  remarks  upon  the  charac- 
ter of  the  population : 

\  This  mixed  assemblage  is  composed  of  emigrants  from  almost  every 
part  of  Christendom^  The  greater  part  of  the  population  are  from  the 
Middle  and  Northern  States.  (We  have,)  however, /many  foreigners 
amongst  us;  and  it  is  not  uncommon  to  hear  three  or  four  different 
languages  spoken  in  the  streets  at  the  same  time.  A  society  so  com- 
pounded can  have  but  few  of  those  provincial  traits  of  character  which 
are  so  visible  in  older  settlements.  1  Having  been  bred  and  educated 
under  different  habits  and  modes  of  thinking.fevery  individual  is  obliged 
to  sacrifice  to  the  general  opinion  many  of  his  prejudices  and  local 
peculiarities,  and  to  adopt  a  more  liberal  mode  of  acting  and  thinking. 
Coming  also  from  different  countries  and  various  climates,  they  bring 
and  collect  together  a  stock  of  knowledgeand  experience  which  cannot 
exist  among  those  who  have  all  grown  up  together,  i  Being  adventurers 
in  pursuit  of  fortune,  a  spirit  of  enterprise,  and  a  restless  ambition  to 
acquire  property,  are  prevailing  characteristics.     The  citizens  of  Cin- 

cinnati are  generally  temperate,  peaceable  and  industrious,  Gaming  is  ■ 
a  vice  almost  unknown  in  the  city.  Under  the  influence  of  a  strict 
police,  good  order  is  maintained ;  fighting  or  riot  in  the  streets  rare, 
and  is  uniformly  punished  with  rigor.  Qreat  attention  is  paid  to  the 
institutions  of  religion,  and  the  mass  of  the  more  respectable  citizens 
are  regular  in  their  attendance  on  public  worship^  In  their  parties,  as- 
semblies and  social  meetings,  the  greatest  ease  and  familiarity  prevail, 
and  many  traits  are  to  be  met  with  of  that  politeness  and  uiiianity  of 
manners  which  distinguish  the  polished  circles  of  older  cities. 

The  same  work  gives  the  following  honorable  notice 
and  further  remarks  concerning  the  material  improve- 
ment of  the  place: 

For  many  years  the  vast  influx  of  emigrants  has  furnished  opportu- 
nity for  a  very  profitable  investment  of  funds  in  building  houses.  The 
preference  which  Mr.  John  H.  Piatt  has  given  to  the  improvement  of 
Cincinnati,  over  foreign  speculation,  is  an  honorable  evidence  of  his 
public  spirit  and  local  attachment.  This  gentleman,  within  five  years 
past,  has  built  twenty-eight  brick  houses,  chiefly  three  stories  irwheight, 
besides  twenty-five  frame  houses,  which  are  neatly  finished.  Bit  is  the 
opinion  of  several  well  informed  mechanics  that  not  less  thah  three 
hundred  buildings  were  erected  in  1818;  and,  notwithstanding  the  de- 
pression of  commercial  business,  probably  not-  less  than  two-thirds  of 
that  number  will  be  built  in  1819.  The  buildings,  however,  which  are 
occupied  as  dwellings,  are  insufficient  to  contain  the  inhabitants  with 
any  tolerable  convenience.  Four,  six  or  eight  families  have  not  un- 
frequently  been  found  inhabiting  a  house  of  six  or  eight  roomsS  The 
actual  number  of  dwelling-houses  being  one  thousand  and  three,  the 
average  number  in  each  family,  allowing  one  family  to  each  house,  is 
more  than  nine  persons.  The  houses,  generally,  are  rather  neat  and 
convenient  than  splendid;  most  of  those  that  have  been  built  within  the 
last  five  or  six  years,  have  been  constructed  of  brick,  and  by  far  the 
greater  portion  of  them  are  two  or  three  stories  in  height.  /One  pre- 
vailing trait,  displayed  in  almost  all  the  houses  in  town,  is  a  want  of 
architectural  taste  and  skill.  All  the  public  buildings,  except  the  Cin- 
cinnati banking  house,  fully  exemplify  the  above  remark.  One  or  two 
good  architects  would  unquestionably  meet  here  with  excellent  encour- 
agement.. The  improvements  that  have  been  made  here  in  paving 
streets  and  sidewalks,  filling  up  stagnant  ponds,  reducing  the  upper 
bank  to  a  proper  angle  of  descent  for  streets  and  buildings,  etc. ,  have 
for  several  years  been  commensurate  with  the  mos(<diberal  policy  of  the 
corporation  and  the  best  exertions  of  the  citizens.^According  to  the 
best  estimate  we  can  make,  the  length  of  pavement  in  the  several 
streets  is  between  eight  and  nine  thousand  feet;  that  of  the  sidewalks 
vastly  greater.  The  streets  in  width  are  between  sixty  and  one  hundred 
feet.      ' 

In  March  of  the  same  year  an  enumeration  had  been 
made  of  the  buildings  within  the  corporation,  which 
footed  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  ninety — of  brick 
and  stone,  two  stories  and  upwards,  three  hundred  and 
eighty-seven;  of  one  story,  forty-five;  wood,  two  or  more 
stories,  six  hundred  and  fifteen;  one  story,  eight  hundred 
and  forty-three.  Occupied  as  separate  dwellings,  one 
thousand  and  three;  mercantile  stores,  ninety-five;  gro- 
cery stores,  one  hundred  and  two;  druggists,  eleven; 
confectioneries,  four;  auction  and  commission,  five; 
printing-offices,  five;  book  and  stationery  stores,  four; 
churches,  ten;  banks,  five;  shops,  factories,  and  mills, 
two  hundred  and  fourteen ;  taverns,  seventeen;  seminary, 
court  house,  and  jail,  three ;  warehouses  and  other  build- 
ings, four  hundred  and  twelve.  Other  buildings  were  in 
progress,  and  it  was  expected  that  by  the  close  of  the  year 
the  buildings  in  the  city  would  number  over  two  thou- 
sand. Among  the  new  edifices  in  progress  were  the 
court  house  and  jail,  the  seminary,  three  churches,  two 
market-houses,  and  several  manufactories.  The  churches 
were  the  First  Presbyterian,  on  the  old  site;  the  brick  on 
Sixth  street,  formerly  Baptist,  then  Episcopal;  the  Meth- 
odist, on  Fifth,  a  new  brick,  belonging  to  the  same  de-' 
nomination,  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  Plum;  and  the 




old  frame  on  Vine  street;  the  Second  Presbyterian,  on 
Walnut;  the  Friends',  near  the  west  end  of  Fifth;  and  a 
Roman  Catholic  church  lately  erected  in  what  were  then 
called  "the  Northern  Liberties." 

Three  fine  steamers — the  Vulcan,  the  Tennessee,  and 
the  Missouri — were  launched  here  March  30th. 

July  4th  the  address  is  delivered  by  Bellamy  Storer. 
Further  celebration  was  made  by  getting  the  first  throw  of 
water  from  the  new  tin  penstock.  It  was  supplied  by  log 
pipes  from  a  small  reservoir  on  the  hillside,  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  Fifth  and  Sycamore  streets. 

August  3d,  the  ordinance  passed  by  the  council  in  re- 
lation to  fire-buckets  is  required  to  be  vigorously  enforced. 

December  nth,  the  city  treasurer  proves  a  defaulter. 
The  Rev.  Joshua  L.  Wilson,  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian 
church,  is  temporarily  appointed  to  his  place. 

This  year  (Mr.  L'Hommedieu  thought  it  might  have 
been  in  1820),  a  serious  riot  was  threatened  through  the 
failure  of  the  Miami  Exporting  Company's  bank.  A  pro- 
cession comprising  many  of  those  who  had  suffered  from 
the  closure  of  the  bank,  with  their  sympathizers,  was 
formed  in  the  upper  part  of  the  city,  and  marched  down 
Main  street.  A  number  of  drays  helped  to  give  length 
and  imposing  character  to  the  column.  One  of  them 
bore  a  black  coffin  with  the  words  painted  thereon,  "  Mi- 
ami Bank  No  More."  The  bank  building  was  situated 
on  Front  street,  near  Sycamore,  and  a  detachment  of 
military  had  taken  position  in  front  of  it,  to  protect  the 
building  and  its  contents  against  the  threatened  mob  vio- 
lence. The  procession  marched  without  interruption  or 
disturbance  until  the  intersection  of  Front  street  with 
Main  was  reached.  Just  here,  fortunately,  on  the  south- 
east corner,  was  the  office  of  the  mayor,  Isaac  G.  Burnet, 
who  was  awake  to  the  perils  of  the  situation,  and  on  full 
duty.  Although  unable  to  walk  or  even  to  stand  without 
crutches,  he  moved  to  the  head  of  the  column,  and  read 
the  riot  act  to  the  multitude.  Many  who  were  in  the 
movement  were  not  lawless  or  dangerous  men,  and  now,, 
seeing  the  real  character  of  their  demonstration,  and  the 
perils  to  law  and  order  which  it  involved,  they  led  the 
way  at  once  in  breaking  up  the  procession  and  diverting 
the  thoughts  of  its  members  into  more  peaceful  channels. 
The  military  were  not  called  upon  to  adopt  severer  meas- 
ures, and  the  bank  was  saved. 

This  year  appeared  the  first  Directory  of  the  town  or 
city.  It  was  entitled  "The  Cincinnati  Directory,  con- 
taining the  Names,  Profession,  and  Occupation  of  the 
Inhabitants  of  the  Town,  alphabetically  arranged;  Also, 
an  account  of  its  officers,  population,  institutions,  and 
societies,  public  buildings,  manufactures,  etc.  With  an 
interesting  sketch  of  its  local  situation  and  improvements. 
Illustrated  by  a  copper-plate  engraving,  exhibiting  a  view 
of  the  city.  By  a  Citizen.  Published  by  Oliver  Farns- 
worth.  Morgan,  Lodge  &  Co.,  Printers,  October,  1819." 
An  almanac  for  1820  is  also  included.  About  two  thou- 
sand names  of  individual  and  firms  were  included  in  this 

The  most  remarkable  man  who  came  to  Cincinnati 
this  year  was  probably  Captain  John  Cleves  Symmes,  son 
of  Timothy,  brother  of  Judge  Symmes.     His  father  (also 

a  judge  in  New  Jersey),  early  followed  the  elder  brother 
to  the  Miami  country,  and  settled  at  South  Bend,  where 
he  died  February  20,  1797.  His  family  remained  there, 
and  among  them  John  C.  Symmes,  who,  through  the  in- 
fluence of  the  judge,  obtained  a  commission  in  April, 
1802,  when  he  was  twenty-two  years  old,  as  an  ensign  in 
the  regular  army.  By  successive  promotions  he  became 
captain,  and  served  as  such  through  the  war  of  1812-15. 
In  1807  he  fought  a  duel  at  Fort  Adams,  on  the  Lower 
Mississippi,  with  Lieutenant  Marshall,  in  which  both  were 
wounded  seriously  enough  to  feel  the  effects  of  their  in- 
discretion through  the  rest  of  their  lives.  Captain 
Symmes  left  the  army  in  1816  and  settled  at  St.  Louis  as 
a  contractor  for  the  army  and  trader  with  the  Fox  In- 
dians. He  was  not  altogether  successful,  however,  and 
in  1819  removed  to  Covington,  Kentucky,  where  he  re- 
mained a  few  months,  and  then  came  to  this  city,  taking 
a  residence  on  Lower  Market  street,  between  Broadway 
and  Sycamore,  in  a  three-story  brick  row  built  by  John 
H.  Piatt,  who  then  had  a  bank  at  the  southeast  corner  of 
Broadway  and  Columbia  streets.  Captain  Symmes  re- 
mained in  Cincinnati  but  a  year  or  two.  He  still  had 
some  property  near  Hamilton,  upon  a  section  presented 
to  him  by  his  uncle,  Judge  Symmes;  but  appears  to  have 
spent  the  last  seven  or  eight  years  of  his  life,  when  not 
absent  lecturing,  in  Newport,  Kentucky.  While  at  St. 
Louis  he  began  to  promulgate  his  famous  theory  of  con- 
centric spheres,  polar  voids,  and  open  poles.  The  gist 
of  this  is  in  his  published  declaration  "to  all  the  world," 
made  from  St.  Louis,  Missouri  Territory,  North  America, 
April  10,  a.  d.,  1818: 

I  declare  that  the  earth  is  hollow  and  habitable  within,  containing  a 
number  of  solid  concentrick  spheres,  one  within  the  other,  and  that  it  is 
open  at  the  poles  twelve  or  sixteen  degrees.  I  pledge  my  life  in  sup- 
port of  this  truth,  and  am  ready  to  explore  the  hollow,  if  the  world  will 
support  and  aid  me  in  the  undertaking. 

Jno.  Cleves  Symmes, 
Of  Ohio,  late  Captain  of  Infantry. 

His  future  life  was  devoted  mainly  to  the  advocacy  of 
this  theory,  and  his  efforts  to  demonstrate  it  and  pro- 
mote its  acceptance.  In  1820,  after  issuing  numerous 
circulars  and  newspaper  articles,  he  began  lecturing  in 
Cincinnati,  and  then  in  other  western  towns  and  cities. 
A  benefit  was  given  in  aid  of  his  proposed  polar  expedi- 
tion, at  the  Cincinnati  theatre,  March  29,  1824,  when 
Young's  tragedy  of  Revenge  was  performed  by  an  ama- 
teur company,  in  which  was  the  now  venerable  Colonel 
James  Taylor,  of  Newport,  who  played  the  part  of 
Zanga.  Mr.  Americus  Symmes,  son  of  Captain  Symmes, 
says:  "He  and  I  are  the  only  two  now  living  of  the 
Newport  Thespian  society  of  1824.  He  was  equal  to 
Forrest  in  his  palmiest  day,  in  the  character  of  Sir 
Edward  Mortimer,  in  the  Iron  Chest.  L  performed  fe- 
male parts."  Mr.  Collins  recited  an  appropriate  address 
written  by  Moses  Brooks,  foreshadowing  the  great  discov- 
eries to  be  made  in  the  polar  regions,  and  closing  with 
these  lines: 

Has  not  Columbia  one  aspirng  son, 
By  whom  the  unfading  laurel  may  be  won? 
Yes !  History's  pen  may  yet  inscribe  the  name 
Of  Symmes  to  grace  the  future  scroll  of  fame. 

He  had  not  similar  encouragement  elsewhere,  however. 



Congress  and  legislatures,  press  and  people,  with  rare  ex- 
ceptions, treated  his  arguments  and  appeals  with  indiffer- 
ence or  ridicule;  and  the  end  of  the  ardent  theorist  soon 
came.  He  fell  into  ill  health,  and  became  much  en- 
feebled in  1826  by  a  laborious  tour  through  the  eastern 
cities,  Maine,  and  Canada.  His  chief  ailment  was  dys- 
pepsia, induced  by  long  continued  overwork  upon  his 
theories  and  plans.  Notwithstanding  his  now  serious  ill- 
ness, in  New  York  city  he  was  thrown  into  jail  by  a  heart- 
less landlord,  for  inability  to  pay  a  bill  of  thirty  to  forty  dol- 
lars, and  remained  incarcerated  three  days,  when  he  was 
relieved  by  a  friendly  Cincinnatian  who  happened  to  be 
in  the  city,  and  who  helped  him  to  the  residence  of  a 
relative  in  New  Jersey,  where  he  remained  until  his 
health  was  measurably  restored.  He  managed  to  reach 
Cincinnati  in  February,  1829,  and  was  there  presently 
met  by  his  son  Americus  with  a  two-horse  wagon  and  a 
mattress,  upon  which  he  was  borne  to  the  farm  near 
Hamilton — to  which  the  family  had  removed  in  March 
of  the  previous  year — where  he  died  May  29,  1829,  aged 
only  forty-eight.  His  monument,  erected  by  Americus 
Symmes,  formerly  crowned  with  a  hollow  globe,  open  at 
the  poles,  and  bearing  appropriate  inscriptions,  may  be 
seen  in  the  old  cemetery  at  Hamilton.  This  son,  who 
resides  at  "Symmzonia,"  a  farm  near  Louisville,  remains 
a  firm  believer  in  the  theory.  In  a  recent  letter  to  the 
writer  of  these  annals  he  communicates  a  paragraph 
which  has  some  local  as  well  as  general  interest,  and  well 
repays  its  reading.  Its  opening  sentence  relates  to  the 
time  of  Captain  Symmes'  last  return  and  illness: 

I  was  then  seventeen  years  old,  and  he  was  too  ill  to  talk  much  ;  but 
he  charged  me  just  to  keep  an  eye  to  the  explorations  in  the  north,  and 
I  would  find  his  theory  would  be  proven  true.  I  have  kept  an  eye  on 
the  northern  explorations,  and  find  that  the  further  north  they  get  the 
stronger  grow  the  proofs  of  the  truth  of  his  theory,  Your  Cincinnati 
explorer,  Captain  Hall,  who  went  further  north  than  any  other  man  of 
his  day  (except  Parry  on  his  third  voyage),  did  more  to  prove  the  truth 
of  the  Symmes  theory  than  all  other  explorers.  I  saw  the  sled-runners 
in  Captain  Hall's  hands,  made  in  your  city,  that  bore  him  up  to  82°  2' 
north,  where  he  wrote  his  last  dispatch  to  the  secretary  of  the  navy,  in 
which  he  says  :  I  find  this  a  much  warmer  country  than  I  expected, 
and  it  abounds  with  life,  etc.  Just  to  think  a  Cincinnati  man  studied 
out  the  theory,  and  another  citizen  of  your  city  made  the  sled-runners 
there,  and  rode  on  them  up  to  820  2'  north,  and  thereby  proved  the 
theory  true  as  far  as  he  went. 

It  may  be  added  that  the  younger  son  of  Captain 
Symmes,  a  native  of  Newport,  Kentucky,  was  also  named 
John  Cleves  Symmes,  was  a  graduate  of  the  West  Point 
Military  academy,  and  served  his  country  creditably  as  a 
teacher  there  and  as  an  officer  elsewhere.  He  lived  for 
a  number  of  years  in  Prussia,  where,  in  1866,  he  had  a 
son  of  a  German  mother,  who  took  the  name  of  John 
Haven  Cleves  Symmes. 




/  Population  this  year,  by  the  United  States  census, 
/  nine  thousand  six  hundred  and  forty-two.  \  Vote  of  the 
\city,  eight  hundred  and  fifty.        : 

February  2,  meeting  of  citizens  to  consider  the  good- 
ness of  John  H.  Piatt's  "shinplasters."  Resolutions 
passed  against  them.  On  the  eighth,  the  ice  in  the  Ohio 
breaks  up,  after  having  been  frozen  over  for  three  weeks. 

The  first  water-service  pipes,  wooden,  were  laid  this 

Congress,  worthily  though  tardily,  voted  a  gold  medal 
to  Lieutenant  R.  Anderson,  of  Cincinnati,  for  gallant 
conduct  in  Perry's  battle  on  Lake  Erie. 

In  June  a  museum  was  opened  in  Cincinnati  College, 
which  was  for  many  years  an  interesting  feature  of 
amusements  here. 


The  Commercial  hospital  and  Ohio  medical  college 
were  incorporated  February  1st.  On  the  twenty-eighth 
the  Hon.  Jacob  Burnet  was  appointed  a  Judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court. 

July  28th  the  fire  department  of  the  city  turns  out  for 
a  public  parade,  and  makes  a  brave  display  with  its  two 
hand-engines  and  two  hose-reels. 

The  council  building  was  this  year  on  Fourth  street, 
near  the  corner  of  Walnut,  and  the  independent  engine 
is  removed  thither.  The  vote  of  the  city  is  said  to  have 
been  seven  hundred  and  thirty-two;  which  could  not 
have  been  full,  as  it  is  more  than  a  hundred  less  than 
that  of  the  year  before,  and  less  than  half  that  of  the 
next  year. 

September  26th  occurs  the  first  commencement  of  the 
Cincinnati  College,  which  confers  the  honorary  degree 
of  Master  of  Arts  on  William  Henry  Harrison,  the  Rev. 
Joshua  L.  Wilson,  and  the  Rev.  James  A.  Kemper. 


The  first  theatrical  benefit  given  here,  to  Mrs.  A. 
Drake,  a  favorite  actress  of  that  day,  occurred  in  the 
ball-room  of  the  Cincinnati  hotel. 

March  27  th,  directors  of  the  city  library  were  elected 
— Lewis  Whiteman,  Benjamin  Drake,  Nathan  Guilford, 
and  Peyton  S.  Symmes. 

June  8th  a  meeting  is  held  to  promote  the  scheme  of 
a  canal  from  Cincinnati  to  Piqua. 

September  9th  there  is  a  considerable  freshet  in  the 

October  7th  a  notable  political  event  occurs,  in  the  de- 
feat of  General  Harrison  for  Congress,  by  James  W. 
Gazlay,  though  only  by  the  meagre  majority  of  three 
hundred  and  forty-two  votes. 

This  year  came  George  Graham,  who  became  a  very 
prominent  citizen  of  Cincinnati,  and  survived  until  Feb- 
ruary, 1 88 1. 

The  total  value  of  exports  this  year  from  Cincinnati 
was  two  hundred  and  seventy-nine  thousand  dollars, 
chiefly  in  flour,  pork,  and  whiskey. 



Vote  at  the  municipal  election  in  1822,  one  thousand, 
five  hundred  and  ninety-seven. 


January  30th,  certain  adventurous  business  men  of  the 
city  broach  a  project  for  a  whaling  and  sealing  voyage  to 
the  Indian  ocean. 

September  3d,  the  citizens,  dissatisfied  with  the  ar- 
rangements of  the  authorities  for  the  protection  of  per- 
son and  property,  meet  to  organize  a  volunteer  city 

November  3d,  a  great  calamity  is  inflicted  upon  the 
business  of  the  city,  by  the  burning  of  the  famous  great 
stone  steam-mill.  Material  is  at  once  collected  for  rebuild- 
ing, however.  Among  prominent  business  men  now  are 
noted  Kilgour  &  Taylor,  Barr,  Patterson  &  Son,  Keat- 
ing &  Bell,  grocers;  John  Sterrett  &  Company,  John  Du- 
val, G.  V.  H.  Dewitt,  dry  goods  merchants;  Griffin  & 
Company,  C.  &  J.  Bates,  druggists;  Piatt  Evans  and 
James  Comly,  tailors;  Moses  &  Jonas,  auctioneers;  J. 
&  G.  R.  Gilmore,  brokers. 

Aggregate  vote  this  year,  one  thousand,  eight  hundred 
and  sixty-one. 


f Population  this  year  is  twelve  thousand  and  sixteen4- 
Eirst  ward,  three  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty-seven; 
Second,  four  thousand  five  hundred  and  thirty-one; 
Third,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-eight; 
Fourth,  two  thousand  five  hundred  and  forty.  The 
number  of  families  was  two  thousand  one  hundred  and 
nineteen;  of  dwelling  houses,  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  sixty-eight. 

Until  1824  it  is  said  that  the  whole  city  had  voted  at 
one  polling-place,  generally  the  Mayor's  office  on  Third 
street.  At  the  presidential  election  of  this  year  the  vote 
was  by  wards. 

February  24th,  Mr.  Samuel  W.  Davies  offers  the  water- 
works, which  are  private  property,  to  the  city  for  thirty 
thousand  dollars,  in  convenient  payments.  His  offer  is 
declined  by  a  meeting  or  a  vote  of  the  citizens,  and  he 
sells  to  the  new  Cincinnati  Water  company  at  the  same 

May  19th,  the  corner-stone  of  the  old  St.  Peter's 
cathedral  (Roman  Catholic),  on  Sycamore  street,  is  laid, 
Bishop  Fenwick  conducting  the  ceremonies. 

The  statistics  of  nativity,  taken  for  the  directory  of  this 
year — the  second  Cincinnati  directory  issued — show  a 
very  large  percentage  of  Pennsylvanians  and  Jerseymen  in 
the  population,  three  hundred  and  ninety-four  '  of  the 
names  given  for  the  directory  being  those  of  natives  of 
the  Keystone  State,  and  three  hundred  and  thirty-seven 
of  New  Jersey  birth;  two  hundred  and  thirty-three  were 
New  Yorkers,  one  hundred  and  eighty-four  native  to 
Massachusetts,  one  hundred  and  seventy  to  Maryland, 
one  hundred  and  forty-three  Connecticut,  one  hundred  and 
thirteen  Virginia,  and  less  than  one  hundred  to  any  other 
State.  Ohio  as  yet  contributed  but  fifty-two  native 
Buckeyes — adults,  of  course — to  the  directory,  and  any 
other  State  not  mentioned  less  than  fifty.  A  good  many 
native   foreigners   were  represented — English,  one  hun- 

dred and  ninety-two;  Irish,  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
three;  Germans,  sixty-two;  Scotch,  thirty-nine;  Welsh, 
twenty-one;  Swiss,  seventeen,  and  one  or  two  each  of 
Swedes,  Dutch,  and  Poles.  Multiplying  the  numbers, 
respectively,  by  five,  the  products,  in  most  cases,  will 
probably  show  the  actual  number  of  population  of  the 
several  classes  then  here.  The  State  or  country  of 
nativity,  whenever  known,  was  entered  with  the  person's 
name  in  the  directory — a  unique  feature,  truly. 

The  directory  notes  the  entire  compact  portion  of  the 
city  as  being  included  within  the  space  of  one  mile 

February  2d,  General  Harrison  was  elected  by  the 
Legislature  to  the  United  States  Senate. 

The  first  fancy  front  in  town  is  put  up  this  year  on 
Main  street,  by  Piatt  Evans,  tailor.  His  sign  was  still 
up  in  1856,  when  it  was  the  oldest  sign  in  the  city. 

In  the  month  of  May,  General  the  Marquis  de  Lafay- 
ette, accompanied  by  his  son,  on  their  tour  through  this 
country,  paid  Cincinnati  the  honor  of  a  visit.  Mr. 
L'Hommedieu  says: 

The  occasion  brought  here  thousands  from  the  country.  AH  within 
a  circuit  of  a  hundred  miles  seemed  to  be  here.  Lafayette  approached 
our  city  from  Lexington,  Kentucky,  where  he  had  been  to  visit  Henry 
Clay.  He  was  met  and  welcomed  at  our  landing  by  Governor  Mor- 
row and  General  Harrison.  The  whole  public  ground  between  Main 
street  and  Broadway,  and  Front  street  and  the  river,  was  densely 
crowded  with  men,  women,  and  children,  and  the  windows,  balconies, 
and  roofs  of  the  buildings  fronting  the  river  were  alive  with  people 
waving  their  welcome.  After  tarrying  in  our  city  from  noon  of  one 
day  to  midnight  of  the  next,  he  departed  up  the  river.  The  day  of  his 
arrival,  as  well  as  that  which  followed,  and  his  departure  at  midnight, 
will  be  remembered,  by  those  who  witnessed  the  scenes,  as  long  as  their 
memories  last.  All  was  grand;  but  the  closing  scene,  at  twelve  o'clock 
at  night,  with  the  illumination  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  the  crowd  of 
many  thousands  of  our  people  on  the  landing,  the  beautiful  display 
made  by  all  the  steamboats  in  port,  the  procession  of  military  com- 
panies, the  firing  of  cannon  from  our  landing,  from  the  boats,  and  from 
the  arsenal  at  Newport,  with  the  martial  music,  seems  to  me,  after  the 
lapse  of  fifty  years,  the  most  brilliant  sight  of  my  life. 

Major  Daniel  Gano's  splendid  turnout  of  six  bay 
horses  attached  to  an  open  phaeton  awaited  Lafayette  at 
the  steamer  landing — the  only  equipage  of  the  kind  in 
Cincinnati.  In  the  evening,  before  the  ball,  a  public 
reception  was  given  to  Lafayette  in  the  Major's  orchard, 
whkh  was  brilliantly  illuminated.  A  new  lodge  of  Free 
Masons,  called  Lafayette  No.  81,  was  constituted  in 
honor  of  his  coming,  of  which  he  became  an  honorary 
member,  and  which  publicly  celebrated  his  obsequies 
July  20,  1834,  upon  the  death  of  the  eminent  patriot. 

Joseph  S.  Benham,  esq.,  a  brilliant  young  lawyer  of  this 
city,  made  the  reception  speech  upon  Lafayette's  arrival, 
on  behalf  of  the  public  authorities  and  citizens.  A  grand 
ball  was  given  at  night  in  the  Cincinnati  hotel. 

Henry  Clay  himself  had  a  reception  and  banquet  at 
the  same  hotel  in  June  of  this  year.  The  opportunity 
was  taken  by  Mr.  Clay  for  a  vindication  of  himself,  in  an 
elaborate  and  very  eloquent  speech,  from  the  famous 
charge  of  "  bargain  and  sale,"  which  had  been  made 
against  him  in  connection  with  the  recent  presidential 
election.  There  were  present,  besides  Mr.  Clay,  Gover- 
nors Clinton,  Morrow,  and  Brown,  and  some  scores  of 
prominent  Cincinnatians.  Governor/Poindexter  was  also 
in  town,  but  was  detained  away  from  the  dinner.    Tickets 



to  it  were  three  dollars  apiece;  but  were  purchasable  by 
any  one  who  had  the  wherewithal,  and  the  disposition  to 
expend  it  in  this  way.     Mr.  L'Hommedieu  says : 

Although  then  an  apprentice-boy  of  nineteen  years,  I  managed  to 
raise  three  dollars,  and  attended  the  dinner.  The  sight  of  so  many 
distinguished  characters  seated  at  a  table,  which  crossed  the  ends  of 
three  or  four  longer  ones,  was  a  novel  one  to  me,  and  I  fancied  myself 
in  the  presence  of  giants,  until  after  the  wine  was  freely  drank,  the 
cloth  removed,  smoking  commenced,  and  speeches  and  story-telling  be- 
came the  order.  Then  1  thought,  to  use  the  language  of  Governor 
Vance,   ' '  Most  great  men  look  smaller  the  nearer  you  get  to  them. " 


This  year  witnessed  the  breaking  of  ground  for  the 
Miami  canal,  at  Middletown,  June  21,  by  Governor  Dewitt 
Clinton,  of  New  York.  The-  ceremony  has  been  else- 
where described. 

Dr.  Samuel  Thompson,  founder  of  the  botanical  sys- 
tem of  medicine  and  patentee  of  the  celebrated  Thomp- 
sonian  remedies,  came  to  Cincinnati  this  year,  and  made 
many  converts  to  his  school  of  practice. 


The  publication  of  another  work  of  local  character, 
Cincinnati  in  1826,  by  Benjamin  Drake  and  E.  D.  Mans- 
field, both  young  men  struggling  to  get  a  living  at  the 
bar,  furnishes  the  means  of  giving  a  pretty  full  picture  of 
the  Queen  City  at  this  time.  Their  book,  which  was  a 
worthy  successor  of  Dr.  Drake's  two  pioneer  volumes, 
had  the  honor  of  publication  the  same  year  (1826)  in 
London,  as  an  appendix  to  Mr.  W.  Bullock's  Notes  of  a 
Journey,  of  which  more  will  be  presently  said.  It  is  note- 
worthy that  the  book  was  subsidized  by  the  city  council, 
to  the  extent  of  seventy-five  dollars  voted  to  the  authors 
firir  taking  a  census  of  the  population. 
1  In  December  of  this  year,  the  population  numbered 
snrteen  thousand  two  hundred  and  thirtw— four  thousand 
and  eighty-four  in  the  First  ward,  six  thousand  four  hun- 
dred and  ninety-nine  in  the  Second,  two  thousand  five 
hundred  and  five  in  the  Third,  and  three  thousand  one 
hundred  and  forty-two  in  the  Fourth — seven  thousand 
nine  hundred  and  ninety  males,  and  seven  thousand  five 
hundred  and  fifty  females.  The  average  number  to  a 
building  was  six  and  a  half  persons.  There  were  twenty- 
eight  clergymen,  thirty-four  lawyers,  thirty-five  physicians, 
about  eight  hundred  in  trade  and  mercantile  pursuits, 
five  hundred  in  navigation,  and  three  thousand  in  manu- 
facturing. Mr.  Mansfield,  recounting  his  experience  in 
taking  census  statistics  for  his  book,  says:  "In  all  this 
visitation  into  the  recesses  of  society,  I  never  met  a  sin- 
gle pauper  family,  nor  one  really  impoverished.  The 
great  body  of  them  were  mechanics,  with  plenty  to  do, 
generally  owning  their  own  homes,  and  in  fact  a  well-to- 
do  people.'' 

The  number  of  buildings  in  the  city  was  two  thousand 
four  hundred  and  ninety-five — eighteen  stone,  nine  hun- 
dred and  thirty-six  brick,  seventeen  of  them  four-storied, 
one  thousand  five  hundred  and  forty-one  frames,  six  hun- 
dred and  fifty  of  one  story,  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  eighty-two  of  two  stories,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
three  of  more  than  two. 

The  growth  of  the  city,  during  this  and  the  preced- 
ing year,  had  been  greater  than  in  any  former  period  of 

equal  length.  The  yearly  ratio  of  increase  in  population 
from  1810  to  1813  was  twenty-four  per  cent ;  1813-19, 
twenty-six  per  cent;  1819-24,  three  and  five-tenths; 
1824-26,  seventeen.  For  sixteen  years  the  population 
of  no  town  in  the  United  States,  of  the  rank  of  Cincin- 
nati, had  increased  in  corresponding  raticu)  Manufactur- 
ing establishments  had  also  greatly  increased  within  two 
years,  some  details  of  which  will  be  found  in  our  chapter 
on  manufactures.  The  value  of  manufactures  in  and 
near  the  city,  for  the  year,  was  one  million  eight  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

The  United  States  land  office  was  now  at  the  east  end 
of  the  city,  the  register's  office  near  the  corner  of  Law- 
rence^ and  Congress,  the  receiver's  north  of  Congress, 
near  Broadway.  The  United  States  branch  bank  had 
been  founded  here,  and  there  were  two  insurance  com- 
panies and  'several  agencies.  Mr.  N.  Holley  kept  a  gen- 
eral agency  and  intelligence  office.  There  were  ten  li- 
censed auctioneers,  who  sold  thirty-three  thousand  eight 
hundred  dollars'  worth  this  year,  paying  a  duty  of  three 
per  cent,  thereon — one-half  of  it  going  to  the  Commer- 
cial hospital,  the  other  to  the  medical  college  of  Ohio. 
Real  property  was  advancing  at  the  rate  of  ten  to  twelve 
per  cent,  a  year,  and  many  pieces  twelve  to  eighteen. 
Interest  was  high,  three  per  cent,  a  month  being  some- 
times paid  on  small  sums,  and  ten  to  twenty  per  annum 
on  larger.     There  were  then  no  penalties  on  usury. 

rThe  city  was  becoming  somewhat  a  summer  resort  for 
the  inhabitants  of  the  south,  especially  Mississippi,  Ala- 
bama and  Louisianal\  Yellow  Springs  and  the  Big  Bone 
Lick  had  also  become  prominent  as  places  of  temporary 
resort  for  excursionists. 

The  Miami  canal  was  now  under  contract,  and  thirty- 
one  miles,  from  Main  street  to  the  dam  at  Middletown, 
were  nearly  finished.  Great  benefits  were  expected  to  the 
city  from  the  water-power  to  be  gained  in  the  descent 
from  the  upper  level  to  the  river,  about  fifty  feet — 
enough,  it  was  estimated,  to  turn  sixty  pair  of  millstones. 
The  branch  bank  of  the  United  States  was  still  flourish- 
ing in  a  fine  freestone  front — "one  of  the  chastest  speci- 
mens of  architecture  within  the  city;"  and  the  medical 
college  was  already  in  its  present  location  on  Sixth,  be- 
tween Vine  and  Race,  though  the  building  was  still  un- 
finished. The  commercial  hospital  and  lunatic  asylum 
was  up  and  occupied.  The  college  building  was  also  in 
place,  with  accommodations  for  a  thousand  pupils.  The 
Cincinnati  theatre  stood  on  the  south  side  of  Second 
street,  between  Main  and  Sycamore.  A  Masonic  grand 
hall  was  projected  for  the  next  year,  in  the  hope  of  loca- 
ting the  grand  lodge  of  the  State  permanently  in  Cincin- 
nati. The  purchase  of  the  Burnet  property  between 
Third  and  Fourth,  Race  and  Vine,  was  urged  for  use  as 
a  city  hall  and  public  square.  It  could  have  been  had 
then  for  twenty-five  thousand  dollars,  which  was  the 
amount  for  which  the  judge  presently  let  it  go  to  the 
United  States  branch  bank,  to  satisfy  its  demands  upon 
him.  It  was  already  handsomely  adorned  with  shade- 
trees,  flowering  shrubs,  and  evergreens,  and  several  lib- 
eral gifts  for  its  ornamentation  were  promised  if  it  were 
made  public  property.     The  Cincinnati  water  company, 



for  example,  would  put  in  a  fountain  gratuitously.  (The 
bridge  over  the  Ohio  was  still  urged,  and  it  was  thought 
it  could  be  built,  with  nine  stone  piers,  breakers,  and 
connecting  with  both  Newport  and  Covington,  for  one 
hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars.  Various  canals  were 
also  in  prospedtu  besides  the  Miami,  which  was  so  hope- 
fully under  waju)  The  valuation  of  the  city  was  three 
million  one  hundred  and  fifty-seven  thousand  three  hun- 
dred and  ninety-two  dollars,  and  its  revenue  for  1826 
twenty-three  thousand  seven  hundred  and  forty-two  dol- 
lars and  eighty-one  cents — less  than  half  of  it  from  taxa- 
tion. A  new  city  charter,  promising  improvements  in 
local  government,  was  about  to  go  into  operation. 

Messrs.  Drake  and  Mansfield  seem  abundantly  justi- 
fied in  their  closing  -  predictions  of  "continued  pros- 
perity in  wealth  and  population.  The  period  is  not  a 
remote  one  when  Cincinnati  will  hold  the  same  rank 
among  cities  of  the  Union  that  the  great  State  of  which 
she  is  the  ornament  now  possesses  in  the  American  con- 

In  May  the  city  was  visited  by  a  noble  personage, 
Bernhard,  Uuke  of  Saxe-Weimar  Eisenach,  who  after- 
wards wrote  a  book  of  his  travels.  He  said  in  it,  how- 
ever, nothing  of  account  concerning  Cincinnati.  His 
observations  on  the  village  of  Montgomery,  through 
which  he  passed  in  coming  here,  will  be  found  in  the 
history  of  Sycamore  township. 

October  20th,  General  James  Findlay  was  elected  to 
Congress  from  the  Cincinnati  district. 

November  18th,  the  water  company  begins  to  supply 
the  city  through  its  ground-pipes  and  hydrants.  On  the 
twenty-seventh  Philip  Lewis,  a  colored  man,  was  hanged 
for  the  murder  of  Thomas  Isbell,  April  4th.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  the  only  one  of  his  race  hanged  here  for 
more  than  forty  years. 

At  this  time,  however,  says  Mr.  L'Hommedieu,  Cincin- 
nati "was  undergoing  the  severe  ordeal  of  paying  off  'old 
debts.'  Through  the  branch  bank  established  here  by 
the  United  States  bank,  during  the  years  of  inflation  and 
extravagance  which  preceded  this  period,  most  of  the 
real-estate  owners  had  become  almost  hopelessly  in  debt, 
and  large  portions  of  their  property  had  been  taken  by 
the  United  States  bank,  and  subsequently  sold  at  an 
advance.  Some  few  obtained  the  right  of  redemption, 
and,  by  borrowing  money  in  New  York  and  Philadelphia, 
succeeded  in  saving  their  estates;  but  many,  if  not  a 
majority,  of  their  debtors  went  under.  Interest  ranged 
from  ten  to  thirty-six  per  cent,  and  there  was  no  legal 
limit.  At  this  period  the  valuation  of  the  property  listed 
for  taxation  in  our  city  was  six  million  eight  hundred  and 
forty-eight  thousand  four  hundred  and  thirty-three  dollars* 

not  more  than  some  half-dozen  or  less  of  our  citizens 

combined  are  now  worth." 

The  vote  of  the  city  this  year  was  two  thousand  three 
hundred  and  forty-nine.  The  new  buildings  put  up  num- 
bered four  hundred  and  ninety-six— eight  one-story  brick, 
one  hundred  and  thirty-one  two-story,  seventy-seven 
three-story,  and  one    four-story;   twenty-nine   one-story 

•This  does  not  agree,  it  will  be  observed,  by  over  three .  millions  and 
a  quarter,  with  Drake  and  Mansfield's  statement. 

frames,  two  hundred  and  fifty  two-story; — two  hundred 
and  seventeen  brick  structures,  two  hundred  and  seventy- 
nine  frame. 

May  21st,  the  Miami  canal  is" put  under  contract  from 
Middletown  to  Dayton.  November  21st,  two  canalboats 
start  for  Middletown,  from  Howell's  Basin,  six  miles 
above  Cincinnati,  in  the  presence  of  a  large  crowd. 

The  arrivals  and  departures  of  steamers  at  this  port, 
from  the  first  of  November,  1827,  to  the  eighth  of  June, 
1828,  number  seven  hundred  and  thirty-nine. 

It  is  probable  that  the  temperance  meeting  held  at  the 
court  house  in  September  of  this  year,  was  the  first  of  the 
kind  in  Cincinnati.  It  was  only  the  year  before  that  Dr. 
Lyman  Beecher  had  delivered  the  powerful  lectures 
against  intemperance,  from  his  pulpit  at  Litchfield,  Con- 
necticut, which,  being  widely  published,  had  made  a  pro- 
found impression  in  favor  of  reform.  The  American 
Temperance  society  was  organized  the  same  year,  and  its 
branches  spread  very  rapidly.  Nowhere  in  the  country, 
probably,  did  the  customs  of  society,  in  the  matter  of  in- 
dulgence in  intoxicants,  need  reformation  more  than  in 
Cincinnati;  and  indue  time  the  movement  reached  here. 
Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield,  in  his  Life  of  Dr.  Drake,  gives  the 
following  amusing  account  of  the  initial  meeting : 

The  meeting  was  held  at  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  for  those 
days  was  really  large  and  respectable.  Many  old  citizens  were  present 
who  were  familiar  with  old  whiskey  and  upon  whose  cheeks  it  blossomed 
forth  in  purple  dyes.  To  these,  and  indeed  to  the  great  body  of  people 
in  the  west,  a  temperance  speech  was  a  new  idea.  Dr.  Drake  was  the 
speaker,  and  they  listened  to  him  with  respectful  attention,  and  were  by 
no  means  opposed  to  the  object.  The  speech,  however,  was  long.  The 
docior  had  arrayed  a  formidable  column  of  facts.  The  day  was  hot; 
and  after  he  had  spoken  about  an  hour  without  apparently  approaching 
the  end,  some  one,  out  of  regard  for  the  doctor's  strength,  or  by  force 
of  habit,  cried  out:  "  Let's  adjourn  awhile  and  take  a  drink ! "  The 
meeting  did  adjourn,  and,  McFarland's  tavern  being  near  by,  the  old 
soakers  refreshed  themselves  with  "old  rye."  The  meeting  again  as- 
sembled, the  doctor  finished  his  speech,  and  all  went  off  well.  Soon 
after  the  temperance  societies  began  to  be  formed,  and  the  excitement 
then  begun  has  continued  to  this  day. 

The  visit  of  an  English  traveller  of  some  distinction, 
Mr.  W.  Bullock,  "F.  L.  S.,  etc.,  etc.,"  aids  to  make  inter- 
esting the  annals  of  this  part  of  the  Ohio  valley  for  the 
year,  as  connected  with  a  promising  enterprise  on  the 
Kentucky  shore,  upon  the  site  of  what  is  now  little  more 
than   a   suburb   of  Cincinnati — the   village   of  Ludlow. 
While  approaching  the  city  from  New  Orleans,  by  river, 
the  traveller's  eye  was  caught  by  an  elegant  mansion, 
upon  an  ,  estate  of  about  a  thousand  acres,  a  little  below 
the  then  jcity,  and  the  property  of  Hon.  Thomas  D.  Car- 
neal,  an  extensive  landholder  and  member  of  the  Ken- 
tucky legislature.     During  his  short  stay  here  he  visited 
the  place,  was  easily  prevailed  upon  to  buy  it,  and  upon  it 
projected  "a  proposed  rural  town  to  be  called  Hygeia." 
He  evidently  thought  no  small  things  of  his  city  in  the 
air;    for  upon  an  outline  map  of  the  United  States,  pre- 
fixed to  his  "Sketch  of  a  Journey  through  the  Western 
States  of  North  America,"  he  notes  no  other  towns  than 
Cincinnati  and  "Hygeia."     His  plan  for  the  place  was 
drawn  by  no  less  a  personage  than  I.  P.  Papworlh,  archi- 
tect to  the  King  of  Wurtemburg,  "etc.,  etc.,"  and  repre- 
sents a  magnificent  town — on  paper.     The  eastern  end 
was  to  be  nearly  opposite  the  mouth  of  Mill  creek,  about 




atthe  further  terminus  of  the  present  Southern  Railroad 
bridge,  and  the  western  end  a  mile  distant.  The  extreme 
breadth,  back  from  the  river,  was  about  half  the  length. 
The  place  was  elegantly  platted,  with  four  large  squares 
in  the  middle,  called,  respectively,  Washington,  Jefferson, 
Adams,  and  Patterson  squares.  Little  parks  diversified 
the  border  of  this  great  quadrangle.  Two  other  squares, 
named  from  Franklin  and  Jackson,  were  provided  for. 
The  streets  were  considerably  in  curves,  after  the  Euro- 
pean manner.  Agricultural,  horticultural,  and  kitchen 
gardens,  a  cemetery  "as  Pere  la  Chaise  at  Paris,''  a  chapel 
therein,  four  churches,  three  inns,  two  shops,  a  theatre, 
bath,  town  hall,  museum,  library,  a  school,  and  another 
public  building,  with  a  statue  and  a  fountain,  have  all 
their  places  upon  this  plat.  Mr.  Bullock  published  it  in 
October,  1826,  upon  his  return  to  England,  with  his  Sketch 
of  a  Journey,  adding  as  an  appendix  Drake  &  Mansfield's 
Cincinnati  in  1826,  then  a  brand-new  book;  but  all  did 
not  avail  to  prevent  the  scheme  from  joining  the  grand 
army  of  wrecked  "paper  towns."  The  old  Bullock  or 
Carneal  house  is  still,  however,  prominent  among  the 
most  interesting  of  local  antiquities  on  the  Kentucky 


(The  opening  of  the  Miami  canal  gave  fresh  life  to 
business.  Real  estate  made  rapid  advancement  in  price, 
and  those  who  had  made  investments  in  it,  were  fortu- 
nate in  their  sales.  The  people  were  no  longer  depend- 
ent on  mud  roads  and  the  river  for  their  supplies,  and 
provisions  were  abundant  and  comparatively  cheap.  It 
•had  before  happened  occasionally  that,  during  a  mild  and 
open  winter,  the  roads  had  been  frightfully  bad,  even  im- 
passable; and  the  relief  given  by  the  canal  was  such  as 
is  difficult,  indeed,  to  realize  under  the  commercial  con- 
ditions that  now  prevail^)  A  great  calamity  was  experi- 
enced, however,  December  nth,  in  the  destructive  fire 
that  devastated  half  the  square  on  Main  street,  between 
Third  and  Fourth — one  of  the  most  solid  business  blocks 
in  the  city.  The  weather  was  extremely  cold,  and  but 
two  engines  could  play  upon  the  fire.  The  citizens, 
women  and  children  included,  formed  a  line  to  the  river, 
and  did  what  they  could  in  passing  fire-buckets;  but 
without  much  avail. 

The  valuation  of  taxable  property  in  the  city  this  year 
was  three  millions  six  hundred  and  ninety-seven  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  thirty-three  dollars,  and  the  tax  nine 
and  five-tenths  mills,  yielding,  with  other  receipts,  a  rev- 
enue of  thirty-five  thousand  nine  hundred  and  ninety- 
three  dollars  and  forty-three  cents.  There  were  expended 
by  the  corporation  forty-six  thousand  one  hundred  and 
fifty-six  dollars — twenty-two  thousand  and  five  dollars  for 
paving  streets  and  alleys,  including  excavations.  A  loan 
of  thirty  thousand  dollars  was  necessarily  made  this  year, 
the  total  expenditures  being  sixty-five  thousand  four 
hundred  and  twenty-nine  dollars  and  twenty-one  cents. 
Miller  &  Company's  cotton  factory  went  into  operation, 
also  the  Hamilton  foundry  and  steam-engine  factory, 
Goodloe  &  Borden's  and  West  &  Storm's  engine  facto- 
ries, Fox's  steam  grist-mill  on  Deer  creek,  at  the  terminus 
of  Fifth  street,  and  other  business  enterprises. 

The  bills  of  mortality  for  1828  show  deaths  to  the 
number  of  six  hundred  and  forty-seven,  being  one  in 
every  thirty-seven  of  the  population — a  pretty  high  death 
rate,  compared  with  the  rates  of  succeeding  years — as  one 
in  thirty-four  (eight  hundred  and  twenty)  in  1831,  and 
one  in  twenty-seven  (one  thousand  one  hundred  and 
seventy)  in  1833. 

This  year  came  to  Cincinnati  one  of  the  most  remark- 
able women  who  ever  set  foot  in  the  city — one  who,  un- 
like all  other  foreign  travellers  through  the  valley,  left 
here  a  most  singular  monument  of  her  residence,  which 
endured  for  more  than  half  a  century — -the  Trol- 
lopean  Bazaar.  It  was  built  by  Mrs.  Frances  Trollope, 
an  Englishwoman,  who  resided  here  and  in  the  neighbor- 
hood for  a  little  more  than  two  years.  She  is  probably 
very  poor  historical  authority,  especially  in  Cincinnati, 
whose  people  and  institutions  she  abused  so  persistently 
and  unmercifully;  but  she  was  a  woman  of  unmistakable 
powers  of  mind  and  literary  talent — as  the  mother  of 
Anthony  Trollope  must  have  been — and  her  observations 
are  always  entertaining,  if  often  far  from  just.  We  shal  1 
give  some  extracts,  here  and  elsewhere,  from  her  subse- 
quent book  on  The  Domestic  Manners  of  the  Americans. 
She  came  alone  from  Memphis,  with  her  son  and  two 
daughters,  Mr.  Trollope  and  another  son  joining  them 
here  the  next  year.  In  the  first  volume  of  her  book  she 

We  reached  Cincinnati  on  the  tenth  of  February.  It  is  finely  situ- 
ated on  the  south  side  of  a  hill  that  rises  gently  from  the  water's  edge, 
yet  it  is  by  no  means  a  city  of  stnking  appearance  ;  it  wants  domes, 
towers,  and  steeples ;  but  its  landing  place  is  noble,  extending  for  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  mile ;  it  is  well  paved  and  surrounded  by  neat 
though  not  handsome  buildings.  I  have  seen  fifteen  steamboats  lying 
there  at  once,  and  still  half  the  wharf  was  unoccupied. 

The  sight  of  bricks  and  mortar  was  really  refreshing,  and  a  house  of 
three  stories  looked  splendid.  Of  this  splendor  we  saw  repeated  speci- 
mens, and  moreover  a  brick  church  which,  from  its  two  little  peaked 
spires,    was  called   the  two-horned   church.  .         Certainly  it 

was  not  a  little  town,  about  the  size  of  Salisbury,  without  even  an  at- 
tempt at  beauty  in  any  of  its  edifices,  and  with  only  just  enough  of  the 
air  of  a  city  to  make  it  noisy  and  bustling.  The  population  is  greater 
than  the  appearance  of  the  town  would  lead  one  to  expect.  This  is 
partly  owing  to  the  number  of  free  negroes  who  herd  together  in  an  ob- 
scure part  of  the  city,  called  Little  Africa,  and  partly  to  the  density  of 
the  population  around  the  paper  mills  and  other  manufactories.  I  be- 
lieve the  number  of  inhabitants  exceeds  twenty  thousand. 

At  that  time  I  think  Main  street,  which  is  the  principal  avenue,  and 
runs  through  the  whole  town,  answering  to  the  High  street  of  our  old 
cities,  was  the  only  one  entirely  paved.  The  trottoir  [sidewalk]  is  of 
brick,  tolerably  well  laid,  but  it  is  inundated  by  every  shower,  as  Cin- 
cinnati has  no  drains  whatever.  .  .  Were  it  furnished  with 
drains  of  the  simplest  arrangement,  the  heavy  showers  of  the  climate 
would  keep  them  constantly  clean ;  as  it  is,  these  showers  wash  the 
higher  streets,  only  to  deposit  their  filth  in  the  first  level  spot ;  and  this 
happens  to  be  in  the  street  second  in  importance  to  Main  street,  run- 
ning at  right  angles  to  it,  and  containing  most  of  the  large  warehouses 
of  the  town.  This  deposit  is  a  dreadful  nuisance,  and  must  be  produc- 
tive of  miasma  during  the  hot  weather. 

The  following  passage  will  be  read  with  considerable 
amusement  by  the  myriad  dwellers  on  the  hills  in  this 
latter  day: 

tlills,  : 

(To  the  north,  Cincinnati  is  bounded  by  a  range  of  foresticovered 
hills,  sufficiently  steep  and  rugged  to  prevent  their  being  built'upon  or 
easily  cultivated,  but  not  sufficiently  high  to  command  from  their  sum- 
mits a  view  of  any  considerable  extent.  Deep  and  narrow  water-courses, 
dry  in  summer,  but  bringing  down  heavy  streams  in  winter,  divide  these 
hills  into  many  separate  heights,  and  this  furnishes  the  only  variety  the 
landscape  offers  for  many  miles  around  the  town.     The  lovely  Ohio  is 



a  beautiful  feature  wherever  it  is  visible,  but  the  only  part  of  the  city 
that  has  the  advantage  of  its  beauty  is  the  street  nearest  to  its  bank. 

Though  I  do  not  quite  sympathize  with  those  who  consider  Cincin- 
nati as  one  of  the  wonders  of  the  earth,  I  certainly  think  it  a  city  of 
extraordinary  size  and  importance,  when  it  is  remembered  that  thirty 
years  ago  the  aboriginal  forest  occupied  the  ground  where  it  stands, 
and  every  month  appears  to  extend  its  limits  and  its  wealth/) 
During  nearly  two  years  that  I  resided  in  Cincinnati  or  its*neighbor- 
hood,  I  neither  saw  a  beggar  nor  a  man  of  sufficient  fortune  to  permit 
his  ceasing  his  efforts  to  increase  it.  Thus  every  bee  in  the  hive  is  ac- 
tively employed  in  search  of  that  honey  of  Hybla,  vulgarly  called' 
money;  neither  art,  science,  learning,  nor  pleasure  can  seduce  them 
from  its  pursuit. 

Notwithstanding  fourteen  hundred  new  dwellings  had  been  erected 
the  preceding  year,  the  demand  for  houses  greatly  exceeded  the 

Perhaps  the  most  advantageous  feature  in  Cincinnati  is  its  market, 
which,  for  excellence,  abundance,  and  cheapness,  can  hardly,  I  should 
think,  be  surpassed  in  any  part  of  the  world,  if  I  except  the  luxury  of 
fruits,  which  are  very  inferior  to  any  I  have  seen  in  Europe.  There  are 
no  butchers,  fishmongers,  or  indeed  any  shop  for  eatables,  except  baker- 
ies, as  they  are  called,  in  the  town :  everything  must  be  purchased  at 
market.  .         .         The  beef  is  excellent,  and  the  highest  price 

when  we  were  there,  four  cents  (about  twopence)  the  pound.  The  mut- 
ton was  inferior,  and  so  was  the  veal  to  the  eye,  but  it  ate  well,  though 
not  very  fat ;  the  price  was  about  the  same.  The  poultry  was  excellent; 
fowls  or  full-sized  chickens,  ready  for  the  table,  twelve  cents,  but  much 
less  if  bought  alive,  and  not  quite  fat;  turkeys  about  fifty  cents,  and 
geese  the  same.  The  Ohio  furnishes  several  sorts  of  fish,  some  of  them 
very  good,  and  always  to  be  found  cheap  and  abundant  in  the  market, 
Eggs,  butter,  nearly  all  kinds  of  vegetables,  excellent,  and  at  moderate 
prices.  From  June  till  December  tomatoes  (the  great  luxury  of  the 
American  table  in  the  opinion  of  most  Europeans)  may  be  found  in  the 
highest  perfection  in  the  market  for  about  sixpence  the  peck.  They 
have  a  great  variety  of  beans  unknown  in  England,  particularly  the 
Lima  bean,  the  seed  of  which  is  dressed  like  the  French  harico;  it  fur- 
nishes a  very  abundant  crop,  and  is  a  most  delicious  vegetable. 

The  watermelons,  which  in  that  warm  climate  furnish  a  most 
delightful  refreshment,  were  abundant  and  cheap ;  but  all  other  melons 
very  inferior  to  those  of  France,  or  even  of  England,  when  ripened  in 
a  common  hotbed.  .  It  is  the  custom  for  the  gentle- 

men to  go  to  market  at  Cincinnati ;  the  smartest  men  in  the  place,  and 
those  of  the  ' '  highest  standing, "  do  not  scruple  to  leave  their  beds  with 
the  sun,  six  days  in  the  week,  and,  prepared  with  a  mighty  basket,  to 
sally  forth  in  search  of  meat,  butter,  eggs  and  vegetables.  I  have  con- 
tinually seen  them  returning,  with  their  weighty  baskets  on  one  arm 
and  an  enormous  ham  depending  on  the  other. 

Cincinnati  has  not  many  lions  to  boast,  but  among  them  are  two 
museums  of  natural  history;  both  of  these  contain  many  respectable 
specimens,  particularly  that  of  Mr.  Dorfeuille,  who  has,  moreover,  some 
interesting  antiquities.         .  .         The  people  have  a  most  ex- 

travagant passion  for  wax  figures,  and  the  two  museums  vie  with  each 
other  in  displaying  specimens  of  this  barbarous  branch  of  art. 

There  is  also  a  picture  gallery  at  Cincinnati,  and  this  was  a 
circumstance  of  much  interest  to  us.  .  It  would  be  in- 

vidious to  describe  the  picture  gallery;  I  have  no  doubt  that  some  years 
hence  it  will  present  a  very  different  appearance, 
f  I  never  saw  any  people  who  appeared  to  live  so  much  without  amuse- 
nJent  as  the  Cincinnatians.  Billiards  are  forbidden  by  law;  so  are 
cards.  To  sell  a  pack  of  cards  in  Ohio  subjects  the  seller  to  a  penalty 
of  fifty  dollars.  They  have  no  public  balls,  excepting,  I  think,  six  dur- 
ing the  Christmas  holidays.  They  have  no  concerts.  They  have  no 
dinner  parties.  They  have  a  theatre,  which  is,  in  fact,  the  only  public 
amusement  of  this  little  town;  but  they  seem  to  care  very  littjeabout  it, 
and,  either  from  economy  or  distaste,  it  is  very  poorly  attended?})  Ladies 
are  rarely  seen  there,  and  by  far  the  larger  proportion  of  females  deem 
it  an  offense  to  religion  to  witness  the  representation  of  a  play. 

There  are  no  public  gardens  or  lounging  shops  of  fashionable 
resort,  and  were  it  not  for  public  worship  and  private  tea-drinkings,  all 
the  ladies  of  Cincinnati  would  be  in  danger  of  becoming  perfect  re- 

Mrs.  Trollope  took  for  a  time  a  country-house  at  Mo- 
hawk, then  a  straggling  village  along  the  Hamilton  road 
at  the  base  of  Mount  Auburn,  where  Mohawk  street  per- 
petuates its  name  and  memory.     She,  by  and  by,  deter- 

mined to  set  up  her  son  in  business  here,  and  projected 
the  scheme  which  eventuated  in  the  building  of  the  Ba- 
zaar. The  City  Directory  for  1829  gives  the  following 
entertaining  account  of  this  remarkable  enterprise.  It 
is  hardly  probable  the  writer  would  have  been  so  glowing 
and  enthusiastic  in  his  descriptions,  had  he  foreseen  the 
criticisms  which  Mrs.  Trollope  would  pass  upon  Cincin- 
nati and  Cincinnatians  in  her  forthcoming  book,  to  say 
nothing  of  the  criticisms  which  the  local  public  and  fu- 
ture travellers,  notably  Mrs.  Trollope's  countrymen  and 
countrywomen,  would  give  her  remarkable  creation  on 
East  Third  street.  The  article  serves,  however,  as  an 
excellent  means  of  information  concerning  the  design  of 
the  builders  of  the  Bazaar,  and  the  feelings  of  the  citi- 
zens toward  it  when  the  enterprise  was  new ; 

The  Bazaar. — This  exotic  title  carries  the  imagination  directly  to 
Constantinople,  so  celebrated  for  mosques,  minarets,  caravansaries,  and 
bazaars.  In  sober  English,  bazaar  signifies  a  fair  or  market  place. 
The  building  which  is  the  subject  of  the  present  notice,  and  which  is 
now  in  rapid  progress  toward  completion,  is  called  the  Bazaar,  although 
but  a  small  portion  of  its  ample  area  is  to  be  appropriated  to  its  legiti- 
mate uses  as  a  constant  mart.  The  name,  albeit,  is  in-  good  keeping 
with  the  style  of  the  edifice,  the  freestone  front  of  which  exhibits  a  rich 
and  beautiful  specimen  of  arabesque  architecture,  combining  the  airy 
lightness  of  the  Grecian  with  the  sombrous  gravity  of 'the  Gothic  taste. 
The  basement  story,  which  is  entered  by  three  several  flights  of  stone 
steps,  contains  divers  neat  and  commodious  apartments.  Those 
fronting  the  street  are  designed  for  an  exchange  coffee  house,  one  of 
them  to  be  fitted  up  and  furnished  as  a  bar-room,  the  other  to  be  ap- 
propriated, as  the  name  imports,  to  the  transaction  of  general  com- 
mercial business.  Over  the  basement  is  a  splendid  compartment,  sixty 
feet  by  twenty-eight,  and  ornamented  by  two  rows  of  columns  passing 
through  it.  This  room  gives  title,  if  not  character,  to  the  building. 
Here  is  to  be  held  the  bazaar,  where,  it  is  presumable,  every  useful  and 
useless  article  in  dress,  in  stationery,  in  light  and  ornamental  house- 
hold furniture,  chinas  and .  more  pellucid  porcelains,  with  every  gewgaw 
that  can  contribute  to  the  splendor  and  attractiveness  of  the  exhibition, 
from  the  sparkling  necklace  of  "lady  fair"  to  the  exquisite  safety-chain, 
will  be  displayed  and  vended. 

In  the  rear  of  the  bazaar  is  an  elegant  saloon,  where  ices  and  other 
refreshments  will  lend  their  allurements  to  the  fascinations  of  architect- 
ural novelty.  This  saloon  opens  to  a  spacious  balcony,  which  in  its 
turn  conducts  to  an  exhibition  gallery,  that  is  at  present  occupied  by 
Mr.  Hervieu's  picture  of  Lafayette's  Landing  at  Cincinnati.  Above 
the  bazaar  is  a  magnificent  ball-room,  the  front  of  which,  looking  over 
the  street,  will  receive  the  rays  of  the  sun,  or  emit  the  rival  splendors  of 
its  gas-illumined  walls,  by  three  ample,  arabesque  windows,  which  give 
an  unrivalled  lightness  and  grace  to  the  festive  hall.  The  walls  and  the 
arched  and  lofty  ceiling  of-  this  delectable  apartment  are  to  be  deco- 
rated by  the  powerful  pencil  of  Mr.  Hervieu.  The  rear  of  the  room 
is  occupied  by  an  orchestral  gallery,  whence  dulcet  music  will  guide 
' '  the  light  fantastic  toe ' '  through  the  mazes  of  the  giddy  dance. 

Behind  the  ballroom  is  another  superb  saloon,  issuing  also  to  a  bal- 
cony. This  division  is  assigned  to  the  accommodation  of  gentlemen's 
private  parties,  where  the  beau  monde  may  regale  themselves  when  and 
how  they  list.  Over  this  is  a  circular  structure  of  exceedingly  light  and 
beautiful  proportions,  which  is  intended  for  panoramic  exhibitions;  and 
around  it  is  constructed,  in  concentric  circles,  an  airy  corridor,  from 
whence  the  eye,  that  has  been  already  delighted  to  satiety  by  the  exhi- 
bitions of  art,  may  recreate  itself  amid  the  varied  beauties  and  bland- 
ishments of  nature. 

The  rear  of  this  antique  and  multifidous  edifice  presents  a  noble 
facade  of  Egyptian  columns,  which  will  vie,  in  magnificence  and  novelty, 
with  the  Arabian  windows  that  decorate  its  front.  The  apartments  are 
all  to  be  lighted  by  gas,  furnished  by  Mr.  Delany.  The  whole  arrange- 
ment and  architectural  of  this  superb  building  reflects  great  credit  upon 
the  taste  and  skill  of  Mr.  Palmer,  the  architect.  The  interior  dimen- 
sions of  the  building  are :  Length,  one  hundred  and  four  feet ;  width, 
eighty  feet ;  height  to  the  top  of  the  spire,  which  is  to  surmount  the 
cupola,  eighty  feet ;  height  from  base  to  cornice,  thirty-three  feet. 

The  Bazaar  stands  on  Third  street,  east  of  Broadway. 

The  building  was  still  new  when  sold  at  sheriff's  sale  to 



pay  the  mechanics  who  worked  upon  it,  and  underwent 
important  changes  at  the  hands  of  its  different  owners, 
especially  in  the  addition  of  another  story  to  its  height. 
It  has  been  occupied  for  many  uses  in  the  course  of  fifty- 
two  or  three  years,  from  the  original  occupation  by  the 
Mechanic's  institute  down  to  its  habitation  largely  by 
women  of  ill-fame.  Of  late  it  had  fallen  into  utter  disre- 
pair and  dilapidation,  except  one  room,  which  has  been 
occupied  by  a  rolling-mill  office.  Long  ago  the  paint- 
ings with  which  Hervieu  decorated  its  walls  and  ceilings 
(the  ceiling  of  the  large  hall  is  said  to  have  been  very 
elaborately  adorned),  disappeared  under  successive  coats 
of  whitewash  and  then  of  wall-paper — "a  striking  exhibi- 
tion of  vandalism,"  says  Mr.  Foote,  in  his  Schools  of 
Cincinnati,  "as  the  putting  them  on  these  walls  was  an 
act  of  folly  ;  for,  although  not  works  of  very  high  art,  they 
possess  too  much  merit  lo  be  defaced."  The  observa- 
tions of  her  son  Anthony,  the  famous  novelist,  upon  his 
visit  to  Cincinnati  in  the  winter  of  1861-2,  will  have  in- 
terest here: 

I  had  some  little  personal  feeling  in  visiting  Cincinnati,  because  my 
mother  had  lived  there  for  some  time,-  and  had  there  been  concerned  in 
a.  commercial  enterprise,  by  which  no  one,  I  believe,  made  any  great 
sum  of  money.  Between  thirty  and  forty  years  ago  she  built  a  Bazaar 
in  Cincinnati,  which  I  was  assured  by  the  present  owner  of  the  house 
was  at  the  time  of  its  erection  considered  to  be  the  great  building  of  the 
town.  It  has  been  sadly  eclipsed  now,  and  by  no  means  rears  its  head 
proudly  among  the  great  blocks  around  it.  It  had  become  a  Physico- 
medical  institute  when  I  was  there,  and  was  under  the  dominion  of  a 
quack  doctor  on  one  side  and  of  a  college  of  rights-of-women  female 
medical  professors  on  the  other.  ' '  I  believe,  sir,  no  man  or  woman  ever 
made  adollar  in  that  building;  and  as  for  rent,  I  don't  even  expect  it." 
Such  was  the  account  given  of  the  unfortunate  Bazaar  by  the  present 

In  addition  to  their  pecuniary  troubles,  sickness  afflicted 
the  Trollopes  much  during  their  second  season  here,  and 
finally,  seeing  that  "our  Cincinnati  speculation  for  my 
son  would  in  no  way  answer  our  experience,"  they  deter- 
mined to  go  back  to  England.  The  party  left  in  early 
March,  1830,  and  she  says,  "I  believe  there  was  not  one 
of  our  party  who  did  not  experience  a  sense  of  pleasure  in 
leaving  it.  The  only  regret  was  that 

we  had  ever  entered  it;  for  we  had  wasted  health,  time, 
and  money  there."  Her  experiences  in  this  city,  un- 
doubtedly, had  much  to  do  in  imparting  gall  and  venom 
to  the  celebrated  book  which  she  published  shortly  after 
her  return  to  the  old  home. 

Dr.  Caldwell,  a  phrenologist,  sometimes  called  in  that 
day  "the  Spurzhcim  of  America,"  delivered  a  course  of 
lectures  in  the  city  this  year,  and  created  much  sensa- 
tion. Some  twenty  or  thirty  citizens  were  led  to  form 
the  Phrenological  society  of  Cincinnati,  with  an  elaborate 
constitution,  numerous  officers,  and  other  details  of 
equipment;  but  it  hardly  survived  beyond  the  third 
meeting.  Miss  Fanny  Wright,  the  famous  English  Rad- 
ical and  Socialist,  also  lectured  here  to  crowded  houses. 
She  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Mrs.  Trollope  and  Her- 
vieu, and  was  just  then  trying  the  experiment  of  coloniz- 
ing negroes  upon  a  tract  called  "Nashoba,"  in  Tennessee; 
which  of  course  proved  a  failure. 


Population  of  the  city  this  year,  twenty-four  thousand 
one  hundred  and  forty-eight; 'whites  twenty-one  thousand 


eight  hundred  and  ninety — males  eleven  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  fifty-five,  females  ten  thousand  and  thirty- 
five;  colored  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  fifty-eight. 
New  buildings,  two  hundred  and  seventy.  Deaths  for 
the  year  ending  July  1,  six  hundred  and  forty-seven,  or 
one  in  thirty-seven  and  one-third  of  the  population. 

The  Washington  Ball  of  this  year,  February  22d,  is  said 
to  have  been  a  very  brilliant  affair. 

February  27th  General  Jackson  passed  through  Cincin- 
nati, on  his  way  from  his  home  in  Tennessee  to  Washing- 
ton, to  be  inaugurated  as  President  of  the  United  States. 
Three  steamers  were  in  the  Presidential  fleet,  all  crowded 
with  passengers.  They  reached  the  landing  amid  can- 
non-firing and  other  demonstrations  of  applause,  passed 
the  city  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  then  rounded  in 
the  stream  and  swept  grandly  down  to  the  landing,  the 
escorts  falling  back  a  little,  to  let  the  steamer  with  the 
President  first  touch  the  shore.  "All  the  maneuvering," 
says  Mrs.  Trollope,  who  was  an  eye-witness  of  it,  "was 
extraordinary  well  executed,  and  really  beautiful."  Car- 
riages were  in  waiting  for  the  General  and  his  suite;  but 
he  walked  in  a  simple,  democratic  way  through  the  crowd 
to-  the  hotel,  uncovered,  though  the  weather  was  cold. 
He  was  clad  in  deep  mourning,  having  but  lately  lost  his 
wife.  He  remained  quietly  at  the  hotel  a  few  hours, 
while  the  steamer  transacted  its  business,  and  then  pro- 
ceeded with  it  to  Pittsburgh. 

In  the  spring  of  this  year,  beginning  April  13th,  the 
notable  public  seven-days'  debate  occurred  between  the 
Rev.  Alexander  Campbell,  founder  of  the  Disciple 
Church,  and  Mr.  Robert  Owen,  of  the  New  Harmony 
(Indiana)  and  other  communities,  in  pursuance  of 
Owen's  challenge  to  the  Christian  ministry  that  he  would 
show  publicly  the  falsehood  of  all  religions  ever  propa- 
gated, and  would  undertake  to  prove  all  equal,  and  nearly 
all  equally  mischievous.  The  challenge  was  accepted  by 
Mr.  Campbell,  who  was  then  in  the  prime  of  his  strong 
powers;  and  the  debate  was  attended  by  audiences  that 
thronged  to  overflowing  the  spacious  Methodist  church, 
which  held  about  one  thousand  people.  It  was  regulated 
by  a  presiding  committee,  in  which  were  Major  Daniel 
Gano,  Judge  Burnet,  Rev.  O  M.  Spencer,  Timothy 
Flint,  and  other  leading  citizens.  Fifteen  sessions  for 
debate  were  held,  and  the  vote  at  the  close  showed  that 
the  sympathies  of  a  very  large  majority  of  their  hearers 
were  still  in  favor  of  Christianity.  The  addresses  of  the 
disputants  were  afterwards  published  in  book  form. 

A  Young  Men's  Temperance  society  was  organized 
this  year,  starting  off  with  about  one  hundred  members. 

About  the  middle  of  this  year  the  office  of  the  sur- 
veyor general  of  the  public  lands  in  the  northwest  came 
back  to  Cincinnati,  by  the  worthy  appointment  of  Gen- 
eral William  Lytle  to  that  post.  Ex-Governor  Tiffin, 
the  last  previous  incumbent,  was  early  removed  upon  the 
accession  of  General  Jackson  to  the  Presidency,  under 
the  new  principle  then  brought  into  application  in  Fed- 
eral appointments,  that  "to  the  victors  belong  the  spoils;" 
although  Dr.  Tiffin  had  held  the  place  most  acceptably 
during  the  successive  administrations  of  Presidents  Madi- 
son, Monroe,  and  J.  Q.  Adams.     On  the  first  of  July 



General  Lytle  visited  the  office  at  Chillicothe,  exhibited 
his  commission  and  an  order  for  the  delivery  of  the 
records,  and  at  once  removed  the  office  to  Cincinnati. 
Dr.  Tiffin  had  long  been  struggling  with  disease,  and  was 
now  near  his  end,  closing  a  long  and  honorable  public 
career  August  9,  1829. 

i  In  May,  1829,  the  city  had  a  visit  from  Caleb  Atwater, 
61  Circleville,  the  first  historian  of  Ohio  and  one  of  the 
first  writers  to  publish  a  book  upon  American  antiquities. 
He  was  on  his  way  to  fulfill  some  commission  for  the 
Government  in  the  far  northwest,  and  records  the  follow- 
ing of  Cincinnati,  in  the  book  which  he  subsequently 

In  this  city  are  one  hundred,  at  least,  mercantile  stores,  and  about 
twenty  churches.  Some  of  the  stores  do  business  in  a  wholesale  way, 
though  quite  too  many  of  them  are  occupied  by  retailers  on  a  small 
scale.  fThere  are  a  great  many  taverns  and  boarding  houses.  Among 
the  churches,  the  First  and  Second  Presbyterian,  one  belonging  to  the 
Unitarians,  and  the  Roman  Catholics,  and  perhaps  two  or  three  belong- 
ing either  to  the  Episcopalians  or  the  Methodists,  are  the  best.  There 
are  two  museums,  in  either"  of  which  more  knowledge  of  the  nat- 
ural history  of  the  western  States  can  be  obtained  in  a  day  than  can  be 
obtained  in  any  other  place  in  a  year.}  These  collections  are  very  well 
arranged,  and  kept  by  persons  of  taste,  science,  and  politeness.  No 
traveller  of  learning  should  ever  pass  through  the  city  without  calling 
to  see  them  both,  and,  having  once  seen  them,  he  will  never  neglect  to 
see  them  as  often  as  he  visits  the  place. 

There  are  nine  book  stores,  and  a  greater  number  still  of  printing 
establishments,  that  issue  newspapers.  The  two  principal  publishers  of 
newspapers  issue  each  a  daily  paper. 

The  mechanics  of  this  city  are  numerous  and  very  excellent  in  their 
several  trades.  Manufactures  of  iron,  of  wood,  of  stone,  of  all  the 
metals  indeed,  are  carried  on  with  zeal,  industry  and  talent.  The  build- 
ers of  houses  are  unrivaled  in  the  rapidity  with  which  they  do  their  work, 
and  they  exhibit  genius,  skill,  and  taste. 

There  are  nearly  sixty  lawyers,  who,  for  learning,  zeal,  fidelity,  indus- 
try, morality,  honor,  honesty,  and  every  other  good  qualification  of  the 
heart  and  head,  are  equal  to  a  like  number  of  the  same  honorable  and 
highly  useful  profession,  in  any  city  in  the  United  States. 

The  number  of  physicians  and  surgeons  in  the  city  must  be,  I  pre- 
sume, nearly  eighty,  who  are  skillful,  learned,  and  highly  respectable  in 
their  profession. 

ffhere  are  probably  about  forty  clergymen  in  the  city;  and  from  the 
morality  of  the  place  I  give  them  credit  for  a  considerable  degree  of 

It  will  with  great  ease  increase  to  a  population  of  about  fifty  thou- 
sand inhabitants.  Its  increase  beyond  that  number  depends  on  so  many 
causes,  not  yet  developed,  that  human  foresight  cannot  now  scan  them) 
It  will,  however,  continue  to  be  the  largest  town  in  the  State,  unless 
Zanesville  or  Cleveland  should  exceed  it.  [!] 

/There  is  but  one  evil  hanging  over  this  city — the  price  of  land  is  ex- 
travagantly high,  and  so  are  house  and  ground  rents.  Every  material 
used  in  building  is  cheap,  mechanical  labor  is  low  in  price,  and  so  is 
every  article  of  food  and  raiment. 

Main  street,  for  a  mile  in  length  from  north  to  south,  presents  a  scene 
as  busy,  as  bustling,  as  crowded,  and  if  possible  more  noisy,  especially 
about  the  intersection  of  Fourth  street  with  Main  street,  and  also  any- 
where near  the  Ohio  river,  as  can  be  found  in  New  York.)  If  the  ear 
is  not  quite  so  much  afflicted  with  strange  cries  as  in  Philadelphia  or 
Baltimore,  yet  for  drumming  and  organ-grinding^I  should  suppose 
some  few  spots  in  Main  street,  Cincinnati,  would  exceed  anything  of  the 
sort  in  the  world-+at  least  I  should  most  heartily  and  charitably  hope  so. 




It  was  an  important  decade  in  the  growth  and  annals  of 
events  in  the  Queen  City.  (The  population  had  grown 
in  the  ten  years  1820-30,  from  nine  thousand  six  hun- 
dred and  forty-two  to  twenty-four  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  thirty-one,  or  two  hundred  and  sixty  per  cent.; 
it  was  to  continue  to  grow  in  this  decade  in  satisfactory 
ratio,  though  not  relatively  so  fast,  from  twenty-four 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-one  to  forty-six  thou- 
sand three  hundred  and  thirty-eight,  or  eighty-five  per 
cent.)  The  number  of  new  buildings  this  year  was  two 
hundred  and  five. 

The  following  notices  of  local  improvements  are  con- 
tained in  the  directory  for  1831 : 

During  the  past  year  a  new  street  was  opened,  extending  Lower  Mar- 
ket street  from  Main  to  Walnut;  and  both  sides  oi  it  are  now,  or  soon 
will  be,  wholly  built  up  with  brick  warehouses  and  other  buildings,  all 
of  which  are  beautiful  and  substantial.  The  hotel  on  the  corner,  where 
the  new  street  enters  Walnut,  will  be  one  of  the  most  splendid  edifices 
in  the  western  country.  It  is  five  stories  high  above  the  basement,  and 
is  to  be  covered  with  marble  columns.  The  new  street  has  received  the 
name  of  "Pearl  street,"  and  promises  to  be  to  Cincinnati  what  its  cele- 
brated namesake  is  to  New  York. 

Among  the  best  buildings  erected  in  1830  we  would  mention,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  above,  Greene's  splendid  row  on  Front  street;  Cassilly's 
&  Carter's  on  the  corner  of  Broadway  and  Front;  and  Moore's  on  the 
southeast  corner  of  Main  and  Fourth  streets.  Much  more  taste. has 
been  displayed  in  the  models  of  private  dwellings  than  heretofore,  espe- 
cially in  those  erected  on  Fourth  street.  Of  the  public  buildings  fin- 
ished during  the  past  year,  we  would  mention  the  Catholic  Atheneum, 
the  Unitarian  and  the  Second  Presbyterian  churches.  The  latter  is 
considered  by  good  judges  one  of  the  best  models  of  the  Doric  in  the 
United  States.  It  is  of  brick,  but  its  front,  pillars,  and  sides  are  cov- 
ered with  cement,  in  imitation  of  marble.  The  cost  of  this  church  was 
more  than  twenty  thousand  dollars.  On  its  cupola  has  been  placed  a 
public  clock,  which  belongs  to  the  city.  * 

This  year  the  Miami  canal  was  extended  from  the 
then  head  of  Main  street,  where  it  had  stopped  tempo- 
rarily, across  Deer  creek,  which  it  spanned  by  a  large 
culvert.  The  canal  commissioners  proposed  another 
halt  here  for  a  time,  and  the  leasing  of  the  water-power 
along  the  borders  of  the  new  line.  The  improvement 
was  finished  in  July,  1834.  The  business  of  the  canal 
was  now  rapidly  increasing..  During  three  months  of 
1829,  the  tolls  at  Cincinnati  amounted  to  but  three 
thousand  five  hundred  and  fifteen  dollars;  while  in 
a  single  month,  the  first  of  navigation  in  1831,  they  ag- 
gregated two  thousand  ninety-five  dollars  and  sixty-five 

In  the  spring  of  this  year  a  young  attorney  came  to 
Cincinnati,  who  was  favorably  introduced  under  the  name 
of  Salmon  P.  Chase.  He  came  from  Washington,  where 
he  had  been  keeping  a  classical  school  for  boys.  His 
edition  of  the  Statutes  of  Ohio,  published  soon  after- 
wards, with  a  preliminary  sketch  of  State  history,  at  once 
gave  him  wide  and  permanent  fame,  and  brought  him 
large  practice.  In  1834  he  became  solicitor  of  the  Branch 
Bank  of  the  United  States,  and  also  for  a  city  bank.  In 
1837   he  had  a  very  celebrated  case,   in  which  he  de- 

*  This  church  stood  on  the  south  side  of  Fourth  street,  between  Race 
and  Vine,  about  where  the  Mitchell  &  Rammelsberg  company  now  have 
heir  furniture  warehouse. 



fended  a  colored  woman,  claimed  as  a  slave  under  the 
law  of  1793.  In  the  same  year  he  made  an  argument 
in  defense  of  James  G.  Birney,  indicted  for  harboring  a 
fugitive  slave,  that  won  him  great  praise,  and  was  also 
widely  noticed. 


Some  notable  men,  more  or  less  identified  with  the 
history  of  Cincinnati,  were  in  public  office  this  year. 
John  McLean  was  a  justice  of  the  supreme  court;  Peyton 
S.  Symmes  register,  and  Morgan  Neville  receiver  of 
the  land  office,  which  was  still  maintained  here;  Micajah 
Williams  was  surveyor  general,  Charles  Larabee  surveyor 
of  the  port  of  Cincinnati,  and  Colonel  William  Piatt 
paymaster  in  the  army. 

I     Two  hundred  and  fifty  new  buildings  were  put  up  this 
Vy_ear.  y  Population,  twenty-six  thousand  and  seventy-one. 
Bills  of  mortality,  eight  hundred  and  twenty,  or  one  in 
thkty-four  of  the  population. 

(The  first  macadamized  road  was  built  into  the  city 
this  year,  and  others  speedily  followed.  / 


The  city  made  some  progress,  despite  many  drawbacks. 
Three  hundred  buildings  were  erected,  and  the  total 
number  in  the  city  was  now  four  thousand  and  sixteen. 
The  population  increased  nearly  two  thousand,  or  to 
twenty-eight  thousand  and  fourteen.  Nevertheless,  it  was 
a  sad  year  for  Cincinnati.  It  was  scourged  by  flood, 
fire,  famine,  and  cholera.  The  freshet  of  the  year  is 
memorable  in  the  river  and  local  annals.  The  Ohio 
began  to  rise  about  the  ninth  of  February,  and  was  at 
its  maximum  height  on  the  eighteenth,  when  it  touched 
the  extraordinary  level  of  sixty-two  feet  above  low-water 
mark.  Great  suffering  and  loss  of  property  and  in  some 
cases  lives  were  experienced  all  along  the  river,  but  es- 
pecially at  Cincinnati.  The  whole  of  the  old-time 
"bottom"  was  flooded  so  deep  and  so  far  up  that  the 
ferry  boats  landed  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Pearl  streets. 
The  Mill  creek  bridge  was  swept  off,  and  that  over  Deer 
creek  badly  damaged.  Thirty-five  squares  were  inunda- 
ted, many  buildings  damaged  or  wrecked,  or  swept  off 
bodily,  and  thousands  of  people  were  turned  out  of 
house  and  home.  Two  lives  were  lost  in  the  raging 
wate'rs.  A  town  meeting  was  held  February  15,  and 
measures  of  relief  to  the  distressed  and  homeless  were 
devised.  Vigilance  committees  to  prevent  theft  and 
wanton  destruction  of  property,  also  committees  of  relief 
and  of  shelter,  were  appointed.  All  public  buildings, 
school-houses,  the  basements  of  churches,  and  every 
available  place  of  refuge,  were  surrendered  to  the  refu- 
gees, and  relief  afforded  as  rapidly  as  possible.  Benefits 
were  given  the  sufferers  by  Mr.  Letton  of  the  Museum, 
Mr.  Frank,  with  his  gallery  of  paintings,  Mr.  Brown,  of 
the  amphitheatre,  and  the  Beethoven  society,  which  gave 
a  concert  of  sacred  music  Many  weeks  elapsed  before, 
the  waters  having  subsided,  the  city  below  Third  street 
resumed  its  wonted  aspect,  and  then  many  injured  build- 
ings or  desolated  spots  told  of  the  ruin  that  had  been 

Most  of  the  provision  stores  and  groceries  were  then 

kept  in  the  drowned  districts;  and  few  had  time  to  re- 
move their  stocks  before  the  flood  reached  them.  There 
was  consequently  a  scarcity  of  food,  and  a  partial  famine 
added  to  the  miseries  of  the  situation.  Mr.  L'Homme- 
dieu  says  of  this  and  other  calamities  of  the  year. 

The  greater  portion  of  flour  and  other  provisions  had  been  kept  below 
high-water  mark.  Some  few,  more  successful  than  others,  had  suc- 
ceeded in  raising  their  stocks  of  flour  to  upper  stories.  But,  then,  what 
exorbitant  prices  they  demanded,  and  would  have  obtained  but  for  the 
denunciation  of  an  independent  press  !  Later  in  the  year,  and  follow- 
ing the  fire,  flood  and  famine,  came  the  dreaded  pestilence,  the  Asiatic 
cholera,  which  carried  more  of  our  population  to  their  graves  than  have 
any  of  its  visitations  since,  notwithstanding  our  then  small  population 
of  twenty-five  thousand.  | 

One  of  the  results  of  the  cholera  was  a  large  number  of  orphans.  \ 
The  ladies  of  Cincinnati  found  an  occasion  for  their  efforts  in  caring  for   \ 
the  unfortunates.     With  funds  placed  in  their  hands  by  the  Masonic 
lodges,  and  others  of  the  city,  they  founded  the  Cincinnati  orphan  asy- 
lum.    The  city  gave  them  the  use  of  a  building  on  the  ground  now  / 
occupied  for  the  beautiful  Lincoln  park.  f 

The  great  fire  occurred  the  early  part  of  the  year,  and 
devastated  the  tract  from  below  Third  street  to  the  Com- 
mercial bank. 

The  cholera  came  on  the  thirtieth  of  September,  and 
staid  for  thirteen  months.  The  board  of  health  for  some  > 
time  denied  the  presence  of~AsiaTjc~chakra,  but  on  the" ' 
tenth  of  October  published  an  official  list  of  deaths  from 
that  cause.  In  that  month  died  here  four  hundred  and 
twenty-three  persons — over  half  of  all  who  fell  from  the 
scourge  duting  its  prevalence  in  the  city.  Forty-one  died 
in  one  day — the  twenty-first  of  October.  The  dreadful 
epidemic  continued  until  late  in  the  year,  and  was  re- 
newed the  next  season.  Says  a  paragraph  in  the  Life  of 
Bishop  Morris: 

The  city,  during  the  prevalence  of  this  dreadful  epidemic,  presented 
a  mournful  aspect.  Thousands  of  citizens  were  absent  in  the  country; 
very  many  were  closely  confined  by  personal  affliction  or  the  demands 
of  sick  friends;  hundreds  were  numbered  among  the  dead;  the  transient 
floating  population  had  entirely  disappeared;  the  country  people,  in 
terror,  stood  aloof ;  business  was  almost  wholly  suspended;  the  tramp 
of  hurrying  feet  was  no  longer  heard  on  the  streets;  the  din  of  the  city 
was  hushed,  and  every  day  appeared  as  a  Sabbath.  Instead,  however, 
of  the  sound  of  church-going  bells  and  the  footsteps  of  happy  throngs 
hastening  to  the  house  of  God,  were  heard  the  shrieks  of  terror-stricken 
victims  of  the  fell  disease,  the  groans  of  the  dying,  and  the  voices  of 
lamentation.  For  weeks  funeral  processions  might  be  seen  at  any  hour, 
from  early  morning  to  late  at  night.  All  classes  of  people  were  stricken 
down  in  this  fearful  visitation.  Doctors,  ministers,  lawyers,  merchants 
and  mechanics,  the  old  and  the  young,  the  temperate  and  the  intemper- 
ate, the  prudent  and  the  imprudent,  were  alike  victims.  Seventy-five 
members  of  the  Cincinnati  station  died  that  year,  and  fifty  of  them 
were  marked  on  the  church  records  as  cholera  cases. 

This  year,  on  the  fourth  day  of  November,  was  to  oc- 
cur the  semi-centennial  celebration  of  the  temporary 
occupation  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking,  by  a  por- 
tion of  General  George  Rogers  Clark's  force,  in  1782,  as 
agreed  by  the  officers  and  men  at  that  time.  General 
Simon  Kenton,  Major  James  Galloway,  of  Xenia,  John 
McCaddon,  of  Newark,  and  a  few  others,  were  still  living, 
and  they  caused  extensive  advertisement  of  the  proposed 
celebration  to  be  made  in  the  western  papers,  for  several 
months  beforehand.  It  was  intended,  on  the  third  or 
fifth  of  November  (the  fourth  coming  on  Sunday  this 
year),  among  other  observances,  to  lay  the  corner-stone 
of  a  suitable  monument  at  the  intersection  of  several 
streets  on  the  site  of  old  Fort  Washington;  but  whin  the 
day    came,    cholera   was  stalking   with   awful  presence 



through  every  street  and  by-way  of  Cincinnati,  and  only 
a  handful  of  the  venerable  survivors  met  in  the  city, 
sadly  exchanged  greetings  and  reminiscences,  uttered 
their  laments  for  the  honored  dead,  and  partook  of  a  din- 
ner at  the  expense  of  the  city.  The  following  address,  pre- 
pared by  General  Kenton,  to  awaken  interest  in  the  oc- 
casion, will  still  be  read  with  pleasure : 


The  old  pioneers,  citizen-soldiers  and  those  who  were  engaged  with 
us  in  the  regular  service  in  the  conquest  of  the  western  country  from 
the  British  and  savages  fifty  years  ago,  have  all  been  invited  to  attend 
with  the  survivors  of  General  George  Rogers  Clark's  army  of  1782, 
who  purpose  the  celebration  of  a  western  anniversary,  according  to 
their  promise  made  on  the  ground  the  fourth  day  of  November  in  that 
year.  Those  also  who  were  engaged  in  like  service  subsequently,  and 
in  the  late  war,  have  been  invited  to  attend  and  join  with  us  in  the 
celebration  on  the  said  fourth  of  November,  at  old  Fort  Washington, 
now  Cincinnati.  I  propose  that  we  meet  at  Covington,  Kentucky,  on 
the  third,  the  fourth  being  Sabbath,  to  attend  divine  service,  on  Mon- 
day meet  our  friends  on  the  ground  where  the  old  fort  stood,  and  then 
take  a  final  adieu,  to  meet  no  more  until  we  shall  all  meet  in  a  world  of 

Fellow-citizens  of  the  West!  This  is  a  meeting  well  worthy  your 
very  serious  consideration.  The  few  survivors  of  that  race  who  are  now 
standing  on  the  verge  of  the  grave,  view  with  anxious  concern  the  wel- 
fare of  their  common  country,  for  which  they  fought  against  British 
oppression  and  savage  cruelty  to  secure  to  you,  our  posterity,  the  bles- 
sings of  liberty,  religion,  and  law.  We  will  meet  and  we  will  tell  you 
what  we  have  suffered  to  secure  to  you  these  inestimable  privileges.  We 
will  meet,  and,  if  you  will  listen,  we  will  admonish  you  "face  to  face," 
to  be  as  faithful  as  we  have  been,  to  transmit  those  blessings  unim- 
paired to  your  posterity;  that  America  may  long,  and  we  trust  forever, 
remain  a  free,  sovereign,  independent,  and  happy  country.  We  look  to 
bur  fellow-citizens  in  Kentucky  and  Ohio,  near  the  place  of  meeting,  to 
make  provision  for  their  old  fathers  of  the  West.  We  look  to  our 
patriot  captains  of  our  steamboats,  and  patriotic  stage  contractors  and 
companies,  and  our  generous  innkeepers,  to  make  provision  for  the 
going  and  returning  to  Cincinnati,  from  all  parts  of  the  West.  We 
know  that  they  will  deem  it  an  honor  to  accommodate  the  gray-headed 
veterans  of  the  West,  who  go  to  meet  their  companions  for  the  last 
time;  for  this  may  be  the  only  opportunity  they  will  ever  have  to  serve 
their  old  fathers,  the  pioneers  and  veterans  of  the  West. 

Fellow-citizens !  Being  one  of  the  first,  after  Colonel  Daniel  Boone, 
who  aided  in  the  conquest  of  Kentucky  and  the  West,  I  am  called  upon 
to  address  you.  My  heart  melts  on  such  an  occasion.  I  look  forward 
to  the  contemplated  meeting  with  melancholy  pleasure.  It  has  caused 
tears  to  flow  in  copious  showers.  I  wish  to  see  once  more,  before  I 
die,  my  few  surviving  friends.  My  solemn  promise,  made  fifty  years 
ago,  binds  me  to  meet  them.  I  ask  not  for  myself ;  but  you  may  find 
in  our  assembly  some  who  have  never  received  any  pay  or  pension,  who 
have  sustained  the  cause  of  their  country  equal  to  any  other  service, 
who  in  the  decline  of  life  are  poor.  Then,  you  prosperous  sons  of  the 
West,  forget  not  those  old  and  gray-headed  veterans  on  this  occasion. 
Let  them  return  to  their  families  with  some  little  manifestation  of  your 
kindness  to  cheer  their  hearts.  I  add  my  prayer.  May  kind  Heaven 
grant  us  a  clear  sky,  fair  and  pleasant  weather,  a.  safe  journey,  and  a 
happy  meeting,  and  smile  upon  us  and  our  families,  and  bless  us  and 
our  nation  on  the  approaching  occasion. 

Simon  Kenton. 

Urbana,  Ohio,  1832. 

This  city  was  visited  this  year  by  Colonel  Thomas 
Hamilton,  author  of  Cyril  Thornton  and  other  popular 
novels  of  that  day,  who  made  the  following  notes  upon 
Cincinnati  in  his  anonymous  and  agreeable  work  upon 
The  Men  and  Manners  of  America : 

In  two  days  we  reached  Cincinnati,  a  town  of  nearly  thirty  thousand 
inhabitants,  finely  situated  on  a  slope  ascending  from  the  river.  The 
streets  and  buildings  are  handsome,  and  certainly  far  superior  to  what 
might  be  expected  in  a  situation  six  hundred  miles  from  the  sea  and 
standing  on  ground  which,  till  lately,  was  considered  the  extreme  limit 
of  civilization.  It  is,  apparently,  a  place  of  considerable  trade.  The 
quay  was  covered  with  articles  of  traffic;  and  there  are  a  thousand  indi- 
cations of  activity  and  business  which  strike  the  senses  of  a  traveller,  but 

which  he  would  find  it  difficult  to  describe.  Having  nothing  better  to  do, 
I  took  a  stroll  about  the  town,  and  its  first  favorable  impression  was  not 
diminished  by  closer  inspection.  Many  of  the  streets  would  have  been 
considered  handsome  in  New  York  or  Philadelphia;  and,  in  the  private 
dwellings,  considerable  attention  had  been  paid  to  external  decoration. 
The  most  remarkable  object  in  Cincinnati,  however,  is  a  large  Graeco- 
Moresco-Gothic-Chinese-looking  building,  an  architectural  compila- 
tion of  prettiness  of  all  sorts,  the  effect  of  which  is  eminently  gro- 
tesque. Our  attention  was  immediately  arrested  by  this  extraordinary 
apparition,  which  could  scarcely  have  been  more  out  of  place  had  it 
been  tossed  on  the  earth  by  some  volcano  in  the  moon.  While  we 
stood  there,  complimenting  the  gorgeousness  of  its  effect  and  specu- 
lating "what  aspect  bore  the  man"  to  whom  the  inhabitants  of  these 
central  regions  could  have  been  indebted  for  so  brilliant  and  fantastic 
an  outrage  on  all  acknowledged  principles  of  taste,  a  very  pretty  and 
pleasant-looking  girl  came  out  and  invited  us  to  enter.  We  accord- 
ingly did  so,  and  found  everything  in  the  interior  of  the  building  had 
been  finished  on  a  scale  quite  in  harmony  with  its  external  magnifi- 

This  was  the  Trollopean  Bazaar,  of  course,  which  re- 
ceived many  similar  notices  from  travellers,  especially 


C  Population  of  thev-city,  twenty-seven  thousand  six 
hundred  and  forty-five.)  Votes,  three  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  ninety-five;  New  buildings,  three  hundred 
and  twenty-one — two  hundred  brick,  one  hundred  and 
twenty-one  frame. 

The  cholera,  as  before  stated,  continued  into  this  year. 
.Its  first  re-appearance  was  about  the  middle  of  April. 
The  most  destructive  month  was  July,  when  one  hun- 
dred and  seventy-six  died.  The  total  mortality  from  this 
visitation  of  the  pestilence,  from  September,  1832,  to 
September,  1833,  inclusive,  was  eight  hundred  and  thir- 
teen. The  average  deaths  per  day  this  year  were  far  less 
than  in  1832,  but  the  disease  staid  four  times  as  long,  or 
nearly  six  months. 

June  26th,  the  powder-mill  owned  by  David  D.  Wade 
exploded,  killing  six  persons. 

On  the  eighth  of  August  died  Dr.  James  M.  Stough- 
ton,  one  of  the  pioneer  physicians. 

December  26th,  that  being  then  supposed  to  be  the 
right  anniversary  (the  forty-fifth)  of  the  landing  of  the 
Losantiville  pioneers,  the  occasion  was  celebrated  by  a 
large  party  of  natives  of  Ohio — chiefly,  of  course,  young 
men,  with  many  invited  guests.  Major  Daniel  Gano 
was  president  of  the  affair ;  William  R.  Morris,  first  vice- 
president;  Henry  E.  Spencer,  second  vice-president; 
Moses  Symmes,  third  vice-president.  The  address  was 
delivered  by  Joseph  Longworth,  esq. ;  poems  were  re- 
cited by  Peyton-  S.  Symmes  and  Charles  D.  Drake, 
afterwards  United  States  Senator  from  Missouri;  and  the 
chaplains  were  the  Revs.  J.  B.  Firiley  and  William  Burke. 
The  committee  of  arrangements  included  a  number  of 
prominent  young  Queen  Citizens  of  that  day:  George 
Williamson,  William  R.  Morris,  L.  M.  Gwynne,  J.  M. 
Foote,  Alfred  S.  Reeder,  G.  W.  Sinks,  Joseph  Long- 
worth,  Daniel  Gano,  Henry  E.  Spencer,  M.  N.  McLean, 
James  C.  Hall,  George  W.  Burnet,  R.  A.  Whetstone,  and 
W.  M.  Corry.  The  banquet  was  given  in  the  Commer- 
cial Exchange,  on  the  river  bank,  upon  the  site  of  the 
first  cabin  built  in  Losantiville.  The  dinner  was  pre- 
pared almost  exclusively  from  native  productions,  and 



only  wine  produced  in  the  vicinity  was  imbibed.  This 
was  presented  by  Nicholas  Longworth,  in  honor  of  the 
old  pioneers  and  their  descendants.  Among  the  unique 
viands  on  the  table  was  a  roast  composed  of  two  uncom- 
monly fat  raccoons.  Responses  to  toasts  were  made  by 
James  C.  Ludlow,  son  of  Colonel  Israel  Ludlow;  by 
Generals  Harrison  and  Findlay,  Majors  Gano  and  Symmes, 
Judge  Goodenow,  Nicholas  Longworth,  and  Samuel 
J.  Browne,  the  latter  then  the  oldest  Englishman  in  the 
State.  A  part  of  General  Harrison's  address  will  be 
found  in  the  military  chapter,  in  the  first  division  of  this 

Another  foreigner  of  some  note,  Mr.  Godfrey  T.  Vigne, 
visited  the  city  in  July,  and  thus  recorded  his  impressions 
of  it  in  his  book  on  Six  Months  in  America: 

In  appearance  it  differs  from  most  of  the  larger  towns  in  the  United 
States,  on  account  of  the  great  improvement  that  has  taken  place  in 
the  color  of  the  houses,  which,  instead  of  being  of  the  usual  bright 
staring  red,  are  frequently  of  a  white  gray  or  a  yellowish  tint,  and  dis- 
play a  great  deal  of  taste  and  just  ornament.  The  public  buildings  are 
not  large,  but  very  neat  and  classical;  I  admired  the  Second  Presby- 
terian church,  which  is  a  very  pretty  specimen  of  the  Doric.  The 
streets  are  handsome  and  the  shops  have  a  very  fashionable  air. 

The  principal  trade  of  Cincinnati  is  in  provisions.  Immense  quan- 
tities of  corn  and  grain  are  sent  down  the  Ohio  and  the  Mississippi  to 
New  Orleans.  Part  of  it  is  consumed  by  the  sugar  planters,  who  are 
supposed  to  grow  no  corn,  and  part  is  sent  coastwise  to  Mobile,  or  ex- 
ported to  Havana  and  the  West  Indies  generally. 

Cincinnati  has  displayed  more  wisdom  than  her  opposite  neighbor  in 
Kentucky.  A  speculative  system  of  banking  was  carried  on  about  the 
same  time,  and  was  attended  with  the  same  results  as  those  I  have  be- 
fore noticed  when  speaking  of  that  State.  Credit  was  not  to  be 
obtained,  commerce  was  at  an  end,  and  grass  was  growing  in  the 
streets  of  Cincinnati.  But  the  judicature,  with  equal  justice  and  de- 
termination, immediately  enforced  by  its  decisions  the  resumption  of 
cash  payments.  Many  of  the  leading  families  in  the  place  were,  of 
course,  ruined,  and  at  present  there  are  not  above  five  or  six  persons  in 
Cincinnati  who  have  been  able  to  regain  their  former  eminence  as  men 
of  business.  But  it  was  a  sacrifice  of  individuals  for  the  good  of  the 
community,  and  fortune  only  deserted  the  speculators  in  order  to  at- 
tend upon  the  capitalists,  who  quickly  made  their  appearance  from  the 
Eastern  States,  and  have  raised  the  city  to  its  present  pitch  of  prosper- 


Votes  this  year  in  the  city,  four  thousand  and  seven; 
nag.  buildings,  three  hundred. 

(The  cholera  renewed  its  appearance,  but  less  violently 
trW  in  1833.  It  prevailed  to  some  extent,  however, 
through  all  the  warm  season,  to  the  sad  depression  of 
business  and  social  affairs.  Everything,  in  fact,  was 
stagnant  It  is  said  that  the  town  had  never  before  ap- 
peared so  dull  and  apparently  lifeless  and  inert  as  at  the 
close  of  this  summer.  Property  was  sacrificed  at  low 
rates,  and  business  was  at  times  almosr  at  a  standstill.  It 
was  the  last  year  of  the  visitation,  however,  until  1849, 
fifteen  years  afterwards.  ) 

The  trustees  of  the  Lane  seminary  had  this  year  a 
serious  difference  of  opinion  with  a  number  of  their  anti- 
slavery  students,  which  resulted  in  a  formidable  secession 
from  the  school  and  an  appeal  to  the  public.  A  fuller 
account  will  be  given  in  our  -historical  sketch  of  that 

Cincinnati  had  some  visitors  of  unusual  interest  this 
year.  One  who  is  still  remembered  tenderly  and  affec- 
tionately by  the  older  residents,  who  were  young  men  at 
the  time,  was  Thomas  S.  Grimke,  a  prominent  member 

of  the  bar  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  who  came 
upon  invitation  to  deliver  the  annual  oration  before  the 
literary  societies  of  Miami  university,  Oxford.  While  in 
Cincinnati  he  addressed  the  college  of  teachers,  a  literary 
society  called  the  Inquisition,  and  the  Temperance  soci- 
ety, always  speaking  wisely  and  well,  and  sometimes  ris- 
ing into  rare  eloquence.  He  was  here  only  a  single 
week,  yet  in  that  time  won  universal  recognition,  love, 
and  reverence,  and  was  overwhelmed  with  social  atten- 
tions. Remaining  in  Ohio  a  few  weeks  longer,  he  was 
overtaken  by  death  while  visiting  in  Madison  county, 
October  12,  1834,  at  the  age  of  forty-eight  years;  and 
with  him  expired,  as  many  believed,  the  most  brilliant 
intellectual  light  in  the  southern  States. 

Late  this  year  came  another  American  of  genius, 
Charles  Fenno  Hoffman,  author  of  that  musical  drinking 
song  so  much  parodied  by  the  temperance  societies — 

Sparkling  and  bright  in  its  liquid  light, 

Is  the  wine  our  goblets  gleam  in; 
With  hue  as  red  as  the  rosy  bed 

The  bee  delights  to  dream  in — 

but  unhappily  during  most  of  the  last  half-century  an  in- 
mate of  an  insane  asylum  in  Pennsylvania.  Some  of  his 
delightful  paragraphs  will  be  found  under  other  heads  in 
this  book.     One  only  is  quoted  here : 

The  population  of  the  place  is  about  thirty  thousand.  Among 
them  you  may  see  very  few  but  what  look  comfortable  and  contented, 
though  the  town  does  not  wear  the  brisk  and  busy  air  observable  at 
Louisville.  Transportation  is  so  easy  along  the  great  western  waters, 
that  you  see  no  lounging  poor  people  about  the  large  town,  as  when 
business  languishes  in  one  place  and  it  is  difficult  to  find  occupation, 
they  are  off  at  once  to  another,  and  shift  their  quarters  whither  the 
readiest  means  of  living  invite  them.  What  would  most  strike  you  in 
the  streets  of  Cincinnati  would  be  the  number  of  pretty  faces  and  stylish 
figures  one  meets  in  the  morning.  A  walk  through  Broadway  here  re- 
wards one  hardly  less  than  to  promenade  its  New  York  namesake.  I 
have  had  more  than  one  opportunity  of  seeing  these  western  beauties 
by  candle-light ;  and  the  evening  display  brought  no  disappointment  to 
the  morning  promise.  Nothing  can  be  more  agreeable  than  the  society 
which  one  meets  with  in  the  gay  and  elegantly  furnished  drawing- 
rooms  of  Cincinnati.  The  materials  being  from  every  State  in  the 
Union,  there  is  a  total  want  of  caste,  a  complete  absence  of  settishness 
(if  I  may  use  the  word).  If  there  be  any  characteristic  that  might  jar 
upon  your  taste  and  habits,  it  is,  perhaps,  a  want  of  that  harmonious 
blending  of  light  and  shade,  that  repose  both  of  character  and  manner, 
which,  distinguishing  the  best  circles  in  our  Atlantic  cities,  so  often 
sinks  into  insipidity  or  runs  into  a  ridiculous  imitation  of  the  imperti- 
nent nonchalance  which  the  pseudo-pictures  of  English  "high  life"  in 
the  novels  of  the  day  impose  upon  our  simple  republicans  as  the  height 
of  elegance  and  refinement. 

About  the  same  time  appeared  for  a  few  days  upon 
Cincinnati  streets  a  shrewd  foreign  observer  and  repre- 
sentative of  the  French  Government,  Michel  Chevalier, 
whose  book  of  travels  in  the  United  States  included  the 
following  pleasant  notices: 

The  architectural  appearance  of  Cincinnati  is  very  nearly  the  same 
with  that  of  the  new  quarters  of  the  English  towns.  The  houses  are 
generally  of  brick,  most  commonly  three  stories  high,  with  the  windows 
shining  with  cleanliness,  calculated  each  for  a  single  family,  and  regu- 
larly placed  along  well  paved  and  spacious  streets,  sixty-six  feet  in 
width.  Here  and  there  the  prevailing  uniformity  is  interrupted  by  some 
more  imposing  edifice,  and  there  are  some  houses  of  hewn  stone  in  very 
good  taste,  real  palaces  in  miniature,  with  neat  porticos,  inhabited  by 
the  aristocratical  portion  of  Mrs.  Trollope's  hog  merchants,  and  several 
very  pretty  mansions  surrounded  with  gardens  and  terraces.  Then 
there  are  the  common  school-houses,  where  girls  and  boys  together 
learn  reading,  writing,  cyphering,  and  geography,  under  the  simultane- 
ous direction  of  a  master  and  mistress.     In  another  direction  you  see  a 



small,  plain  church,  without  sculpture  or  painting,  without  colored 
glass  or  Gothic  arches,  but  snug,  well  carpeted,  and  well  warmed  by 
stoves.  In  Cincinnati,  as  everywhere  else  in  the  United  States,  there  is 
a  great  number  of  churches. 

I  met  with  an  incident  in  Cincinnati,  which  I  shall  long  remember. 
I  had  observed  at  the  hotel  table  a  man  of  about  the  medium  height, 
stout  and  muscular,  and  of  about  the  age  of  fifty  years,  yet  with  the  ac- 
tive step  and  lively  air  of  youth.  I  had  been  struck  with  his  open  and 
cheerful  expression,  the  amenity  of  his  manners,  and  a  certain  air  of 
command  which  appeared  through  his  plain  dress.  "That  is,"  saidmy 
friend,  "General  Harrison,  clerk  of  the  Cincinnati  court  of  common 
pleas."  "What!  General  Harrison  of  the  Tippecanoe  and  the 
Thames?"  "The  same;  the  ex-general;  the  conqueror  of  Tecumseh 
and  Proctor;  the  avenger  of  our  disasters  on  the  Raisin  and  at  Detroit; 
the  ex-governor  of  the  territory  of  Indiana,  the  ex-senator  in  Congress, 
the  ex-minister  of  the  United  States  to  one  of  the  South  American  re- 
publics. He  has  grown  old  in  the  service  of  his  country,  he  has  passed 
twenty  years  of  his  life  in  those  fierce  wars  with  the  Indians,  in  which 
there  was  less  glory  to  be  won,  but  more  dangers  to  be  encountered, 
than  at  Rivoli  and  Austerlitz.  He  is  now  poor,  with  a  numerous  family, 
neglected  by  the  Federal  Government,  although  yet  vigorous,  because 
he  has  the  independence  to  think  for  himself.  As  the  opposition  is  in 
the  majority  here,  his  friends  have  bethought  themselves  of  coming  to 
his  relief  by  removing  the  clerk  of  the  court  of  common  pleas,  who  was 
a.  Jackson  man,  and  giving  him  the  place,  which  is  a  lucrative  one,  as  a 
sort  of  retiring  pension.  His  friends  in  the  east  talk  of  making  him 
President  of  the  United  States.  Meanwhile  we  have  made  him  clerk 
of  an  inferior  court. "  After  a  pause  my  informant  added,  "at  this 
wretched  table  you  may  see  another  candidate  for  the  Presidency,  who 
seems  to  have  a  better  chance  than  General  Harrison;  it  is  Mr.  Mc- 
Lean, now  one  of  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  United 

The  town  was  also  visited,  in  the  course  of  the  year, 
by  two  clerical  gentlemen  from  abroad,  delegates  from 
the  British  Congregational  Union — the  Rev.  Drs.  An- 
drew Reed  and  James  Matheson,  on  a  tour  in  behalf  of 
Protestant  religion,  which  they  afterwards  described  in  A 
Narration  of  the  Visit  to  the  American  Churches.  We 
extract  the  following  concerning  Cincinnati : 

There  is  a  great  spirit  of  enterprise  in  this  town;  and,  with  an  ardent 
pursuit  of  business,  there  is  a  desire  for  domestic  comfort  and  a  thirst 
for  scientific  improvement,  not  equaled  in  such  circumstances.  They 
have  libraries  and  good  reading  societies;  they  have  lectures  on  art  and 
science,  which  are  well  attended.  They  sustain  a  "scientific  quarterly" 
and  a  "monthly  magazine, "  with  a  circulation  of  four  thousand;  and 
they  have  newspapers  without  end.  Education  is  general  here;  the 
young  people,  and  even  the  children,  appear  to  appreciate  it.  They 
regard  it  as  the  certain  and  necessary  means  of  advancement.  I  over- 
heard two  fine  children,  in  the  street,  remark  as  follows.  The  younger 
one,  about  nine  years  old,  speaking  of  her  sister,  said,  with  concern, 
"Do  you  know,  Caroline  says  she  will  not  go  to  school  any  more?" 
"Silly  girl!"  replied  the  elder,  about  thirteen;  " she  will  live  to  repent 
of  that !"  It  must  be  admitted  that  this  is  a  very  wholesome  state  of 


Population,  thirty-one  thousand.  New  buildings,  three 
hundred  and  forty.  Bills  of  mortality,  nine  hundred  and 
twenty-six,  or  one  in  thirty-four,  of  the  population. 
s  The  cholera  did  not  return  this  year,  and  as  soon  as 
it  was  reasonably  certain  that  the  scourge  had  departed, 
business  and  public  and  social  affairs  in  Cincinnati  awak- 
ened to  more  vigorous  life  than  ever.  Mr.  Mansfield 
says,  in  the  Drake  Biography : 

fh  season  of  extraordinary  activity  ensued.  The  mind  sprang  up 
elastic  from  the  pressure,  and  all  was  accomplished  that  mind  could  do. 
Enterprise,  business,  growth,  the  leality  of  active  energy,  and  the  ide- 
ality of  a  growing  and  prosperous  future,  sprang  up,  as  the  conse- 
quence of  an  elastic  and  invigorated  public  mind.  The  general  trade 
of  the  country  had  been  safe  and  profitable — hence  there  was  little  tim- 
idity to  strengthen  prudence  or  restrain  extravagance.  In  the  east 
commenced  that  series  of  enormous  speculations  whose  centre  was  at 
New  York,  and  which,  in  some  respects,  has  never  been  surpassed  in 

this  country./  It  spread  to  the  west,  but  prevailed  comparatively  little 
at  Cincinnati.  The  speculations  here  were  on  a  small  scale,  and  it  is 
doubtful  whether  they  did  more  than  give  a  necessary  and  healthful 
excitement  to  the  business  community,  which  had  so  long  been  in  a 
dull,  quiescent  state.  X^ertain  it  is,  that  Cincinnati  now  owes  half  her 
growth  and  prosperity  toVplans  of  public  works  and  usefulness  then 
formed  and  undertaken.    J 

(The  public  works  named  by  Mr.  Mansfield  as  among 
the  local  projects  of  this  year  were  the  great  Southern 
railroad  route  to  Charleston;  the  Cincinnati  &  St.  Louis 
railroad,  by  Lawrenceburgh ;  the  Little  Miami  railroad, 
which  was  chartered  the  next  March;  the  Cincinnati,  Co- 
lumbus, &  Cleveland  railway,  also  chartered  the  next 
year;  the  Mad  River  &  Lake  Erie,  and  Covington  & 
Lexington  railroads;  and  the  Whitewater  canal.  All 
these  works,  though  not  in  all  cases  under  these  names, 
were  afterwards  built.i 

April  4th,  a  grand  celebration  was  held  at  the  First 
Presbyterian  church,  of  the  forty  seventh  anniversary  of 
the  settlement  of  Ohio,  where  William  M.  Corry  pro- 
nounced one  of  his  finest  orations.  The  dinner  was  at 
the  Commercial  Exchange,  and  was  principally  from  the 
products  of  Ohio,  with  no  wine  or  ardent  spirits  what- 

On  the  eighteenth  of  the  same  month,  the  Young 
Men's  Mercantile  library  association  was  founded.  Its 
history  will  be  duly  told  elsewhere.  Forty-four  years  af- 
terwards Mr.  John  W.  Ellis,  of  New  York,  one  of  the 
illustrious  forty-five  who  founded  this  noble  institution, 
wrote  a  letter  at  some  length  to  Mr.  Newton,  the  libra- 
rian, containing  reminiscences  of  1835  which  will  bear 
transcription  here: 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  Cincinnati  at  that  period,  in  1835,  com- 
pared with  the  present  Cincinnati,  was  a  very  insignificant  place  in  re- 
spect to  wealth,  population,  business,  and  everything  which  constitutes 
a  modern  city.  The  population  then  was  less  than  forty  thousand.  Its 
wholesale  business  was  done  entirely  by  the  Ohio  river,  and  by  the 
canal  as  far  north  as  Dayton;  but  for  the  interior  trade  almost  entirely 
by  wagons.  For  the  size  of  the  place,  it  had  a  respectable  wholesale 
business,  extending  in  a  small  way  to  the  upper  and  lower  Mississippi, 
along  the  Ohio,  from  its  mouth  as  far  east  as  what  is  now  West  Vir- 
ginia; but  a  large  proportion  of  the  business  with  the  interior  in  dry 
goods,  groceries,  and  the  other  numerous  wants  of  an  interior  com- 
munity was  supplied  by  wagons,  which  brought  in  their  products  and 
carried  out  merchandise.  There  were  no  railroads  whatever  at  that 
period  in  the  west.  The  grocery  trade  was  supplied  entirely  by  steam- 
boats from  New  Orleans.  Lighter  goods  were  wagoned  by  the  Na- 
tional road,  over  the  Alleghany  mountains,  to  Wheeling  or  Pittsburgh, 
and  thence  by  steamboat  down  the  river.  When  the  water  in  the  upper 
Ohio  was  low,  these  goods  were  brought  from  New  York  by  the  Hud- 
son river  and  Erie  canal  to  Buffalo,  thence  by  lake  and  Ohio  canal  to 
Portsmouth,  and  thence  down  the  river.  All  these  means  of  convey- 
ance will  seem  now  to  the  active  young  men  0$  Cincinnati  as  very  prim- 

Nearly  all  the  retail  business  of  the  city  was  done  on  Main  street, 
from  Third  street  to  Sixth  street;  the  wholesale  business  almost  entirely 
on  the  lower  end  of  Main  street  and  on  Front  street  facing  the  river. 
Pearl  street  had  just  been  opened,  but  extended  no  further  west  than 
Walnut  street,  and  a  few  wholesale  stores  had  begun  on  that  square. 
Fourth,  Walnut,  Vine,  and  other  streets,  now  filled  with  an  active  busi- 
ness, were  then  the  seat  of  residences,  nearly  all  built  with  detached 
houses,  surrounded  with  shrubbery,  and  the  streets  lined  with  trees. 
Central  avenue,  then  Western  row,  and  the  Miami  canal  on  the  north, 
were  the  boundaries  of  population. 

An  article  contributed  by  B.  D.  (Benjamin  Drake?)  to 
the  Western  Monthly  Magazine  and  Literary  Journal, 
also  helps  to  the  understanding  of  Cincinnati  this  year. 
More  than  ordinary  attention  was  given  to  the  Southern 



railroad  project,  as  was  seen  in  our  chapter  on  railroads. 
The  manufactures  of  the  year  were  estimated  at  five 
millions.  With  Newport  and  Corrington,  the  population 
was  thirty-five  thousand.  Exports  were  estimated  at  six 
millions  or  more.  There  were  fifty  stages  and  sixty  mails 
a  week;  the  steamboat  arrivals  were  two  thousand  two 
hundred  and  thirty-seven;  the  imports  included  ninety 
thousand  barrels  of  flour  and  fifty-five  thousand  of  whiskey. 
The  public  improvements  in  hand  were  the  extension  of  the 
Miami  canal  from  Dayton  to  the  Maumee  bay,  near 
Toledo,  a  part  to  be  completed  early  the  next  summer;  the 
macadamized  turnpike  from  Chillicothe  to  Cincinnati; 
extensions  of  the  Cincinnati,  Columbia,  and  Wooster, 
and  the  Cincinnati,  Lebanon,  and  Springfield  turnpikes; 
the  Cincinnati  and  Harrison  turnpike,  to  be  finished 
early  in  1836,  and  extend  to  Brookville,  Indiana;  the 
Whitewater  canal,  the  Little  Miami  railroad,  etc. 

Many  of  the  houses  erected  this  year  would  do  credit 
to  any  city  in  the  Union.  A  number  of  warehouses  were 
put  up;  also  St.  Paul's  church,  two  banking-houses  on 
Third  street,  and  ten  or  twelve  large,  commodious,  and  for 
the  time  elegant  school  buildings,  "contributing  in  a 
high  degree  to  the  advancement  of  our  beautiful  city," 
says  Mr.  B.  D.  A  population  of  one  hundred  thousand 
was  predicted  by  1850 — which  prophecy,  glowing  as  it 
might  have  seemed,  was  exceeded  by  nearly  sixteen  thou- 
sand. Real  estate  is  mentioned  by  B.  D.  as  lower  in 
price,  in  Cincinnati  and  its  Kentucky  suburbs,  than  in 
any  other  city  of  the  Union  having  population,  business, 
and  permanent  local  advantages  of  equal  magnitude. 

The  Ohio  Anti-Slavery  society  was  formed  this  year, 
with  headquarters  in  Cincinnati,  and  began  the  issue  of 
a  weekly  paper,  of  which  we  shall  hear  more  in  1836. 
By  1840  the  society  was  employing  nine  travelling  agents 
and  lecturers,  and  had  become  a  great  power  in  political 

December  nth,  John  W.  Cowan  was  hanged  in  Barr's 
woods,  near  the  spot  where  the  Atlantic  &  Great  Western 
railway  depot  was  afterwards  situated,  for  the  brutal  mur- 
der of  his  wife  and  two  children  on  Smith  street. 

In  the  summer  of  this  year  the  city  was  honored  with 
a  visit  from  the  renowned  English  authoress  and  thinker, 
Miss  Harriet  Martineau.  She  spent  some  time  here; 
and  in  her  subsequent  book  of  Retrospect  of  Western 
Travel  gave  to  the  city  the  ablest  chapter,  in  the  judg- 
ment of  the  present  writer,   that  has  ever  been  written 

upon  it.     We  make  room  for  a  few  short  extracts : 

There  is  ample  room  on  the  platform  for  a  city  as  large  as  Philadelphia, 
without  encroaching  at  all  on  the  hillsides.  The  inhabitants  are  already 
consulting  as  to  where  the  capitol  shall  stand  whenever  the  nation  shall 
decree  the  removal  of  the  general  government  beyond  the  mountains. 
If  it  were  not  for  the  noble  building  at  Washington,  this  removal  would 
probably  take  place  soon,  perhaps  after  the  removal  of  the  great  south- 
ern railroad.  It  seems  rather  absurd  to  call  senators  and  representatives 
to  Washington  from  Missouri  and  Louisiana,  while  there  is  a  place  on 
the  great  rivers  which  would  save  them  half  the  journey,  and  suit  almost 
everybody  else  just  as  well,  and  many  much  better.  The  peril  to  health 
at  Washington  in  the  winter  season  is  great,  and  the  mild  and  equable 
temperature  of  Cincinnati  is  an  important  circumstance  in  the  case. 

From  this,  the  Montgomery  road,  there  is  a  view  of  the  city  and  sur- 
rounding country  which  defies  description.  It  was  of  that  melting 
beauty  which  dims  the  eyes  and  fills  the  heart — that  magical  combina- 
tion of  all  elements— of  hill,  wood,  lawn,  river,  with  a  picturesque  city 

steeped  in  evening  sunshine,  the  impression  of  which  can  never  be  lost 
nor  communicated.  We  ran  up  a  knoll  and  stood  under  a  clump  of 
bushes  to  gaze;  and  went  down,  and  returned  again  and  again,  with 
the  feeling  that  if  we  lived  upon  the  spot  we  could  nevermore  see  it  look 
so  beautiful. 

We  soon  entered  a  somewhat  different  scene,  passing  the  slaughter- 
houses on  Deer  creek,  the  place  where  more  thousands  of  hogs  in  a 
year  than  I  dare  to  specify,  are  destined  to  breathe  their  last.  Deer 
creek,  pretty  as  its  name  is,  is  little  more  than  the  channel  through 
which  their  blood  runs  away.  The  division  of  labor  is  brought  to  as 
much  perfection  in  these  slaughter-houses  as  in  the  pin  manufactories 
of  Birmingham.  So  I  was  told.  Of  course  I  did  not  verify  the  state- 
ment by  attending  the  process. 

A  volume  might  presently  be  filled  with  descriptions  of  our  drives 
about  the  environs  of  Cincinnati.  There  are  innumerable  points  of  view 
whence  the  city,  with  its  masses  of  buildings  and  its  spires,  may  be  seen 
shining  through  the  limpid  atmosphere,  like  a  cloud-city  in  the  evening 
sky.  There  are  many  spots  where  it  is  a  relief  to  lose  the  river  from 
the  view,  and  to  be  shut  in  among  the  brilliant  green  hills,  which  are 
more  than  can  be  numbered.  But  there  is  one  drive  which  I  almost 
wonder  the  inhabitants  do  not  take  every  summer  day,  to  the  Little 
Miami  bottoms.  We  continued  eastward  along  the  bank  of  the  river 
for  seven  miles,  the  whole  scenery  of  which  is  beautiful;  but  the  unfor- 
gotten  spot  was  the  level  about  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Miami  river, 
the  richest  of  plains  or  level  valleys,  studded  with  farmhouses,  enlivened 
with  clearings,  and  kept  primitive  in  appearance  by  the  masses  of  dark 
forest  which  filled  up  all  the  unoccupied  spaces.  Upon  this  scene  we 
looked  down  from  a  great  height,  a  Niphates  of  the  New  World.  On 
entering  a  little  pass  between  two  grassy  hills,  crested  with  wood,  we 
were  desired  to  alight.  I  ran  up  the  ascent  to  the  right,  and  was  start- 
led at  finding  myself  on  the  top  of  a  preeipice.  Far  beneath  me  ran 
the  Little  Miami,  with  a  narrow,  white,  pebble  strand,  arrow-like  trees 
springing  over  from  the  brink  of  the  precipice,  and  the  long  evening 
shadows  making  the  current  as  black  as  night,  while  the  green,  up  to 
the  very  lips  of  the  ravine,  was  of  the  sunniest,  in  the  last  flood  of 
western  light.  For  more  reasons  than  one  I  should  prefer  Cincinnati  as 
residence  to  any  other  large  city  of  the  United  States.  Of  these  rea- 
sons not  the  least  would  be  that  the  "Queen  of  the  West"  is  enthroned 
in  a  region  of  wonderful  and  inexhaustible  beauty. 

Another  English  traveller,  the  Honorable  Charles  Au- 
gustus Murray,  was  also  here  this  year,  and  made  the  fol- 
lowing notice  in  his  Travels  in  North  America  : 

On  the  last  day  of  spring  I  arrived  at  Cincinnati,  that  precocious 
daughter  of  the  west,  that  seems  to  have  sprung,  like  the  fabled  goddess 
of  war  and  wisdom,  into  existence  in  the  full  panoply  of  manufacturing 
and  commercial  armor. 

I  have  been  in  company  with  ten  or  twelve  of  the  resident  families, 
and  have  not  seen  one  single  instance  of  rudeness,  vulgarity,  or  incivil- 
ity ;  while  the  shortness  of  the  invitations  and  absence  of  constraint  and 
display  render  the  society  more  agreeable,  in  some  respects,  than  that 
of  more  fashionable  cities.  If  the  proposition  stated  is  merely  this,  "that 
the  manners  of  Cincinnati  are  not  so  polished  as  those  of  the  best  circles 
of  London,  Paris,  or  Berlin;  that  her  business,  whether  culinary  or  dis- 
played in  carriages,  houses,  or  amusements,  are  also  of  a  lower  caste," 
I  suppose  none  would  be  so  absurd  as  to  deny  it.  I  hope  few  would  be 
weak  enough  gravely  to  inform  the  world  of  so  self-evident  a  truth  ;  but 
I  will,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  assert  that  the  history  of  the  world 
does  not  produce  a  parallel  to  Cincinnati  in  rapid  growth  of  wealth  and 
population.  Of  all  the  cities  that  have  been  founded  by  mighty  sover- 
eigns or  na:ions,  with  an  express  view  to  their  becoming  the  capitals  of 
empires,  there  is  not  one  that,  in  twenty-seven  [forty-seven]  years  from 
its  foundation,  could  show  such  a  mass  of  manufacture,  enterprise, 
population,  wealth,  and  social  comfort,  as  that  of  which  I  have  given  a 
short  and  imperfect  outline  in  the  last  two  or  three  pages,  and  which 
owes  its  magnitude  to  no  adscititious  favor  or  encouragement,  but  to 
the  judgment  with  which  the  situation  was  chosen,  and  to  the  admirable 
use  which  its  inhabitants  have  made  thereof. 


Population  estimated  at  thirty-eight  thousand — proba- 
bly somewhat  too  large.  Votes  four  thousand  three  hun- 
dred and  thirty-five.  New  buildings,  three  hundred  and 
sixty-five.  Commerce,  eight  million  one  hundred  thou- 
sand dollars.     The  public  schools,  the  mercantile  library, 



and  the  leading  public  charities,  had  well  begun  their  or- 
ganic existence.  A  general  committee  upon  internal  im- 
provements was  appointed  at  a  public  meeting  of  citizens, 
which  proved  a  very  useful  committee.  Upon  it  were 
such  men  as  Micajah  T.  and  John  S.  Williams,  E.  D. 
Mansfield,  Dr.  Daniel  Drake,  Robert  Buchanan,  John  C. 
Wright,  George  Graham,  and  Alexander  McGrew.  Mor- 
tality of  the  year,  nine  hundred  and  twenty-eight,  or  about 
one  in  forty. 

This,  pretty  nearly  the  middle  yefur'of  Cincinnati's 
history,  was  a  tolerably  eventful  one/  On  the  eleventh 
of  April  a  mob  rose  against  the  colored  people,  and  set 
fire  to  a  number  of  their  houses  in  a  locality  then  known 
as  "the  swamp,''  just  below  Western  Row,  now  Central 
avenue,  at  the  then  foot  of  West  Sixth  street.)  Another 
and  more  serious  emeute  occurred  in  July,  which  resulted 
in  the  destruction  of  the  Philanthropist  newspaper  office. 
This  paper  had  been  started  by  Mr.  Birney  in  1834  at 
New  Richmond,  Clermont  county,  where  it  had  been 
repeatedly  threatened,  but  never  mobbed ;  and  was  re- 
moved to  Cincinnati,  on  the  encouragement  of  friends 
of  the  anti-slavery  cause  there,  about  three  months  before 
its  destruction.  A  meeting  was  held  in  July,  composed 
largely  from  the  most  respectable  classes  in  the  city, 
largely  young  men,  at  which  resolutions  were  passed  that 
no  abolition  paper  should  be  published  or  distributed  in 
the  town.  On  the  fourteenth  of  that  month,  the  publi- 
cation of  the  Philanthropist  still  continuing,  the  printing 
office  was  violently  entered  by  a  mob,  and  the  press  and 
materials,  which  were  the  property  of  Mr  A.  Pugh,  the 
printer,  afterwards  of  the  Chronicle,  were  defaced,  "pied,' 
and  partially  destroyed.  Even  this  did  not  daunt  the 
fearless  editor,  and  the  publication  went  on.  On  the 
twenty-third  a  great  meeting  of  citizens  was  held  at  the 
Lower  Market,  "to  declare  whether  they  will  permit  the 
publication  or  distribution  of  abolition  papers  in  this 
city."  A  committee  was  appointed,  which  requested  the 
executive  committee  of  the  anti-slavery  society  to  stop 
the  publication.  They  '  refused;  when  the  committee 
published  the  correspondence,  adding  remarks  which 
deprecated  a  resort  to  violence.  Nevertheless,  on  Satur- 
day night,  July  30th,  a  large  party,  composed,  like  the 
aforesaid  meeting,  mainly  from  the  more  respectable 
classes  in  the  city  and  of  young  men,  gathered  on  the 
corner  of  Main  and  Seventh  streets,  held  a  short  consul- 
tation, then  marched  down  to  the  office,  only  two  squares 
distant,  effected  an  entrance  and  again  seized  the  press 
and  materials,  but  this  time  carried  them  out  in  part, 
scattered  the  type  in  the  street,  smashed  the  press,  and 
completely  dismantled  the  office.  Part  of  the  press  was 
dragged  down  Main  street  and  thrown  in  the  river.  The 
mob  even  went  to  Pugh's  house  to  find  other  materials 
supposed  to  be  there;  but  found  none,  and  offered  no 
violence.  The  dwellings  of  Birney,  Donaldson,  and 
other  prominent  abolitionists  were  rather  noisily  visited, 
but  no  mischief  done  to  them.  It  then  returned  to  Main 
street,  proposing  to  pile  the  remaining  contents  of  the 
office  in  the  street ;  but  was  dissuaded,  as  neighboring 
buildings  might  be  fired  by  the  blaze.  Retiring  up  Main 
street,  a  proposition  was  made  to  mob  the  office  of  the 

Gazette,  whose  editor,  Mr.  Charles  Hammond,  had  not 
altogether  pleased  the  malcontents  by  his  course;  but 
better  counsels  prevailed.  An  attack  was  made  on  the 
residences  of  some  of  the  blacks  in  Church  alley;  but 
two  guns  were  fired  at  the  assailants,  and  they  withdrew 
in  disorder.  A  rally  and  second  charge  were  made  after 
a  time,  when  the  houses  were  found  abandoned  by  the 
negroes,  were  entered  and  their  contents  destroyed. 
Some  weeks  after,  upon  the  return  of  E.  D.  Mansfield 
from  the  Knoxville  railroad  convention,  he  and  Mr. 
Hammond,  Salmon  P.  Chase,  and  a  few  others,  deter- 
mined to  hold  an  afternoon  meeting  at  the  coutt  house,  to 
consider  the  outrage.  It  was  crowded;  sundry  speeches 
were  made;  a  large  committee  was  appointed  to  report 
resolutions;  but,  after  all,  nothing  was  done  except  to 
condemn  mobs  in  general  terms,  regret  the  recent  occur- 
rence, and  commend  the  plan  of  the  American  Coloniza- 
tion society  as  "the  only  method  of  getting  clear  of  slav- 
ery." After  the  death,  in  September,  1880,  of  the  Hon. 
W'illiam  M.  Cony,  a  tribute  was  paid  to  his  memory  in 
the  Cincinnati  Commercial,  by  ex-Governor  Charles  An- 
derson. In  it  occurred  the  following  paragraph,  which 
we  take  pleasure  in  embalming  for  posterity  in  the  pages 
of  this  history: 

All  Cincinnati  was  aroused  in  1836  into  a  wild  ferocity  towards  the 
great  Abolitionist,  James  G.  Birney,  esq.  He  was  a  scholar,  orator, 
gentleman,  Christian,  and  philanthropist,  if  ever  these  sentiments  did 
centre  in  any  one  man.  But  his  paper,  published  from  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Fifth  streets,  was  universally  esteemed  and  denounced  as  a 
most  pestilent  nuisance  to  the  city,  the  State,  and  the  Nation.  And 
doubtless,  in  the  morbid  and  reckless  state  of  the  public  feeling  in  the 
southern  States,  such  an  issue  from  Cincinnati  did  operate  injuriously 
against  the  business  and  property  of  the  citizens,  which  was  based 
mainly  upon  their  southern  trade.  A  public  meeting,  was  therefore  held 
in  the  court  house  for  the  denunciation,  warning,  and,  if  necessary, 
the  expulsion  of  so  great  a  culprit.  Every  man  of  influence  or  property 
in  Cincinnati,  save  one  alone,  was  directly  or  indirectly  a  party  to  this 
outrage  upon  free  thought,  free  speech  and  a  free  press.  That  single 
man  was  William  M.  Corry.  He  alone,  amidst  the  general  obloquy 
and  indignation,  bared  his  biave  breast  to  this  popular  tempest  of  the 
combined  plutocracy  and  mobocracy  of  the  whole  city,  and  ably  de- 
fended Mr.  Birney's  rights.  It  was  in  vain.  His  office  was  publicly 
pillaged.  His  press  was  smashed  into  splinters.  His  types  were  sown 
broadcast  from  the  market  place  through  Main  street  and  into  the  Ohio 
river.     He  was  driven  into  exile  to  Buffalo. 

May  30th  occurred  the  first  parade  of  the  Cincinnati 
Gray's;  and  on  the  fourteenth  of  June  a  volunteer  com- 
pany under  Captain  James  Allen,  editor  of  the  Cincinnati 
Republican,  departed  to  join  General  Houston's  army  and 
aid  in  the  struggle  for  Texan  independence.  On  the  sixth 
of  March  the  subscription  books  for  the  Little  Miami 
railroad  were  opened;  and  on  the  twentieth  of  February 
the  city,  also  Newport  and  Covington,  were  illuminated 
in  honor  of  the  projected  Cincinnati  &  Charleston  rail- 
road, which  was  soon  temporarily  defeated,  by  the  refusal 
of  the  Kentucky  legislature  to  grant  right  of  way  through 
the  State. 

On  the  thirteenth  of  January  began  the  memorable  de- 
bate between  the  Rev.  Alexander  Campbell  and  Bishop 
Purcell,  which  was  afterwards  published  and  extensively 
circulated.  February  23d  died  Peter  Williams,  of  Delhi, 
the  pioneer  mail  carrier  from  Cincinnati  through  the 
wildernesses.  General  Jackson  visited  the  city  March 
1 8th,  and  was  received  with  great  acclamation  by  admir- 



ing  throngs.  William  Barr,  a  very  prominent  old  resident, 
died  March  21st.  On  the  24th  of  that  month  the  city 
debt  amounted  to  two  hundred  and  forty  thousand  dol- 


New  buildings  this  year,  three  hnndred  and  five,  not- 
withstanding it  was  a  year  of  great  financial  disaster, 
There  were  five  thousand  nine  hundred  and  eighty-one 
house  in  the  city.  Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield  wrote  long  sub- 
sequently: "Just  after  the  convention  of  1837,  say  up  to 
1848,  the  growth  of  Cincinnati  continued  with  great  ra- 
pidity. Strange  as  it  may  seem,  the  constant  depression 
and  want  of  money  did  not  impede  building;  on  the  con- 
trary, it  aided  Cincinnati.  .  .  For  several  years 
the  city  grew  rapidly."  The  deaths  this  year  numbered 
nine  hundred  and  sixty-eight,  or  about  one  in  thirty-nine. 

On  the  third  of  May  the  first  loan  for  local  improve- 
ments was  voted  by  the  city,  to  the  amount  of  six  hun- 
dred thousand  dollars. 

January  6th,  John  Washburn  was  hanged  upon  a  scaf- 
fold erected  at  the  junction  of  the  Walnut  Hills  and 
Reading  roads,  for  the  murder  upon  the  same  spot,  for 
money,  of  an  inoffensive  old  man  named  Beaver.  After- 
wards, June  3rd,  Hoover  and  Davis  were  executed  for 
complicity  in  the  same  murder;  and  Byron  Cooley,  on 
the  twenty-fifth  of  November,  for  killing  John  Rambo. 
It  was  a  great  year  for  capital  punishments. 

October  28th,  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  Wiliiam 
M.  Millan  was  dedicated  by  Nova  Caesarea  Harmony 
Lodge  No.  2,  upon  an  eminence  on  the  farm  of  William 
M.  Corry,  esq.,  then  two  and  a  quarter  miles  from  Cin- 
cinnati, near  the  Reading  turnpike,  in  a  graveyard  de- 
signated by  Mr.  McMillan  before  his  death.  A  eulogy 
was  pronounced  by  Mr.  Corry,  which  was  published  in 
pamphlet  form,  and  widely  complimented.  The  monu- 
ment was  afterwards  removed  to  Spring  Grove  cemetery, 
where  it  now  stands.  It  is  of  grey  freestone,  in  the 
psuendo-Doric  order,  and  surmounted  by  a  Grecian  urn. 

Some  observations  made  upon  Cincinnati  this  year  by 
a  garrulous  American  traveller,  Professor  Frederick  Hall, 
M.D.,  in  his  Letters  from  the  East  and  from  the  West,  may 
fittingly  be  reproduced  here: 

Perhaps,  I  might  give  you  a  juster  idea  of  the  appearance  of  Cin- 
cinnati by  comparison.  You  cannot  have  forgotten  how  Genoa  ap- 
peared to  us,  as  seen  from  the  point  where  our  steamboat  anchored  or  ' 
from  that  where  the  American  ship-of-war,  the  Potomac,  was  stationed, 
farther  out  in  the  bay.  The  view  was  enrapturing.  Our  eyes  were 
riveted  to  it.  We  had  never  seen  its  parallel.  Rightly  do  the  Italians, 
thought  we,  style  Genoa  'La  Superba.'  Here,  we  could  not  help 
imagining,  Vespasian  took  from  Nature  the  model  of  his  Colosseum 
which  he  commenced  at  Rome.  The  arena  of  his,  often  saturated 
with  human  blood,  uselessly,  wickedly  shed,  represents  this  narrow, 
flat  plain,  overspread  with  marble  houses  and  palaces  and  churches, 
and  all  the  pomp  and  bustle  of  a  populous  and  magnificent  town. 
The  sloping  galleries  of  the  Roman  Colosseum  are  a  miniature  rep- 
resentation of  the  lofty  and  ragged  Appenines  which  form  the  semi- 
circular back-grounds  of  the  city,  and  on  which  are  perched  many  a 
sumptuous  mansion,  many  a  terraced  garden,  many  an  humble  cottage, 
and  many  a  moss-clad  ruin. 

Were  you  here,  I  would  conduct  you  across  the  Ohio  river  in  the 
convenient  steam  ferry-boat,  lead  you  to  a  spot  half  a  mile  from  the 
water's  edge,  and  there  ask  you  to  take  a  deliberate  survey  ot  Cincin- 
nati and  of  the  country  back  of  it.  You  would,  I  think,  at  once  say 
that  it  bears  no  slight  resemblance  to  the  native  city  of  Columbus.  The 
high  lands  here,  though  in  some  degree  similar,   are  less  lofty,   less 

rocky,  and  exhibit  fewer  human  habitations;  but  they  are  far  richer, 
their  forms  vastly  more  variegated  and  more  beautiful.  You  do  not, 
it  is  true,  here  see  anything  like  the  towering  light-house  of  Genoa,  or 
the  Cathedral  of  Lorenzo,  or- the  '  palazzo  ducal;'  nor  are  you  to  ex- 
pect it.  Consider  the  difference  in  the  ages  of  the  two  cities.  The  one 
is  an  infant  at  the  breast ;  the  other  wears  bleached  locks.  The  one  is 
not  yet  fifty  years  old;  the  other  is  two  thousand.  But,  old  as  she  is, 
her  population  does  not  exceed  eighty-five  thousand.  That  of  Cincin- 
nati has  already  attained  to  near  half  of  that  number;  and  what  will  it 
be  two  thousand  years  hence,  if  it  continues  to  increase,  as  it  has  done 
during  the  last  quarter  of  a  century?  Let  fancy  stretch  away  into 
futurity,  and  view  her  then.  She  will  see  a  little  world  of  men — not  a 
New  York— not  a  Glasgow— but  a  London.  Since  the  year  1812  her 
population  has  received  an  augmentation  of  more  than  twenty-six 
thousand  souls.  Should  she  continue  to  increase  in  the  same  ratio  for 
two  thousand  years  to  come,  what  will  be  her  numbers?  What  hill  will 
not  be  crowded  with  houses?  What  valley  will  not  pe  crowded  with 

Another  author-traveller  of  1837  to  the  Queen  City 
was  no  less  a  notable  of  that  day  than  the  great  writer 
of  sea-tales,  Captain  Francis  Marryat.  In  his  Diary  of 
the  American  Journey,  subsequently  published,  he  thus 
notes  matters  and  things  here: 

Arrived  at  Cincinnati.  How  rapid  has  been  the  advance  of  the 
western  country!  In  1803  deer-skins,  at  the  value  of  forty  cents  per 
pound,  were  a  legal  tender;  and,  if  offered  instead  of  money,  could  not 
be  refused — even  by  a  lawyer.  Not  fifty  years  ago  the  woods  which 
towered  where  Cincinnati  is  now  built,  resounded  only  to  the  cry  of  the 
wild  animals  of  the  forest  or  the  rifle  of  the  Shawnee  Indian;  now 
Cincinnati  contains  a  population  of  forty  thousand  inhabitants.  It  is  a 
beautiful,  well-built,  clean  town,  reminding  you  more  of  Philadelphia 
than  any  other  city  in  the  Union.  Situated  on  a  hill  on  the  banks  of 
the  Ohio,  if  is  surrounded  by  a  circular  phalanx  of  other  hills;  so  that, 
look  up  and  down  the  streets  whichever  way  you  will,  your  eye  reposes 
upon  verdure  and  forest-trees  in  the  distance.  The  streets  have  a  row 
of  trees  on  each  side,  near  the  curb-stone,  and  most  of  the  houses  have 
a  small  frontage,  filled  with  luxuriant  flowering  shrubs,  of  which  the 
althea  Frutix  is  the  most  abundant.  It  is,  properly  speaking,  a  Yan- 
kee city,  the  majority  of  its  inhabitants  coming  from  the  east;  but  they 
have  intermarried  and  blended  with  the  Kentuckians  of  the  opposite 
shore — a  circumstance  which  is  advantageous  to  the  character  of  both. 

There  are,  however,  a  large  number  of  Dutch  and  German  settlers 
here;  they  say  ten  thousand.  They  are  not  much  liked  by  the  Ameri- 
cans ;  but  have  great  influence,  as  may  be  conceived  when  it  is  stated 
that,  when  a  motion  was  brought  forward  in  the  municipal  court  for 
the  city  regulations  to  be  printed  in  German  as  well  as  English,  it  was 
lost  by  one  vote  only. 


New  buildings,  three  hundred  and  thirty-four.  Mortal- 
ity, one  thousand  three  hundred  and  sixty-five.  Votes  in 
the  city,  four  thousand  five  hundred  and  seventy-three. 

April  25th,  the  most  terrible  accident  recorded  in  the 
history  of  Cincinnati  occurred  at  the  Fulton  landing, 
then  just  above  the  city,  in  the  explosion  of  the  new  and 
beautiful  steamer  Moselle.  An  elaborate  and  most  inter- 
esting account  of  this  event  has  been  given  in  the  third 
edition  of  the  Annals  of  the  West,  the  publisher  of  that 
work  having  been  an  eye-witness  of  the  event.  We  trans- 
cribe the  narrative  for  these  pages : 

The  Moselle  was  regarded  as  the  very  paragon  of  western  steamboats; 
she  was  perfect  in  form  and  construction,  elegant  and  super  o  in  all  her 
equipments,  and  enjoyed  a  reputation  for  speed  which  admitted  of  no 
rivalship.  As  an  evidence  that  the  latter  was  not  undeserved,  it  need 
only  be  mentioned  that  her  last  trip  from  St.  Louis  to  Cincinnati,  seven 
hundred  and  fifty  miles,  was  performed  in  two  days  and  sixteen  hours— 
the  quickest  trip,  by  several  hours,  that  had  ever  been  made  between  the 
two  places. 

On  the  afternoon  of  April  25, 1838,  between  four  and  five  o'clock,  the 
Moselle  left  the  landing  at  Cincinnati,  bound  for  St.  Louis,  with  an  un- 
usually large  number  of  passengers,  supposed  to  be  not  less  than  two 
hundred  and  eighty,  or,  according  to  some  accounts,  three  hundred.  It 
was  a  pleasant  afternoon,  and  all  on  board  probably  anticipated  a  de- 




lightful  voyage.  The  Moselle  proceeded  about  a  mile  up  the  river  to 
take  on  some  German  emigrants.  At  this  time  it  was  observed  by  an 
experienced  engineer  on  board,  that  the  steam  had  been  raised  to  an 
unusual  height,  and  when  the  boat  stopped  for  the  purpose  just  men- 
tioned, it  was  reported  that  one  man  who  was  apprehensive  of  danger 
went  ashore,  after  protesting  against  the  injudicious  management  of  the 
steam  apparatus.  Yet  the  passengers  generally  were  regardless  of  any 
danger  that  might  exist,  crowding  the  boat  for  the  sake  of  her  beauty 
and  speed,  and  making  safety  a  secondary  consideration. 

When  the  object  for  which  the  Moselle  had  landed  was  nearly  accom- 
plished, and  the  bow  of  the  boat  just  turned  in  preparation  to  move 
from  the  shore,  at  that  instant  the  explosion  took  place.  The  whole  of 
the  vessel  forward  of  the  wheels  was  blown  to  splinters ;  every  timber 
{as  an  eye-witness  declares),  "appeared  to  be  twisted,  as  trees  some- 
times are,  when  struck  by  lightning."  As  soon  as  theaccident  occurred, 
the  boat  floated  down  the  stream  for  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  to 
two  hundred  yards,  where  she  sunk,  leaving  the  upper  part  of  the  cabin 
out  of  the  water  and  the  baggage,  together  with  many  struggling  hu- 
man beings,  floating  on  the  surface  of  the  river. 

It  was  remarked  that  the  explosion  was  unprecedented  in  the  history 
of  steam.  Its  effect  was  like  that  of  a  mine  of  gunpowder.  All  the 
boilers,  four  in  number,  burst  simultaneously ;  the  deck  was  blown  into 
the  air,  and  the  human  beings  who  crowded  it  were  doomed  to  instant 
destruction.  It  was  asserted  that  a  man,  believed  to  be  a  pilot,  was 
carried,  together  with  the  pilot-house,  to  the  Kentcky  shore,  a  distance 
of  a-  quarter  of  a  mile.  A  fragment  of  a  boiler  was  carried  by  the  explo- 
sion high  into  the  air,  and  descending  perpendicularly  about  fifty  yards 
from  the  boat,  it  crushed  through  a  strong  roof  and  through  the  second 
floor  of  a  building,  lodging  finally  on  the  ground  floor. 

Captain  Pernn,  master  of  the  Moselle,  at  the  time  of  the  accident 
was  standing  on  the  deck,  above  the  boiler,  in  conversation  with 
another  person.  He  was  thrown  to  a  considerable  height  on  the  steep 
embankment  of  the  river  and  killed,  while  his  companion  was  merely 
prostrated  on  the  deck,  and  escaped  without  injury.  Another  person 
was  blown  a  great  distance  into  the  air,  and  on  descending  he  fell  on  a 
roof  with  such  force  that  he  partially  broke  through  it,  and  his  body 
lodged  there.  Some  of  the  passengers  who  were  in  the  after-part  of  the 
boat,  and  who  were  uninjured  by  the  explosion,  jumped  overboard. 
An  eye-witness  says  that  he  saw  sixty  or  seventy  in  the  water  at  one 
time,  of  whom  comparatively  few  reached  the  shore.  There  were  after- 
ward the  mutilated  remains  of  nineteen  persons  buried  in  one  grave. 

It  happened,  unfortunately,  that  the  larger  number  of  the  passengers 
were  collected  on  the  upper  deck,  to  which  the  balmy  air  and  delicious 
weather  seemed  to  invite  them,  in  order  to  expose  them  to  more  certain 
destruction.  It  was  understood,  too,  that  the  captain  of  the  ill-fated 
steamer  had  expressed  his  determination  to  outstrip  an  opposition  boat 
which  had  just  started;  the  people  on  shore  were  cheering  the  Moselle, 
in  anticipatiou  of  her  success  in  the  race,  and  the  passengers  and  crew 
on  the  upper  deck  responded  to  these  acclamations,  which  were  soon 
changed  to  sounds  of  mourning  and  distress. 

Intelligence  of  the  awful  calamity  spread  rapidly  through  the  city; 
thousands  rushed  to  the  spot,  and  the  most  benevolent  aid  was  prompt- 
ly extended  to  the  sufferers,  or  rather  to  those  within  the  reach  of 
human  assistance,  for  the  majority  had  perished.  The  scene  here  was 
so  sad  and  distressing  that  no  language  can  depict  it  with  fidelity. 
Here  lay  twenty  or  thirty  mangled  and  still  bleeding  corpses,  while 
many  persons  were  engaged  in  dragging  others  of  the  dead  and 
wounded  from  the  wreck  or  the  water.  "But,"  says  an  eye-witness, 
"the  survivors  presented  the  most  touching  objects  of  distress,  as  their 
mental  anguish  seemed  more  insupportable  than  the  most  intense  bod- 
ily suffering.'' 

Death  had  torn  asunder  the  most  tender  ties;  but  the  rupture  had 
been  so  sudden  and  violent  that  none  knew  certainly  who  had  been 
taken  or  who  had  been  spared.  Fathers  were  distractedly  inquiring  for 
children,  children  for  parents,  husbands  and  wives  for  each  other.  One 
man  had  saved  a  son,  but  lost  a  wife  and  five  children.  A  father, 
partially  demented  by  grief,  lay  with  a  wounded  child  on  one  side,  his 
dead  daughter  on  the  other,  and  his  expiring  wife  at  his  feet.  One 
gentleman  sought  his  wife  and  children,  who  were  as  eagerly  seeking 
him  in  the  same  crowd.     They  met  and  were  reunited. 

A  female  deck  .passenger  who  had  been  saved  seemed  inconsolable  for 
the  loss  of  her  relatives.  Her  constant  exclamations  were,  "Oh!  my 
father!  my  mother!  mysisters!"  a  little  boy  about  five  years  old,  whose 
head  was  much  bruised,  appeared  to  be  regardless  of  his  wounds,  and 
cried  continually  for  a  lost  father,  while  another  lad,  a  little  older,  was 
weeping  for  a  whole  family.  One  venerable  man  wept  for  the  loss  of 
his  wife  and  five  children.    Another  was  bereft  of  his  whole  family,  con- 

sisting of  nine  persons.  A  touching  display  of  maternal  affection  was 
evinced  by  a  woman,  who,  on  being  brought  to  the  shore,  clasped  her 
hands  and  exclaimed,  "Thank  God,  I  am  safe!"  but  instantly  recollect- 
ing herself,  she  ejaculated  in  a  voice  of  piercing  agony,  "Where  is  my 
child  ? "  The  infant,  which  had  been  saved,  was  brought  to  her,  and 
she  fainted  at  the  sight  of  it. 

Many  of  the  passengers  who  entered  the  boat  at  Cincinnati  had  not 
registered  their  names,  but  the  lowest  estimated  number  of  persons  on 
board  was  two  hundred  and  eighty.  Of  these  eighty-one  were  known 
to  be  killed,  fifty-five  were  missing  and  thirteen  badly  wounded. 

On  the  day  after  the  accident  a  public  meeting  was  called  at  Cincinnati, 
at  which  the  mayor  presided,  when  the  facts  of  this  melancholy  occur- 
rence were  discussed,  and  among  other  resolutions  passed  was  one 
deprecating  the  great  and  increasing  carelessness  in  the  navigation  of 
steam  vessels  and  urging  this  subject  upon  the  consideration  of  Con- 

The  Moselle  was  built  at  Cincinnati,  and  she  reflected  great  credit 
on  the  mechanical  genius  of  that  city,  as  she  was  truly  a  superior  boat, 
and  under  more  favorable  auspices  might  have  been  the  pride  of  the 
waters  for  several  years.  She  was  new,  having  been  begun  the  previous 
December  and  finished  in  March,  only  a  month  before  the  time  of  her 

A  committee  was  appointed  at  the  meeting  of  citizens, 
to  report  upon  the  causes  of  the  disaster.  Dr.  Locke, 
Jacob  Strader,  Charles  Fox,  T.  J.  Matthews,  and  J. 
Perm,  formed  the  committee.  They  made  a  prolonged 
and  careful  examination,  and  published  a  report  in  a 
pamphlet  of  seventy-six  pages.  It  was  mainly  from  the 
pen  of  Dr.  Locke,  and  is  a  thoroughly  scientific  exposi- 
tion of  the  subject,  much  of  which  has  permanent  in- 
terest and  value. 

October  20th,  a  fire  occurred  on  McFarland  street, 
which  destroyed  two  or  three  small  buildings,  arid  took 
the  life  of  a  little  son  of  Mrs.  McComas,  aged  eight 
years.  The  citizens  subscribed  one  thousand  two  hun- 
dred and  seventy-nine  dollars  and  sixty-six  cents  the  next 
forenoon  for  the  relief  of  the  sufferers.  On  the  twenty- 
third  there  was  another  fire  on  Broadway,  between  Fourth 
and  Fifth,  destroying  cabinet  and  turners'  shops,  and  a 
bedstead  factory. 

The  semi-centennial  of  the  settlement  of  Cincinnati 
was  celebrated  in  good  style  this  year,  Dr.  Daniel  Drake 
delivering  the  oration.  The  invited  guests  included 
many  aged  Ohio  pioneers  of  1785-7-9,  and  other  years. 

The  first  fair  of  the  Ohio  Mechanics'  institute  was  held 
this  year  and  was  a  gratifying  success. 


January  3d,  the  city  buys  the  entire  rights  and  prop- 
erty of  the  Cincinnati  Water  Works  company  for  three 

hundred  thousand  dollars.  

iary  2 2d,  Robert  Wright  lost  an  arm  by  an  acci- 
dent in  cannon-firing  while  giving  a  salute  at  the  Public. 
Landing,  in  honor  of  Washington's  birthday. 

March  1st,  occurred  the  death  of  Morgan  Neville,  a 
prominent  citizen,  and  formerly  receiver  at  the  land 
office.  On  the  eighteenth  a  lad  named  Winship  was 
killed  in  a  menagerie  exhibiting  here,  by  an  uncaged 

June  10th,  the  first  superior  court  for  the  city  was 
organized,  with  David  K.  Este,  judge,  and  Daniel  Gano, 

December  9th,  died  the  well-known  pioneer  merchant, 
Colonel!  John  Bartle,  aged  ninety-five.  He  came  to 
Losantivillel  in  December,   1789.     General  Robert  Y. 



Lytle,  another  and  yet  more  eminent  resident  of  Cincin- 
nati, died  at  New  Orleans  on  the  twenty-first  of  this 

A  vigorous  attempt  was  made  this  year  to  suppress  the 
liquor-selling  coffee-houses  by  making  their  licenses 
practically  prohibitory;  but  it  was  evaded  by  the  propri- 
etors taking  out  tavern  licenses,  which  cost  but  twenty- 
five  dollars  and  gave  the,  recipients  one  more  day  in 
which  to  sell  liquors. 

The  population  of  the  city  in  1849  was  about  forty-two 
thousand  five  hundred;  number  of  new  buildings,  three 
hundred  and  ninety-four — two  hundred  and  eighty  brick, 
one  hundred  and  fourteen  frame.  Mortality  list,  one 
thousand  two  hundred  and  eighty-two,  or  one  in  thirty- 





The  official  census  this  year  exhibited  a  population  for 
Cincinnati  of  forty-six  thousand  three  hundred  and  thirty- 
eight,  an  increase  since  1830  of  eighty-five  per  cent. 
The  new  buildings  this  year  numbered  four  hundred  and 
six — brick  two  hundred  and  sixty  (in  the  seven  wards  re- 
spectively forty-seven,  seventeen,  thirty-one,  twelve,  sev- 
enty-six, thirty-three,  forty-four),  frame  one  hundred  and 
forty-six  (in  the  several  wards  in  order,  thirteen,  one, 
fourteen,  three,  forty-three,  eighteen  and  fifty-four).  The 
vote  of  the  year  was  six  thousand  three  hundred  and 
forty;  the  mortality  bills  one  thousand  three  hundred 
and  twenty-three,  of  whom  ninety-seven  were  strangers. 
They  being  deducted,  the  deaths  of  inhabitants  were 
only  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-nine,  or  one 
in  thirty-nine  of  the  population. 

April  3d,  deceased  Charles  Hammond,  a  leading  ed- 
itor, politician  and  lawyer  of  the  city,  and  one  of  the 
strongest  and  most  accomplished  men  the  place  ever 
had.  Further  notice  of  him  will  be  made  in  our  chap- 
ters on  the  bar  and  on  journalism. 

This  was  the  year  of  the  Harrison  campaign,  in  which, 
certainly,  Cincinnati,  Hamilton  county,  and  all  Ohio 
took  an  exceeding  interest.  The  warm  season  was  full 
of  excitement  in  the  Queen  City,  and  there  were  great 
rejoicings  when  her  favorite  son  was  declared  the  win- 
ner. The  state  of  the  campaign  in  this  region  and  along 
the  river  is  amusingly  illustrated  in  the  remarks  of  Mrs. 
Steele,  an  intelligent  eastern  traveller  hereaway  this  year, 
in  her  Summer  Journey  in  the  West: 

Sixteen  miles  below  Cincinnati  is  the  residence  of  General  Harrison, 
the  candidate  for  the  Presidency.  It  is  said  he  lived  in  a  log  cabin;  but 
it  was  a  neat  country  dwelling,  which,  however,  I  dimly  saw  by  moon- 
light. To  judge  from  what  we  have  seen  upon  the  road,  General  Har- 
rison will  carry  all  the  votes  of  the  west,  for  every  one  seems  enthusi- 
astic in  his  favor.  Log  cabins  were  erected  in  every  town,  and  a  small 
one  of  wicker-work-  stood  upon  nearly  all  the  steamboats.  At  the 
wood-yards  along  the  rivers  it  was  very  common  to  see-a  sign  bearing 

the  words,  "  Harrison  wood,"  "  Whig  wood, "  or  "Tippecanoe  wood," 
he  having  gained  a  battle  at  a  place  of  that  name.  The  western  States, 
indeed,  owe  him  a  debt  of  gratitude;  for  he  may  be  said  to  be  the 
cause,  under  Providence,  of  their  flourishing  condition.  He  subdued 
the  Indians,  laid  the  land  out  in  sections, -thus  opening  a  door  for  set- 
tlers, and,  in  fact,  deserves  the  name  given  him  of  "Father  of  the 

The  city  was  also  visited  this  year  by  the  much  trav- 
elled Englishman  and  voluminous  writer  of  his  travels, 
the  Rev.  J.  S.  Buckingham,  who  published  in  all  some 
nine  volumes  of  American  travel.  From  several  extracts 
relating  to  Cincinnati,  which  will  appear  in  different 
places  in  this  history,  we  select  the  following  for  inser- 
tion here : 

The  private  dwellings  of  Cincinnati  are  in  general  quite  as  large  and 
commodious  as  those  of  the  Atlantic  cities,  with  these  advantages,  that 
more  of  them  are  built  of  stone,  and  much  fewer  of  wood,  than  in  the 
older  settlements ;  a  greater  number  of  them  have  pretty  gardens,  rich 
grass-plats,  and  ornamental  shrubberies  and  flowers  surrounding  them, 
than  in  any  of  the  eastern  cities;  and,  though  there  is  not  the  same  os- 
tentatious display  in  the  furniture  of  the  private  dwellings  here,  which  is 
met  with  at  New  York  especially,  every  comfort  and  convenience, 
mixed  with  a  sufficient  degree  of  elegance,  is  found  in  all  the  residences 
of  the  upper  and  middle  classes;  and  it  may  be  doubted  whether  there 
is  any  city  in  the  Union  in  which  there  is  a  more  general  diffusion  of 
competency  in  means  and  comfort  in  enjoyments,  than  in  Cincinnati. 
The  stores  also  are  large,  well  filled,  and  many  of  them  as  elegant  in  ap- 
pearance and  as  well  supplied  with  English  and  French  articles  as  in 
the  largest  cities  on  the  coast,  though  somewhat  dearer,  of  course.  The 
hotels  ate  numerous  and  good,  and  boarding-houses  at  all  prices  abun- 
dant. The  Broadway  Hotel,  at  which  we  remained,  appeared  to  us 
one  of  the  cleanest  and  most  comfortable  we  had  seen  west  of  the  Alle- 

Mrs.  Steele's  Diary  of  a  Summer  Journey  in  the  West 
contains  the  following: 

Cincinnati,  July  19th. 
As  much  as  we  had  heard  of  Cincinnati,  we  were  astounded  at  its 
beauty  and  extent,  and  at  the  solidity  of  its  buildings.  It  well  merits 
the  name  bestowed  upon  it  here — Queen  of  the  West.  We  have  ex- 
plored it  thoroughly  by  riding  and  walking,  and  pronounce  it  a  wonder- 
ful city.  .  .  We  spent  the  morning  slowly  driving  up 
and  down  each  street,  along  the  Miami  canal,  and  in  the  environs  of 
the  city  in  every  direction,  and  were  quite  astonished — not  because  we 
had  never  seen  larger  and  finer  cities,  but  that  this  should  have  arisen  in 
what  was  so  lately  a  wilderness.  Its  date,  you  know,  is  only  thirty 
years  back  [!].  The  rows  of  stores  and  warehouses ;  the  extensive  and 
ornamented  dwellings;  the  thirty  churches,  many  of  them  very  hand- 
some, and  other  public  buildings,  excited  our  surprise.  Main  street  is 
the  principal  business  mart.  While  in  the  centre  of  this  street,  we 
mark  it  for  a  mile  ascending  the  slope  upon  which  the  town  is  built,  and 
in  front  it  seems  interminable;  for,  the  river  being  low,  we  do  not 
observe  we  are  looking  across  it  to  the  street  of  the  opposite  city  of 
Covington,  until  a  steamboat  passing,  tells  us  where  the  city  ends. 
Broadway  is  another  main  artery  of  this  city — not,  however,  devoted 
to  business,  but  bounded  upon  each  side  by  rows  of  handsome  dwellings. 
Third,  Fourth,  Seventh,  Vine,  and  many  other  streets,  show  private 
houses  not  surpassed  by  any  city  we  had  visited.  They  are  generally  ex- 
tensive and  surrounded  by  gardens,  and  almost  concealed  from  view  of 
the  passers  by  groves  of  shade-trees  and  ornamental  shrubbery;  An 
accidental  opening  among  the  trees  shows  you  a  glimpse  of  a  piazza  or 
pavilion,  where,  among  groves  and  gardens,  the  air  may  be  enjoyed  by 
the  children  or  ladies  of  the  family. 


The  publication  of  the  first  of  Mr.  Charles  Cist's  valuable 
series  of  volumes  on  Cincinnati  occurred  this  year,  and 
from  it  a  fully  sketched  picture  of  the  city  at  this  time  may 
be  made  up.  The  buildings  were  now  largely  brick,  espe- 
cially in  the  central  and  business  parts.  Dwellings  and 
warehouses  were  not  only  greater  in  number,  but  "greatly 
superior  to  those  previously  erected  in  value,  elegance, 
and  convenience."    Its  population,  numbering  about  fifty 



thousand  people  of  all  ages,  included  four  hundred  and 
thirty-four  professional  men,  two  thousand  two  hundred 
and  twenty-six  of  the  mercantile  classes,  ten  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  sixty-six  mechanics  in  seventy-seven 
different  trades,  and  one  thousand  and  twenty-five  agents, 
bar-keepers,  hotel-keepers,  and  the  like.  The  capital 
invested  in  commerce  was  estimated  at  five  million 
two  hundred  thousand  dollars,  and  in  merchandize, 
twelve  million  eight  hundred  and  seventy-seven  thou- 
sand dollars.  There  w£re  twenty-three  lumber-yards, 
with  one  hundred  and  thirty-three  thousand  dollars  capi- 
tal and  sales  in  1840  amounting  to  three  hundred  and 
forty-two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  There  were 
eight  banks,  with  an  aggregate  capital  of  more  than  six 
millions.  The  Miami  canal  was  now  in  operation  to 
Piqua,  and  the  extension  was  completed  eighty  miles  be- 
yond Dayton  and  was  making  rapid  progress  toward  De- 
fiance, at  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee.  For  two  years  it 
had  paid  more  than  the  annual  interest  upon  the  debt  in- 
curred in  its  construction,  which  was  considered  "the 
highest  evidence  of  its  utility.''  The  vast  water-power 
which  it  had  brought  to  the  city  was  mostly  in  use.  The 
Whitewater  canal  was  nearly  finished.  An  improvement 
in  the  Licking,  being  made  at  Kentucky's  expense,  was 
expected  to  bring  benefits  to  Cincinnati.  A  steam  packet 
was  to  be  immediately  put  on  the  river.  The  Little  Mi- 
ami railroad  was  completed  for  about  thirty-five  miles  out, 
and  more  was  under  contract.  Turnpike  improvements 
had  been  steadily  extended.  The  Charleston  or  South- 
ern railroad  scheme  was  still  held  in  abeyance  by  the  op- 
position of  Kentucky,  and  the  depression  in  the  moneyed 
world.  The  exports  on  the  Miami  canal  had  increased 
from  eight  thousand  five  hundred  and  seven  dollars  and 
sixty-nine  cents  in  1828  to  seventy-four  thousand  three 
hundred  and  twenty  dollars  and  ninety-nine  cents  in 
1840.  The  city  had  one  German  and  six  English  daily 
papers,  with  a  large  number  of  tri-weeklies,  weeklies,  and 
monthlies.  There  were  forty-six  churches,  including  two 
synagogues,  and  a  large  number  of  benevolent  and  char- 
itable societies  and  institutions,  on  both  public  and 
private  foundations.  Science  and  literature,  education, 
music,  and  other  of  the  higher  interests,  were  all  em- 
bodied in  organizations  and  institutions  existing  here. 
The  fire  and  water  service  of  the  city  had  been  greatly 
improved.  The  city  had  been  made  a  port  of  entry. 
It  had  now  sixty  weekly  mails,  and  the  revenue  of  the 
post  office  in  1840  had  been  forty-nine  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  fifteen  dollars  and  thirteen  cents. 
/The  city  is  described  by  Mr.  Cist  as  still  "almost  in 
tne-eastern  extreme  of  a  valley  about  twelve  miles  in  cir- 
cumference, perhaps  the  most  delightful  and  extensive  on 
the  borders  of  Ohio."  )  With  the  adjacent  parts  of  Mill 
creek  and  Fulton  towmShips,  and  Newport  and  Coving- 
ton, the  total  population  of  Cincinnati  and  suburbs  was 
reckoned  at  sixty  thousand.  The  Germans  in  the  city 
now  numbered  fourteen  thousand  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
three — three  thousand  six  hundred  and  thirty  in  the  First, 
one  thousand  one  hundred  and  thirty-seven  in  the  Sec- 
ond, one  thousand  nine  hundred  and  twelve  in  the  Third, 
nine  hundred  and  ninety-six  in  the  Fourth,  four  thousand 

three  hundred  and  twenty  in  the  Fifth,  six  hundred  and 
ninety-five  in  the  Sixth,  and  one  thousanrLfour  hundred 
and  seventy-three  in  the  Seventh  ward.  (The  American 
population  was  fifty-four  per  cent.,  German  twenty-eight, 
British  sixteen,  French  and  Italian  one,^pd  all  others 
one  per  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population/  About  six 
thousand  eight  hundred  children  were  being  educated  in 
the  public  and  private  schools. 

Great  improvements  were  expected — among  them  not 
less  than  five  hundred  dwellings  and  warehouses  to  go  up 
during  the  year,  including  a  larger  proportion  of  ware- 
houses than  usual.  Several  blocks  and  single  buildings 
for  stores  were  going  up  in  March  of  this  year.  The 
number  of  new  structures  for  the  twelve  months  was 
afterwards  reported  at  four  hundred  and  sixty-two.  The 
present  St.  Peter's  cathedral,  on  the  corner  of  Eighth  and 
Plum  streets,  was  about  erecting,  and  was  finished  in 
1844.  (7*0 ver  the  Rhine"  was  developing  rapidly,  and  a 
new  German  Catholic  church  on  Main,  beyond  the 
canal,  was  to  be  built  shortly.  About  three-fourths  of 
the  Germans  in  those  days  were  said  to  be  Roman  Cath- 
olics.    ] 

Thff'use  of  coal  for  fuel  was  becoming  quite  general; 
nine  hundred  and  thirty  thousand  bushels  had  been  sold 
the  previous  year,  and  a  sale  of  more  than  two  millions 
was1  expected  for  1841. 

[Mr.  Cist  finally  "  ventured  the  prediction  that  within 
one  hundred  years  Cincinnati  would  be  the  greatest  city 
in  America,  and  by  the  year  a.  d.  2,000  the  greatest  city 
in  the  world"  jn 

During  the^early  part  of  this  year  General  Harrison, 
the  elect  of  the  people,  as  well  as  of  the  Electoral  College, 
by  a  tremendous  majority,  made  his  way  to  Washington, 
to  assume  the  duties  of  Chief  Magistrate  of  the  Nation. 
Judge  Joseph  Cox,  in  an  address  to  the  Cinciunati  Liter- 
ary club,  February  4,  1871,  on  General  William  H.  Har- 
rison at  North  Bend,  has  thus  sketched  the  farewell : 

The -scene  of  his  departure  was  most  affecting.  Old  men  who  had 
shared  with  him  the  toils  of  the  campaigns  among  the  Indians,  their 
wives  and  children,  his  old  neighbors,  the  poor,  of  whom  there  were 
many  who  had  shared  his  bounty,  gathered  to  witness  his  departure, 
cheering  for  his  triumph  while  their  cheeks  were  wet  with  tears.  The 
boat  on  which  he  was  to  pass  up  the  river  lay  at  the  foot  of  Broadway, 
in  Cincinnati.  The  wharves,  streets,  and  every  surrounding  vessel  and 
house  were  filled  with  spectators.  Standing  on  the  deck  of  the  steamer, 
with  a  clear,  ringing  voice  he  recalled  to  the  mind  of  the  people  that 
forty-eight  years  before  he  had  landed  on  that  spot  a  poor,  unfriended 
boy  in  almost  an  unbroken  wilderness  to  join  his  fortunes  with  theirs, 
and  that  now,  by  the  voice  of  a  majority  of  the  seventeen  millions  of 
people  of  this  free  land,  he  was  about  to  leave  them  to  assume  the  Chief 
Magistracy  of  the  greatest  Nation  of  the  earth.  He  assured  them  that 
he  was  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  people,  and  although  this  might 
be  the  last  time  he  would  look  upon  them,  they  would  find  him  in  the 
future  true  to  the  old  history  of  the  past.  Prophetic  vision !  Never- 
more was  it  given  to  him  to  look  on  the  faces  of  those  who  this  day 
cheered  him  on  to  his  high  goal.  Before  visiting  Washington,  he  went 
to  the  old  homestead  on  the  James  river,  and  there,  in  the  room  of 
his  mother  (then  dead  many  years),  composed  his  inaugural  address  as 

Less  than  six  months  had  gone,  when  the  old  hero 
came  back,  but  in  his  coffin.  Acclamations  were  ex- 
changed for  sobs  and  sighs ;  tears  of  joy  for  tears  of 
deepest  grief.     Judge  Cox  then  depicts^  the  final  scenes  : 

The  funeral  services  took  place  at  the  White  House,  after  which  the 



body,  accompanied  by  a  large  civic  and  military  procession,  was  taken 
to  the  Congressional  burying  ground  and  deposited  in  the  receiving 
vault,  to  await  the  arrangements  of  his  family.  The  nation  was 
shrouded  in  mourning,  and  the  ensuing  sixteenth  of  May  was  set  apart 
as  a  day  of  fasting  and  prayer,  upon  which,  in  nearly  every  town  and 
city,  the  people  met  in  honor  of  the  illustrious  dead. 

In  the  meantime  preparations  had  been  made  to  inter  the  remains  on 
a  beautiful  hill  just  west  of  his  home  at  North  Bend,  and  under  the 
guidance  of  committees  of  Congress  and  of  the  principal  cities  of  the 
country,  they  were,  in  July,  1841,  escorted  from  Washington.  Arriving 
in  Cincinnati,  the  body  lay  in  state  at  the  house  of  his  son-in-law,  Col- 
onel W.  H.  H.  Taylor,  on  the  north  side  of  Sixth  street,  just  east  of 
Lodge,  and  was  visited  by  thousands  of  his  old  friends  and  fellow  citi- 
zens. It  was  then,  after  suitable  religious  services,  placed  on  a  bier  on 
the  sidewalk,  and  the  citizens  and  military  filed  past  it.  The  funeral 
procession,  under  charge  of  George  Graham,  esq.,  still  living,  then 
marched  to  the  river;  the  corpse  was  placed  on  a  magnificent  catafalque 
on  board  a  steamer,  which,  with  two  others  lashed  side  by  side  and 
loaded  with  mourners,  slowly,  with  solemn  dirges  and  tolling  belts, 
moved  to  North  Bend.  Arriving  there,  a  long  procession  followed  the 
remains  to  the  summit  of  the  mound,  where  they  were  deposited  in  the 
vault,  beneath  a  low-built  structure  covered  with  turf.  There  have  they 
lain  for  nearly  thirty  [now  forty]  years. 

No  marble  rears  its  head  to  mark 

The  honored  hero's  dust; 
Nor  glittering  spire,  nor  cenotaph, 

Nor  monumental  bust. 
But  on  the  spot  his  manhood  loved 

His  aged  form's  at  rest; 
And  he  built  his  own  proud  monument 

Within  a  nation's  breast. 

June  1 6th  an  ordinance  was  passed  granting  to  James 
F.  Conover  and  J.  H.  Caldwell  the  right  to  supply  gas  to 
the_city  for  the  period  of  twenty-five  years. 

In  September  another  anti-negro  mob  made  a  terrible 
disturbance,  originating  in  an  affray  at  the  corner  of 
Broadway  and  Sixth  street,  between  some  Irish  and  a 
party  of  negroes,  several  nights  before.  There  were 
thenceforth  fights  every  night,  in  that  part  of  the  city,  be- 
tween the  whites  and  the  blacks,  until  early  Friday  even- 
ing, when  a  mob,  composed  largely  of  river-men  and 
roughs  from  Kentucky,  gathered  at  the  Fifth  street  mar- 
ket-space, now  the  Esplanade,  and  marched  thence  to  a 
negro  confectioner's  shop  on  Broadway,  next  the  syna- 
gogue, where  they  smashed  the  front  of  it,  but  were 
presently  met  and  sharply  engaged  by  the  negroes  with 
fire-arms.  Many  were  wounded  on  both  sides.  The 
mob  was  addressed  by  the  mayor  and  Mr.  John  H.  Piatt, 
but  without  avail.  About  one  o'clock  that  night  the  mob 
gained  possession  of  a  six-pound  cannon  from  some 
place  near  the  river,  loaded  it  with  boiler  punchings  and 
other  missiles,  took  it  to  the  negro  quarter,  and  fired  it 
several  times,  but  without  doing  much  damage.  It  was 
stationed  on  Broadway,  and  fired  down  Sixth  street. 
Many  of  the  negroes  became  considerably  alarmed  at 
this  demonstration,  and  incontinently  fled  to  the  hills. 
In  about  an  hour  the  military,  which  had  been  called  out 
by  the  mayor,  appeared  on  the  scene  and  kept  the  mob 
at  bay.  Through  the  next  day,  however,  and  until  three 
o'clock  Sunday  morning,  the  mob  held  its  front  and  de- 
fied its  opponents.  The  citizens  held  a  meeting  Satur- 
day morning,  and  passed  facing-both-ways  resolutions 
against  mobs  and  Abolitionists.  The  city  council  held  a 
special  meeting  to  consider  the  situation;  and  the  ne- 
groes had  another  meeting  in  a  church,  where  they  ex- 
pressed their  willingness  to  abide  by  the  laws  of  1807 — 
give  bonds  as  required  by  that  act,  or  leave  the  State. 

About  three  in  the  afternoon  the  mayor,  marshal,  po- 
lice, and  others  went  to  the  theatre  of  still-  threatened 
conflict,  and  marched  off  two  to  three  hundred  negroes 
to  jail  for  safe-keeping.  The  mob,  however,  recom- 
menced its  violence  early,  and  at  different  points.  The 
Philanthropist  office  was  again  sacked,  and  a  number  of 
houses  inhabited  by  negroes  and  the  negro  church  on 
Sixth  street  were  partially  destroyed  and  rifled  of  their 
contents.  An  attempt  was  made  to  fire  the  book  estab- 
lishment of  Truman  &  Smith,  on  Main  street,  which  was 
for  some  reason  obnoxious  to  the  roughs.  Before  morning, 
however,  the  mob,  not  receiving  fresh  accessions,  stopped 
its  violence,  and  dispersed  through  sheer  exhaustion. 
Several  men  were  killed  in  the  progress  of  the  affair,  and 
twenty  or  thirty  wounded,  a  few  of  them  dangerously. 
About  forty  of  the  mob  were  arrested.  The  affair  as- 
sumed importance  enough  to  cause  the  issue  of  a  procla- 
mation by  the  governor.  That  night  the  military  turned 
out  in  force,  including  a  troop  of  horse  and  several  foot 
companies,  with  the  firemen  acting  under  authority  as 
police,  and  eighty  citizens  who  had  volunteered  to  sup- 
port the  officers  of  the  law. 

In  October  the  Western  Methodist  Anti-Slavery  con- 
vention assembled  at  Cincinnati.  It  actually  could  not 
then  find  a  meeting-house  of  its  own  denomination  open 
to  it,  but  found  a  hospitable  reception  in  a  Baptist  church. 
Hon.  Samuel  Lewis  was  chairman  of  this  meeting.  Fif- 
teen years  afterwards  the  feeling  had  so  changed  that  one 
of  the  largest  Methodist  churches  of  the  city  was  used 
for  a  great  and  enthusiastic  Republican  meeting,  assem- 
bled to  promote  the  election  of  General  Fremont. 


One  of  the  chief  events  of  this  year  was  the  arrival 
from  Pittsburgh  of  the  young  but  already  celebrated 
English  novelist,  Charles  Dickens,  with  his  wife.  They 
staid  but  a  short  time,  and  then  embarked  on  the  steamer 
Pike,  for  Louisville,  stopping  here  also  for  a  day  on  his 
return.  He  gave  Cincinnati  a  chapter  in  his  American 
Notes,  and  treated  it  much  more  fairly  than  some  other 
places  alleged  themselves  to  have  been  treated.  We  ex- 
tract the  following: 

Monday,  April  4,  1842. 

When  the  morning  sun  shines  again,  it  gilds  the  house-tops  of  a  lively 
city,  before  whose  broad,  paved  wharf  the  boat  is  moored ;  with  other 
boats,  and  flags  and  moving  wheels  and  hum  of  men  around  it ;  as 
though  there  were  not  a  solitary  or  silent  rood  of  ground  within  the 
compass  of  a  thousand  miles  around. 

Cincinnati  is  a  beautiful  city ;  cheerful,  thriving,  and  animated.  I 
have  not  often  seen  a  place  that  commends  itself  so  favorably  and  pleas, 
antly  to  a  stranger  at  the  first  glance  as  this  does,  with  its  clean  houses 
of  red  and  white,  its  well-paved  roads  and  footways  of  bright  tile.  Nor 
does  it  become  less  prepossessing  on  a  closer  acquaintance.  The 
streets  are  broad  and  airy,  the  shops  extremely  good,  the  private  resi- 
dences remarkable  for  their  elegance  and  neatness.  There  is  some- 
thing of  invention  and  fancy  in  the  varying  styles  of  these  latter 
erections,  which,  after  the  dull  company  of  the  steamboat,  is  perfectly 
delightful,  as  conveying  an  assurance  that  there  are  such  qualities  still 
in  existence.  The  disposition  to  ornament  these  pretty  villas  and  ren- 
der them  attractive  leads  to  the  culture  of  trees  and  flowers,  and  the 
laying-out  of  well  kept  gardens,  the  sight  of  which,  to  those  who  walk 
along  the  streets,  is  inexpressibly  refreshing  and  agreeable.  I  was 
quite  charmed  with  the  appearance  of  the  town  and  its  adjoining  sub- 
urb of  Mount  Auburn,  from  which  the  city,  lying  in  an  amphitheatre  of 
hills,  forms  a  picture  of  remarkable  beauty  and  is  seen  to  great  advan- 



There  happened  to  be  a  great  temperance  convention  held  here  on 
the  day  after  our  arrival ;  and  as  the  order  of  march  brought  the  pro- 
cession under  the  windows  of  the  hotel  in  which  we  lodged,  when  they 
started  in  the  morning,  I  had  a  good  opportunity  of  seeing  it.  It  com- 
prised several  thousand  men,  the  members  of  various  "Washington 
Auxiliary  Temperance  Societies,"  and  was  marshaled  by  officers  on 
horseback,  who  cantered  briskly  up  and  down  the  line,  with  scarves  and 
ribands  of  bright  colors  fluttering  out  behind  them  gaily.  There  were 
bands  of  music,  too,  and  banners  out  of  number ;  and  it  was  a  fresh, 
holiday  looking  concourse  altogether. 

I  was  particularly  pleased  to  see  the  Irishmen,  who  formed  a  distinct 
society  among  themselves,  carrying  their  national  Harp  and  their  por- 
trait of  Father  Mathew  high  above  the  people's  heads.  They  looked 
as  jolly  and  good-humored  as  ever ;  and,  working  the  hardest  for  their 
living,  and  doing  any  kind  of  sturdy  labor  that  came  in  their  way,  were 
the  most  independent  fellows  there,  I  thought. 

The  banners  were  very  well  painted,  and  flaunted  down  the  street  fa- 
mously. There  was  the  smiting  of  the  rock  and  the  gushing  forth  of 
the  waters ;  and  there  was  a.  temperate  man  with  a  considerable  of  a 
hatchet  (as"  the  standard-bearer  would  probably  have  said)  aiming  a 
deadly  blow  at  a  serpent  which  was  apparently  about  to  spring  upon 
him  from  the  top  of  a  barrel  of  spirits.  But  the  chief  feature  of  this 
part  of  the  show  was  a  huge  allegorical  device,  borne  among  the  ship- 
carpenters,  on  one  side  whereof  the  steamboat  Alcohol  was  represented 
bursting  her  boiler  and  exploding  with  a  great  crash,  while  upon  the 
other  the  good  ship  Temperance  sailed  away  with  a  fair  wind;  to  the 
heart's  content  of  the  captain,  crew,  and  passengers. 

After  going  round  the  town,  the  procession  repaired  to  a  certain  ap- 
pointed place,  where,  as  the  printed  programme  set  forth,  it  would  be 
received  by  the  children  of  the  different  free  schools,  "singing  temper- 
ance songs."  I  was  prevented  from  getting  there  in  time  to  hear  these 
little  warblers,  or  to  report  upon  this  novel  kind  of  vocal  entertainment 
— novel,  at  least,  to  me ;  but  I  found,  in  a  large  open  space,  each  soci- 
ety gathered  round  its  own  banners  and  listening  in  silent  attention  to 
its  own  orator.  The  speeches,  judging  from  the  little  I  could  hear  of 
them,  were  certainly  adapted  to  the  occasion,  as  having  that  degree  of 
relationship  to  cold  water  which  wet  blankets  may  claim  ;  but  the  main 
thing  was  the  conduct  and  appearance  of  the  audience  throughout  the 
day,  and  that  was  admirable  and  full  of  promise. 

Cincinnati  is  honorably  famous  for  its  free  schools,  of  which  it  has  so 
many  that  no  person's  child  among  its  population  can,  by  possibility, 
want  the  means  of  education,  which  are  extended,  upon  an  average,  to 
four  thousand  pupils  annually,  I  was  only  present  in  one  of  these  es- 
tablishments during  the  hours  of  instruction.  In  the  boys'  department, 
which, was  full  of  little  urchins  (varying  in  their  ages,  I  should  say,  from 
six  years  old  to  ten  or  twelve),  the  master  offered  to  institute  an  extem- 
porary examination  of  the  pupils  in  algebra — a  proposal  which,  as  I 
was  by  no  means  confident  of  my  ability  to  detect  mistakes  in  that 
science,  I  declined  with  some  alarm.  In  the  girls'  school  reading  was 
proposed,  and  as  I  felt  tolerably  equal  to  that  art,  I  expressed  my  will- 
ingness to  hear  a  class.  Books  were  distributed  accordingly,  and  some 
half-dozen  girls  relieved  each  other  in  reading  paragraphs  in  English 
history.  But  it  was  a  dry  compilation,  infinitely  above  their  powers; 
and  when  they  had  blundered  through  three  or  four  dreary  passages 
concerning  the  Treaty  of  Amiens  and  other  thrilling  topics  of  the  same 
nature  (obviously  without  comprehending  ten  words),  I  expressed  my- 
self quite  satisfied.  It  is  very  possible  that  they  only  mounted  to  this 
extreme  stave  in  the  ladder  of  learning  for  the  astonishment  of  a  visitor, 
and  that  at  other  times  they  keep  upon  its  lower  rounds ;  but  I  should 
have  been  much  better  pleased  and  satisfied  if  I  had  heard  them  exer- 
cised in  simpler  lessons,  which  they  understood. 

As  in  every  other  place  I  visited,  the  judges  here  were  gentlemen  of 
high  character  and  attainments.  I  was  in  one  of  the  courts  for  a  few 
minutes,  and  found  it  like  those  to  which  I  have  already  referred.  A 
nuisance  cause  was  trying;  there  were  not  many  spectators ;  and  the 
witness,  counsel,  and  jury  formed  a  sort  of  family  circle,  sufficiently  jo- 
cose and  snug. 

The  society  with  which  I  mingled  was  intelligent,  courteous,  and 
agreeable.  The  inhabitants  of  Cincinnati  are  proud  of  their  city,  as  one 
of  the  most  interesting  in  America,  and  with  reason;  for,  beautiful  and 
thriving  as  it  is  now,  and  containing,  as  it  does,  a  population  of  fifty 
thousand  souls,  but  two  and  fifty  years  have  passed  away  since  the 
ground  on  which  it  stands  (bought  at  that  time  for  a  few  dollars),  was 
a  wildwood  and  its  citizens  were  but  a  handful  of  dwellers  in  scattered 
log  huts  upon  the  river's  shore. 

Another  bank  mob  occurred  in  the  city  on  the  first  of 

November,  caused  by  the  suspension  of  the  Bank  of 
Cincinnati  and  the  Miami  Exporting  company's  bank. 
Some  movable  property,  books,  and  papers,  were  reached 
and  destroyed,  and  a  demonstration  was  also  made 
against  two  exchange  offices;  but  the  City  Guard,  under 
command  of  the  astronomer,  Captain  O.  M.  Mitchel, 
were  defending  the  banks,  and  after  they  had  fired  a  vol- 
ley or  two  on  the  mob,  wounding  several,  the  crowd  dis- 
persed and  did  no  further  damage. 

The  number  of  new  buildings  erected  this  year  was 
five  hundred  and  thirty-seven. 


Mr.  Cist  notes  this  year  as  an  era  in  the  political  ex- 
istence of  Cincinnati,  as  having  two  natives  of  the  county 
rival  candidates  for  the  office  of  Mayor  at  the  spring 
election — Messrs.  Henry  E.  Spencer  and  Henry  Morse 
— which  was  certainly  a  very  interesting  circumstance, 
but  was  paralleled  in  1845,  when  the  same  two  were 
again  candidates  for  the  office. 

February  28th  a  disastrous  fire  and  explosion  occurred 
in  Pugh  &  Alvord's  pork-packing  establishment,  which 
killed  eight  persons  and  wounded  fourteen,  among  them 
several  prominent  citizens. 

November  2d,  the  first  number  of  the  Cincinnati  Com- 
mercial was  issued,  by  Messrs.  Curtiss  &  Hastings.  On 
the  twenty-eighth  the  Whitewater  canal  was  opened. 

December  2 2d,  S.  S.  Davies,  ex-mayor  of  the  city,  de- 
parted this  life. 

Number  of  new  buildings  this  year,  six  hundred  and 


This  year  was  comparatively  devoid  of  events,  save 
the  inevitable  quadrennial  excitement  of  the  Presidential 
election.  On  the  twenty-seventh  of  April  the  first 
ground  was  bought  for  Spring  Grove  cemetery.  The 
eighth  of  October  marked  the  advent  of  Millerism,  of 
which  an  interesting  account  will  be  found  in  our  chap- 
ter on  Religion  in  Cincinnati.  The  first,  and  long  the 
only  cotton  factory  in  the  city,  was  erected  this  year  by 
Messrs.  Samuel  Fosdick,  Anthony  Harkness,  and  Jacob 

During  the  summer  and  fall  of  this  year,  Mr.  Charles 
Cist  pursued  his  favorite  occupation  of  enumerating  the 
buildings,  of  the  city,  the  results  of  which  he  published 
in  his  Miscellany.  He  found  in  the  First  ward  fifteen 
public  buildings  (including  the  post  office,  a  theatre,  and 
the  unfinished  observatory),  and  one  hundred  and  twenty 
dwellings,  shops,  storehouses,  mills,  and  offices — total 
seven  hundred  and  thirty-five — five  hundred  and  fifty- 
one  of  brick  and  one  hundred  and  eighty-four  frames. 
Eighty-two  had  been  built  in  1844,  against  twenty-six  the 
previous  year.  The  Second  ward  showed  up  twenty-two 
public  buildings  and  one  thousand  and  thirty-nine  dwel- 
ings,  etc., — eight  hundred  and  twenty-five  brick  and  two 
hundred  and  fourteen  frame.  One  hundred  and  two  of 
these  had  been  put  up  within  the  year.  The  Third  ward 
contained  but  six  public  edifices,  but  had  one  thousand 
one  hundred  and  sixty-two  private  buildings — two  of 
stone,   four  hundred   and  thirty-four  frame,  and  seven 



hundred  and  twenty  brick.  Some  of  the  new  structures, 
one  hundred  and  seventeen  in  number,  are  described  as 
of  great  extent  and  height.     Mr.  Cist  says : 

The  Third  ward  is  the  great  hive  of  Cincinnati  industry,  especially 
in  the  manufacturing  line.  Planing  machines,  iron  foundries,  brewer- 
ies, saw-mills,  rolling-mills,  finishing  shops,  bell  and  brass  foundries, 
boiler  yards,  boat  building,  machine  shops,  etc.,  constitute  an  exten- 
sive share  of  its  business. 

The  Fourth  ward,  also  embracing  a  large  share  of  the 
heavy  business  of  the  city,  now  had  four  buildings  of  a 
public  character  and  one  thousand  two  hundred  and 
seven  others — four  stone,  six  hundred  and  fifty-two 
brick,  and  five  hundred  and  fifty-one  frames — one  hun- 
dred and  seventeen  built  the  same  year.  Fifth  ward — 
public  buildings,  thirteen;  private,  one  thousand  five  hun- 
dred and  fifty-two;  brick,  eight  hundred  and  twenty-five; 
frame,  seven  hundred  and  twenty-seven ;  built  this  year, 
one  hundred  and  seventy-six.  Sixth — public  structures, 
ten;  private,  one  thousand  and  fifty-three;  built  in  1844 
(seventy-nine  less  than  in  1843),  one  hundred  and  seven- 
teen; brick,  four  hundred  and  ninety-five;  frame,  five 
hundred  and  sixty-eight.  Several  improvements  of  a  su- 
perior character  are  noted.  Seventh — twelve  public  build- 
ings, one  thousand  two  hundred  and  ninety-nine  private — 
six  hundred  and  ten  brick,  seven  hundred  and  one  frames; 
two  hundred  and  nineteen  built  this  year.  The  great  edi- 
fice going  up,  as  it  had  been  for  four  years,  was  the  Roman 
Catholic  cathedral,  on  Plum  street.  Eighth — seven  pub- 
lic and  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty-seven  private 
structures — four  hundred  and  three  brick,  seven  hundred 
and  sixty-one  frame ;  built  during  the  year,  two  hundred 
and  twenty-six.  "A  great  number  of  fine  dwellings  of 
brick''  are  noted  as  among  the  new  improvements.  Ninth 
— fourteen  public  and  one  thousand  one  hundred  and 
ninety-eight  private  buildings;  new  ones,  eighty-two; 
brick,  four  hundred  and  seventy-eight ;  frame,  seven  hun- 
dred and  thirty-two;  stone,  two.  The  total  number  of 
buildings  in  the  city  was  ten  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
seventy-three,  an  increase  of  one  thousand  two  hundred 
and  twenty-eight  over  the  previous  year.  It  was  also 
thought  that  as  many  as  five  hundred  new  buildings  had 
been  put  up  during  the  year  in  the  district  between  the 
corporation  line  and  the  base  of  the  hills  on  the  north. 

Many  familiar  old  buildings  disappeared  this  year — 
among  them  Fairchild's  corner,  on  Main  and  Front, 
which  was  a  quarter  of  a  century  old ;  Elsenlock's  comer, 
on  Walnut  and  Front,  which  was  one  of  the  earliest  en- 
closed lots  of  Losantiville,  and  the  building  upon  it  the 
favorite  resort  of  the  "United  Democracy;"  also,  east  of 
Main,  above  Fifth,  an  old  white  frame  building,  put  up 
in  the  days  of  Fort  Washington,  and  Andrew's  Buck's  ho- 
tel, once  a  fashionable  resort.  Looking  from  the  corner 
of  Main  and  Fifth,  all  buildings  of  a  quarter  of  a  century 
before,  within  the  view,  had  disappeared. 

A  classification  made  of  citizens  this  year,  according 
to  their  pecuniary  ability,  developed  the  fact  that  there 
was  only  one  man  (Nicholas  Longworth)  worth  over  five 
hundred  thousand  dollars;  six  were  worth  two  hundred 
thousand  to  four  hundred  thousand  dollars;  twenty-six 
one  hundred  thousand  to  two  hundred  thousand  dollars; 
forty-three  fifty  thousand*to  one  hundred  thousand  dol- 

lars; fifty-six  thirty  thousand  to  fifty  thousand  dollars; 
seventy-three  twenty  to  thirty  thousand  dollars;  eighty- 
two  fifteen  thousand  to  twenty  thousand  dollars;  one 
hundred  and  eighteen  ten  thousand  to  fifteen  thousand 
dollars;  four  hundred  and  twenty-three  five  to  ten  thqu- 
sartd  dollars;  six  hundred  and  forty-five  two  thousand 
five  hundred  to  five  thousand  dollars;  eight  hundred  and 
twenty-six  one  thousand  five  hundred  to  two  thousand 
five  hundred  dollars;  and  thirteen  hundred  and  thirteen 
under  one  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  the  sale  of  eight  squares  in  the  business  part 
of  the  city  would  more  than  pay  all  the  bank  debts  then 
due  by  her  business  men. 


The  population  of  the  city  this  year  had  grown  to  seven- 
ty^four  thousand  six  hundred  and  ninety-nine — an  in- 
crease of  twenty-eighf  thousand  three  hundred  and  sev- 
enteen, or  sixty-one  per  cent.,  in  five  years.  The  increase 
was  to  be  yet  more  remarkable  during  the  five  years  to 
come.))  The  number  of  new  buildings  was  one  thousand 
two  hundred  and  fifty-two — seven  hundred  and  eighty- 
nine  brick,  four  hundred  and  sixty-three  frame.  The 
total  number  of  buildings  in  the  city  was  eleven  thousand 
five  hundred  and  sixty,  exclusive  of  stables  and  the  like. 
Among  the  finer  structures  in  the  course  of  erection  this 
year  were  the  Cincinnati  college,  the  Masonic  and  Odd 
Fellows'  halls,  the  College  of  Dental  Surgery,  two  Ro- 
man Catholic,  two  Presbyterian,  four  Methodist,  one 
Welsh,  and  two  Disciple  churches.  The  building  of  the 
college,  on  Walnut  street,  between  Fourth  and  Fifth, 
where  its  successor  now  stands,  had  been  burned  on  the 
nineteenth  of  January,  and  a  more  spacious  and  elegant 
structure  was  now  going  up. 

In  May  of  this  year  Mr.  Cist  thus  notes  in  his  Miscel- 
lany  some  interesting  facts  relating  to  the  trend  of  the 
Dusiness  interests  of  the  city: 

r  |The  increase  of  business  in  Cincinnati  compels  it  to  radiate  from  its 
former  centres.  Blocks  of  business  stands  are  forming  east,  west  and 
north  of  the  existing  commercial  regions.)  Thus  some  thirty  large 
ware-  and  store-houses  have  been  or  are  just  about  to  be  erected  on 
Walnut,  between  Water  and  Second  streets.  (Commerce  is  finding  vent 
down  Second,  Third  and  J'ront  streets  to  the  west,  and  up  Second  and 
Third  streets  to  the  east.1  That  fine  block  known  by  the  name  of 
Hopple's  row,  and  which  l»s  hardly  been  a  year  built,  is  now  occupied 
with  lace  and  dry-goods  stores,  drug-shops,  carpet  ware-houses,  etc.,  in 
which  goods  are  offered  wholesale  to  as  good  advantage  as  in  any  other 
part  of  the  city.  Among  these  the  dry-good  store  of  Baird  & 
Scrmyler  may  be  especially  alluded  to  as  a  fine  establishment.     These 

E-e  the  OjCcupants  of  the  lower  buildings ;  up  stairs  is  a  perfect  den  of 
ipers  in  the  shape  of  lawyers  and  editors. 
We   continue   Mr.    Cist's  interesting  notices  of  local 
matters : 

f  Our  Northwest  Territory.— There  is  nothing  in  Cincinnati  ex- 
k  hibits  a  growth  as  vigorous  as  the  northwestern  part  of  our  city)  popu- 
larly called  Texas.  What  constituted  originally  the  Seventh  ward  was,  ( 
only  seven  years  ago,  interspersed  here  and  there  with  dwellings,  but 
consisted  principally  of  brick-yards,  cattle-pastures  and  vegetable  gar- 
dens, for  the  supply  of  markets.  Such  was  the  unimproved  condition 
of  this  region,  that  nearly  two  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  occupied  as 
pasturage,  were  owned  by  four  or  five  individuals  alone)  Two  hundred 
and  fifty  acres  of  pasturage  in  a  city,  and  that  city  as  thriving  as  Cin- 
cinnati !  (The  whole  number  of  dwellings  at  that  period,  within  the 
bounds  of  that  ward,  were  short  of  three  hundred  and  fifty,  and  its 
whole  population  could  not  have  reached  to  twenty-five  hundred  souls; 



and  these  the  buildings  and  inhabitants  of  a  section  of  Cincinnati  more 
than  a  mile  square! 

Now  what  a  change!  Eleven  hundred  new  buildings,  most  of  them 
of  a  character  for  beauty,  permanence  and  value  equal  to  the  average 
of  the  main  body  of  our  city  improvements.  The  streets  graded  and 
paved  to  a  great  extent,  churches  and  public  school-houses  going  up  in 
its  midst,  and  well-paved  sidewalks,  adding  to  the  general  finish  and 
convenience.)  With  all  these  improvements,  too,  space  has  been  left, 
at  the  sides  and  in  the  fronts  of  the  buildings,  for  that  free  introduction 
of  shrubbery  and  flowers  which  render  our  city  so  attractive  to  stran- 
gers, and  so  airy  and  pleasant  to  ourselves.  It  is,  in  short,  completely 
rus  in  urbe,  abounding  in  spots  which  combine  the  comfort  of  a  coun- 
try villa  with  the  convenience  and  advantages  of  a  city  residence. 

It  may  serve  to  give  a  striking  view  of  the  magnitude  and  extent  of 
the  improvements  in  this  region  to  state  that  London  street  has  been 
graded  from  Fulton  to  Mound  street  west,  which  extent,  some  one 
thousand  two  hundred  feet  in  length,  is  now  dug  down  from  five  to 
ten  feet,  to  fill  up  one  thousand  feet  farther  west  and  the  entire  width — 
sixty  feet — of  the  street.  The  stupendous  character  of  the  work  may 
be  inferred  from  the  volume  of  earth  filled  in,  which,  at  the  intersection 
of  Baymiller  street,  measures  sixteen  feet  in  depth.  Tfie  greater  part 
of  this  is  also  paved,  and  progressing  as  fast  in  paving  as  is  prudent, 
the  graded  ground  being  covered  with  stone  as  fast  as  it  settles  to  its 
permanent  bed.  This  must  become  one  of  the  finest  entrances  to  our 
city.  /The  population  of  this  section  of  Cincinnati  is  now,  doubtless, 
eleven  thousand,  the  inhabitants  having  quadruped  since  1838. 

A  new  and  important  avenue  to  trade  and  marketing  has  been 
opened  through  this  part  of  the  city,  by  extending  Freeman  street  to 
the  Hamilton  road.  The  effect  of  this  will  be  to  direct  a  large  share  of 
the  travelling  to  the  city,  to  the  intersection  of  Fifth  and  Front  streets; 
and  to  bring  the  pork-wagons  into  direct  communication  with  the  pork- 
houses  which  must  be  put  up  on  the  line  of  the  Whitewater  canal. 

This  avenue  will  also  become  a  formidable  rival  to  Western  Row,  as 
a  connection  between  the  adjacent  parts  of  Indiana  and  Cincinnati^ 
owing  to  the  scandalous  condition  into  which  the  upper  part  of  that 
street  has  been  suffered  to  dilapidate,  which  renders  it  impassable  in 
winter  and  unpleasant  at  all  times.    • 

Eighth  street  was  now  paved  to  a  distance  of  more 
than  two  miles  west  of  Main,  and  was  rapidly  coming 
into  use  as  one  of  the  chief  avenues  of  travel  to  and 
from  the  country. 

Mr.  [Elmore]  Williams  was  originally  the  owner  of  all  that  valuable 
property  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Front  streets,  facing  one  hundred 
feet  on  Front  and  two  hundred  on  Main  street,  extending  from  Worth- 
ington  Shillito  &  Co.'s  grocery  store  to  Front,  and  thence  Place  Traber 
&  Co.'s  store,  west  to  Main  street,  and  became  so  under  these  circum- 
stances: The  lot  in  question  was  taken  up  by  Henry  Lindsey,  who 
after  holding  it  a  year  or  more  disposed  of  it  to  a  young  man  for  a  job 
of  work,  whose  name  Mr.  Williams  has  forgot.  The  second  owner, 
having  a  desire  to  revisit  his  former  home  in  New  Jersey,  and  being 
unwilling  to  trust  himself  through  the  wilderness  without  a  horse, 
begged  Mr.  Williams,  with  whom'  he  was  acquainted,  the  latter  then 
residing  at  the  point  of  the  junction  of  the  Licking  and  the  Ohio,  to 
take  his  lot  in  payment  for  a  horse,  saddle  and  bridle  of  his,  valued  at 
sixty-five  dollars.  After  much  importunity  and  principally  with  the  view 
of  accommodating  a  neighbor,  Mr.  Williams  consented,  and  after 
holding  the  property  a  few  days,  disposed  of  it  again  tor  another 
horse  and  equipments,  by  which  he  supposed  he  made  ten  dollars, 
perhaps.  This  lot  not  long  afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of  Colonel 
Gibson,  who  offered  it  for  one  hundred  dollars  to  Major  Bush  of  Boone 
county,  in  1793.  So  slight  was  the  advance  for  years  to  property  in 
Cincinnati.  This  lot,  probably  at  this  time  the  most  valuable  in  the 
city,  estimating  the  rent  at  six  per  cent,  of  its  value,  is  now  worth  three 
hundred  and  thirty-seven  thousand  and  four  hundred  dollars.  Where 
else  in  the  world  is  the  property  which  in  fifty-four  years  had  risen 
from  four  dollars  to  such  a  value? 

The  man  is  still  living,  and  in  full  possession  of  his  faculties,  bodily 
and  mental,  who  stood  by  surveying  the  first  cellar-digging  in  Cincin- 
nati. This  was  the  cellar  of  the  first  brick  house  put  up  here,  and 
which  was  built  by  the  late  Elmore  Williams,  at  the  corner  of  Main 
and  Fifth  streets.  As  one-half  of  the  community  in  that  day  had  never 
seen  a  cellar,  being  emigrants  from  the  farming  districts,  and  the  other 
half  were  surveying  a  novelty  in  Cincinnati,  it  may  readily  be  conceived 
there  was  no  scarcity  of  on-lookers.  My  informant  gives  it  as  his 
judgment  that  the  west  half  of  the  Wade  dwelling  on  Congress  street, 
is  the  oldest  building  now  standing  in  Cincinnati,  certainly  the  only 

one  remaining  of  what  were  built  when  he  first  saw  the  place.  Most  of 
the  houses  were  log  cabins,  and  hardly  better,  so  he  phrases  it,  "than 
sugar-camps  at  that."  The  city,  when  he  landed,  had  not  five  hundred 
inhabitants.  He  has  lived  to  behold  its  increase  to  seventy-five. thou- 
sand.    Where  will  the  next  fifty  years  find  it? 

June  i:th,  was  held  a  meeting  of  the  southern  and 
western  anti-slavery  convention  in  the  city,  with  animated 
and  interesting  discussions. 

An  interesting  event  occurred  on  the  twenty-eighth  of 
September,  in  the  dedication  of  Spring  Grove  cemetery. 
Cincinnati  had  now  the  beginnings  of  a  worthy  "God's 

The  city  was  visited  in  1845  by  the  great  English 
geologist,  Sir  Charles  Lyell,  who,  more  than  any  other 
man  in  the  history  of  geology,  industriously  collected 
facts  and  constructed  theories  for  it.  He  was  out  much 
on  explorations  in  this  region  with  Dr.  John  Locke,  who 
had  been  on  the  State  geological  survey;  and  visited  the 
Big  Bone  lick,  in  company  with  Robert  Buchanan,  Mr. 
Anthony,  and  other  intelligent  gentlemen.  The  following 
are  some  of  Sir  Charles'  remarks  upon  the  geology  and 
paleontology  of  this  part  of  the  valley: 

The  Ohio  river  at  Cincinnati,  and  immediately  above  and  below  it,  is 
bounded  on  its  right  bank  by  two  terraces,  on  which  the  city  is  built, 
the  streets  in  the  upper  and  lower  part  of  it  standing  on  different  levels. 
These  terraces  are  composed  of  sand,  gravel,  and  loam,  such  as  the 
river,  if  blocked  up  by  some  barrier,  might  now  be  supposed  to  sweep 
down  in  its  current  and  deposit  in  a  lake.  The  upper  terrace  is  bounded 
by  steep  hills  of  ancient  fossiliferous  rocks.  Near  the  edge  of  the  higher 
terrace,  in  digging  a  gravel-pit,  which  I  saw  open  at  the  end  of  Sixth 
street,  they  discovered  lately  the  teeth  of  the  elephas  primigenius,  the 
same  extinct  species  which  is  met  with  in  very  analogous  situations  on 
the  banks  of  the.Thames,  and  the  same  which  was  found  preserved  en- 
tire with  its  flesh  in  the  ice  of  Siberia.  Above  the  stratum  from  which 
the  tooth  was  obtained  I  observed  about  six  feet  of  gravel  covered  by 
ten  feet  of  fine  yellow  loam,  and  below  it  were  alternations  of  gravel, 
loam,  and  sand,  for  twenty  feet.  But  I  searched  in  vain  for  any  accom- 
panying fossil  shells.  These,  however,  have  been  found  in  a  similar 
situation  at  Mill  creek,  near  Cincinnati,  a  place  where  several  teeth  of 
mastodons  have  been  met  with.  They  belong  to  the  genera  mclania, 
lymncea,  amnicola,  succinea,  physa,  planorbis,  paludina,  cyclas,  helix 
and  pupa,  all  of  recent  species,  and  nearly  all  known  to  inhabit  the  im- 
mediate neighborhood.  I  was  also  informed  that  near  Wheeling  a  bed 
of  freshwater  shells,  one  foot  thick,  of  the  genus  unio,  is  exposed  at  the 
height  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  above  the  main  level  of  the 
Ohio.  The  remains  of  the  common  American  mastodon  (M.  gigantius) 
have  also  been  found  at  several  points  in  the  strata  in  the  upper  terrace, 
both  above  and  below  Cincinnati.  Upon  the  whole  it  appears  that  the 
strata  of  loam,  clay,  and  gravel,  forming  the  elevated  terraces  on  both 
sides  of  the  Ohio  and  its  tributaries,  and  which  we  know  to  have  re- 
mained unaltered  from  the  era  of  the  Indian  mounds  and  earthworks, 
originated  subsequently  to  the  period  of  the  existing  mollusca,  but 
when  several  quadrupeds  now  extinct  inhabited  this  continent.  The 
lower  parts,  both  of  the  larger  and  smaller  valleys,  appear  to  have  been 
filled  up  with  a  fluviatile  deposit,  through  which  the  streams  have  sub- 
sequently cut  broad  and  deep  channels.  These  phenomena  very  closely 
resemble  those  presented  by  the  loess,  or  ancient  river-silt  of  the  Rhine 
and  its  tributaries,  and  the  theory  which  I  formerly  suggested  to  ac- 
count for  the  position  of  the  Rhenish  loess  (also  charged  with  recent 
land  and  freshwater  shells,  and  occasionally  with  the  remains  of  the  ex- 
tinct elephant)  may  be  applicable  to  the  American  deposits. 

I  imagined  first  a  gradual  movement  of  depression,  like  that  now  in 
progress  on  the  west  coast  of  Greenland,  to  lessen  the  fall  of  the  waters 
or  the  height  of  the  land  relatively  to  the  ocean.  In  consequence  of 
the  land  being  thus  lowered,  the  bottoms  of  the  main  and  lateral  val- 
leys become  filled  up  with  fluviatile  sediment,  containing  terrestrial 
and  freshwater  shells,  in  the  same  manner  as  deltas  are  formed  where 
rivers  meet  the  sea,  the  salt  water  being  excluded,  in  spite  of  continued 
subsidence,  by  the  accumulation  of  alluvial  matter  brought  down,  inces- 
santly from  the  land  above.  Afterwards  I  suppose  an  upward  move- 
ment gradually  to  restore  the  country  to  its  former  level,  and,  during 
this  upheaval,  the  rivers  remove  a  large  part  of  the  accumulated  mud, 



sand  and  gravel.  I  have  already  shown  that  on  the  coast  of  Georgia 
and  South  Carolina,  in  the  United  States,  we  have  positive  proofs  of 
modern  oscillations  of  level,  similar  to  those  here  assumed. 

The  rock  forming  the  hills  and  table-lands  around  Cincinnati,  called 
the  blue  limestone,  has  been  commonly  referred  to  the  age  of  the 
Trenton  limestone  of  New  York,  but  is  considered  by  Messrs.  Conrad 
and  Hall,  and  I  believe  with  good  reason,  as  comprehending  also  the 
Hudson  river  group.  It  seems  impossible,  however,  to  separate  these 
divisions  in  Ohio,  so  that  the'  district  colored  blue  (No.  15)  may  be  re- 
garded as  agreeing  with  Nos.  14  and  15  in  other  parts  of  my  map. 
Several  of  the  fossils  which  I  collected  at  Cincinnati,  the  encrinites  and 
aviculae  (of  the  sub-genus  Pterined)  in  particular,  agree  with  those 
which  I  afterward  procured  near  Toronto,  on  the  northern  shores  of 
Lake  Ontario. 

After  seeing  at  Cincinnati  several  fine  collections  of  recent  and  fossil 
shells  in  the  cabinets  of  Messrs.  Buchanan,  Anthony  and  Clark,  I  ex- 
amined with  care  the  quarries  of  blue  limestone  and  marl  in  the  sub- 
urbs. The  organic  remains  here  are  remarkably  well  preserved  for  so 
ancient  a  rock,  especially  those  occurring  in  a  compact  argillaceous 
blue  limestone,  not  unlike  the  lias  of  Europe.  Its  deposition '  appears 
to  have  gone  on  very  tranquilly,  as  the  lingula  has  been  met  with  in  its 
natural  and  erect  position,  as  if  enclosed  in  mud  when  alive,  or  still 
standing  on  its  peduncle.  Crnstaceans  of  the.  genus  Trinacleus  are 
found  spread  out  in  great  numbers  on  layers  of  the  solid  marl,  as.  also 
another  kind  of  trilobite,  called  Paradoxides,  equally  characteristic  of 
the  Lower  Silurian  system  of  Europe.  The  large  hotelus  gigas,  three  or 
four  inches  long,  a  form  represented,  in  the  Lower  Silurian  of  northern 
Europe,  by  the  asaphi  with  eight  abdominal  articulations,  deserves  also 
to  be  mentioned,  and  a  species  of  graptolite.  I  obtained  also  Spirifer- 
lynx  in  great  abundance,  a  shell  which  Messrs.  Murchisbn  and  De 
Verneuil  regard  as  very  characteristic  of  the  Lower  Silurian  beds  of^ 
Russia  and  Sweden.  Among  the  mollusca  I  may  also  mention  Cept<Bnar 
sericea,  Orthls  striatula,  Belleropkon  bilobatus,  Aviculte  of  the 'sub- 
genus Pterinea,  Cypricradia,  Orthoccras,  and  others.  There  were 
also  some  beautiful  forms  of  Crinoidea,  or  stone-lilies,  and  many  corals, 
which  Mr.  Lonsdale  informs  me  differ  considerably  from  those  hitherto 
known  in  Britain — a  circumstance  probably  arising  from  the  small  de- 
velopment of  coralline  limestones  in  the  Lower  Silurian  strata  of  our 
island.  Several  species  of  the  new  genus  Stenopora  of  Lonsdale  are 
remarkably  abundant. 


January  6th,  occurred  the  first  annual  meeting  of  the 
New  England  society;  Henry  Starr,  president.  On  the 
fifteenth,  the  post  office  was  removed  from  near  the 
Henrie  house  to  the  Masonic  building,  at  the  corner  of 
Third  and  Walnut  streets. 

March  25th,  Messrs.  Wright  &  Graff  sold  at  auction 
seventy-five  feet  of  ground,  with  buildings  thereon,  on 
the  southeast  corner  of  Third  and  Walnut,  for  fifteen 
thousand  six  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars;  and  April 
14th,  there  was  a  considerable  sale  of  lots  belonging  to 
the  Barr  estate,  at  the  West  end. 

April  17th,  Miles  Greenwood's  foundry  was  burned, 
but  he  rebuilt  promptly  and  reoccupied  September  17th, 
just  five  months  after  the  fire. 

On  the  9th  of  July  the  First  and  Second  Ohio  infantry 
regiments,  commanded  by  Colonels  O.  M.  Mitchel  and 
Curtis,  left  Camp  Washington  for  the  theatre  of  war  in 

August  10th,  announcement  was  made  that  the  Little 
Miami  railroad  would  run  its  first  train  to  Springfield. 
On  the  14th,  the  Rev.  Joshua  L.  Wilson,  for  many  years 
pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church,  dies. 

September  7th,  the  Merchants'  exchange  is  opened  in 
the  college  building.  On  the  28th  Edward  Byington 
falls  by  the  hand  of  violence,  slain  by  Theodore  Church. 

New  buildings  to  the  number  of  nine  hundred  and 
eighty  were  erected. 


New  buildings  this  year,  one  thousand  one  hundred 
and  forty.  The  first  five-story  brick  in  Cincinnati  was 
put  up  at  the  corner  of  Pearl  and  Walnut  streets,  by  Ed- 
mund B.  Reeder — the  building  afterwards  occupied  by 
Booth's  hardware  store.  While  the  cellar  was  being  dug, 
an  old  bystander  gave  the  interesting  information  that  he 
had  once  loaded  a  fiat-boat  on  that  very  spot. 

On  the  twenty-first  of  August,  the  first  public  tele- 
graphic dispatch  wired  to  Cincinnati  was  received  by  the 
local  press.  It  was  justly  accounted  a  very  interesting 

In  December  another  tremendous  flood  occurred  in 
the  Ohio,  reaching  its  height  about  the  seventeenth,  when 
it  stood  only  six  inches  lower  than  in  the  great  freshet  of 
1832.  The  city  was  better  prepared  for  it,  however,  and 
although  there  was  much  distress  and  loss,  it  did  not 
entirely  renew  the  excitement  and  unhappy  scenes  of  fif- 
teen years  before. 

On  the  twenty-second  of  April,  Levi  Coffin  and  family 
moved  to  Cincinnati.  This  arrival  is  solely  noticeable 
because  it  brought  a  strong  reinforcement  to  the  rather 
feeble  band  of  abolitionists  in  the  city,  and  because  it  in- 
troduced here  a  new  branch  of  trade — a  grocery  store  at 
which,  no  products  of  slave  labor  were  to  be  had.  Mr. 
Coffin  was  of- Massachusetts  and  Maryland  stock,  but  a 
native  of.  North. Carolina,  where  he  became  thoroughly 
impressed,  with  the  ills  of  slavery,  and  a  confirmed  abo- 
litionist. He  went  in  1822  to  Indiana,  and  taught  school 
there  awhile,  returned  to  North  Carolina,  engaged  in 
teaching  again,  but  came  west  finally  in  the  fall  of  1826 
and  located  at  Newport,  Wayne  county,  Indiana,  where 
he  remained  for  more  than  twenty  years,  engaged  in 
store-keeping,  pork-packing,  making  linseed  oil,  and 
managing  a  station  of  the  Underground  railroad.  In 
the  last  named  business — quite  the  reverse  of  profitable, 
in  a  pecuniary  sense — he  was  exceedingly  zealous,  and 
assisted  many  fugitive  slaves  in  the  direction  of  the 
north  star.     He  says  in  his  volume  of  Reminiscences: 

"This  work  was  kept  up  during  the  time  we  lived  in 
Newport,  a  period  of  more  than  twenty  years.  The  num- 
ber of  fugitives  varied  considerably  in  different  years, 
but  the  annual  average  was  more  than  one  hundred." 

It  was  to  his  house  in  Newport  that  the  Eliza  Harris 
of  Mrs.  Stowe's  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin  went,  on  her  journey 
northward,  and  told  her  thrilling  story  of  escape. 

In  1844  he  became  convinced  that  it  was  wrong  to  sell, 
buy,  or  use  any  product  of  slave  toil,  and  began  the 
search  for  groceries  and  cotton  goods  that  were,  from  first 
to  last,  solely  the  result  of  free  labor.  He  found  associ- 
ations already  existing  in  Philadelphia  and  New  York, 
manufacturing  goods  of  free-labor  cotton,  and  getting 
sugar  and  other  groceries  from  the  British  West  Indies 
and  other  localities  where  slavery  did  not  exist  He 
bought  a  limited  stock  of  these  for  his  Newport  store 
and  sold  them,  necessarily  to  Abolitionists  almost  exclu- 
sively, and  at  a  very  small  profit,  compared  with  that  he 
might  have  realized  from  slave-labor  wares.  He  traveled 
in  the  south  to  find  localities  where  slaves  were  not  used 
in  the  production  of  cotton  and  sugar ;   and  in  one  case, 

/.,,.  1,1    -  ■  ■ 



where  cotton  was  ruined  for  his  purposes  by  being  neces- 
sarily passed  through  a  gin  operated  by  slaves,  he  bought 
a  three  hundred  dollar  gin  in  Cincinnati  and  shipped  it 
to  Mississippi,  relying  upon  his  correspondent  there  to 
pay  for  it  in  cotton.  It  was  thenceforth  known  as  the 
"Abolition  gin,"  and  greatly  stimulated  the  production  of 
free-labor  cotton. 

Mr.  Coffin  came  to  Cincinnati  in  1847,  at  the  solicita- 
tion of  a  Union  Free-labor  convention,  held  at  Salem, 
Indiana,  the  previous  fall,  to  open  a  wholesale  depository 
of  free-labor  goods.  This  he  did,  though  at  much  pecu- 
niary sacrifice  and  in  the  face  of  much  personal  obloquy. 
Contrary  to  his  expectation,  he  had  also  to  remain  in  act- 
ive service  as  president  of  the  Underground  railroad,  as 
he  had  come  now  to  be  generally  considered.  His  Rem- 
iniscences say. 

I  was  personally  acquainted  with  all  the  active  and  reliable  workers 
on  the  Underground  railroad  in  the  city,  both  colored  and  white.  There 
were  a  few  wise  and  careful  managers  among  the  colored  people,  but  it 
was  not  safe  to  trust  all  of  them  with  the  affairs  of  our  work.  Most  of 
them  were  too  careless,  and  a  few  were  unworthy — they  could  be  bribed 
by  the  slave-hunters  to  betray  the  hiding-places  of  the  fugitives. 
We  were  soon  initiated  into  Underground  railroad  matters  in  Cincin- 
nati, and  did  not  lack  for  work.  Our  willingness  to  aid  the  slaves  was 
soon  known,  and  hardly  a  fugitive  came  to  the  city  without  applying  to 
us  for  assistance.  There  seemed  to  be  a  continual  increase  of  run- 
aways, and  such  was  the  vigilance  of  the  pursuers  that  I  was  obliged  to 
devote  a  large  share  of  time  from  my  business  to  making  arrangements 
for  the  concealment  and  safe  conveyance  of  the  fugitives.  They  some- 
times came  to  our  door  frightened  and  panting  and  in  a  destitute  con- 
dition, having  fled  in  such  haste  and  fear  that  they  had  no  time  to  bring 
any  clothing  except  what  they  had  on,  and  that  was  often  very  scant. 
The  expense  of  providing  suitable  clothing  for  them  when  it  was  neces- 
sary for  them  to  go  on  immediately,  or  of  feeding  them  when  they  were 
obliged  to  be  concealed  for  days  or  weeks,  was  very  heavy.  Added  to 
this  was  the  cost  of  hiring  teams  when  a  party  of  fugitives  had  to  be 
conveyed  out  of  the  city  by  night  to  some  Underground  railroad  depot, 
from  twenty  to  thirty  miles  distant.  The  price  for  a  two-horse  team  on 
such  occasions  was  ten  dollars,  and  sometimes  two  or  three  teams  were 
required.  We  generally  hired  these  teams  from  a  certain  German  livery 
stable,  sending  some  irresponsible  though  honest  colored  man  to  pro- 
cure them,  and  always  sending  the  money  to  pay  for  them  in  advance. 
The  people  of  the  livery  stable  seemed  to  understand  what  the  teams 
were  wanted  for,  and  asked  no  questions. 

Learning  that  the  runaway  slaves  often  arrived  almost  destitute  of 
clothing,  a  number  of  the  benevolent  ladies  of  the  city— Mrs.  Sarah 
H.  Ernst,  Miss  Sarah  O.  Ernst,  Mrs.  Henry  Miller,  Mrs.  Dr.  Ayde- 
lott,  Mrs.  Julia  Harwood,  Mrs.  Amanda  E.  Foster,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Coleman,  Mrs.  Mary  Mann,  Mrs.  Mary  M.  Guild,  Miss  K.  Emery, 
and  others — organized  an  anti-slavery  sewing  society,  to  provide  suit- 
able clothing  for  the  fugitives.  After  we  came  to  the  city,  they  met  at 
our  house  every  week  for  a  number  of  years,  and  wrought  much  prac- 
tical good  by  their  labors. 

Our -house  was  large,  and  well  adapted  for  secreting  fugitives.  Very 
often  slaves  would  lie  concealed  in  upper  chambers  for  weeks,  without 
the  boarders  or  frequent  visitors  at  the  house  knowing  anything  about 
it.  My  wife  had  a  quiet,  unconcerned  way  of  going  about  her  work, 
as  if  nothing  unusual  was  on  hand,  which  was  calculated  to  lull  every 
suspicion  of  those  who  might  be  watching,  and  who  would  have  been 
at  once  aroused  by  any  sign  of  secrecy  or  mystery.  Even  the  intimate 
friends  of  the  family  did  not  know  when  there  were  slaves  secreted  in 
the  house,  unless  they  were  directly  informed.  When  my  wife  took 
food  to  the  fugitives  she  generally  concealed  it  in  a  basket,  and  put 
some  freshly  ironed  garment  on  the  top,  to  make  it  look  like  a  basket- 
ful of  clean  clothes.  Fugitives  were  not  often  allowed  to  eat  in  the 
kitchen,  from  fear  of  detection. 

The  interest  of  these  statements,  as  part  of  a  mem- 
orable chapter  of  local  and  political  history,  justifies  the 
space  we  have  given  to  them.  Mr.  Coffin  remained  in 
Cincinnati,  successfully  but  modestly  conducting  his 
business  as  an  Abolition  storekeeper  and  underground 

railway  manager  so  long  as  necessary;  and  after  the  war, 
at  a  meeting  of  the  colored  folk  of  Cincinnati  and  vicin- 
ity, to  celebrate  the  adoption  of  the  fifteenth  amendment 
to  the  Constitution,  he  formally  and  humorously  resigned 
his  office  as  President  of  the  Underground  railroad,  de- 
claring that  "  the  stock  had  gone  down  in  the  market, 
the  business  was  spoiled,  the  road  was  of  no  further  use" ; 
and  retired  amid  much  applause.  During  the  war  and 
afterwards,  he  did  much  good  work  among  the  destitute 
and  suffering  freedmen.  He  since  published  his  Remin- 
iscences in  a  thick  volume,  abounding  in  interesting  nar- 
ratives. After  his  death  a  second  edition  was  published, 
with  an  added  chapter  giving  an  account  of  his  closing 
years.  He  died  at  his  residence  in  Avondale,  September 
16,  1877,  at  the  advanced  age  of  seventy-nine,  leaving 
his  widow  still  surviving. 

A  terrible  riot  occurred  at  the  county  jail  this  year, 
resulting  in  the  death  of  eleven  persons,  some  of  whom 
were  wholly  innocent  of  any  complicity  with  the  mob. 
Two  soldiers  in  the  Mexican  war  had  been  discharged  at 
its  close  and  returned  to  the  city  with  their  land  war- 
rants. They  were  soon  after  accused  of  an  outrage  upon 
the  person  of  the  little  daughter  of  the  family  with  whom 
they  were  boarding,  near  the  Brighton  house,  and  were 
lodged  in  the  old  jail,  on  Sycamore  street,  the  officers 
taking  them  thither  fighting  their  way  with  the  utmost 
difficulty  through  an  infuriated  mob. .  Toward  evening 
an  immense  crowd  gathered  about  the  place,  which  was 
'guarded  by  the  finest  military  companies  in  the  city — the 
Greys  and  the  Citizens'  Guards — and  several  rushes  were 
made  upon  the  building.  At  first  the  assailants  were  re- 
pulsed by  the  firing  of  blank  cartridges;  but  at  last,  when 
the  soldiers  were  pressed  back,  and  the  ringleaders  were 
actually  within  the  doors  of  the  jail,  it  became  necessary 
to  fire  with  ball,  which  was  done  with  terribly  fatal  effect, 
stretching  eleven  persons  lifeless  at  the  first  fire,  some  of 
them  at  a  distance  from  the  mob,  and  not  participating 
in  it.  The  people  were  unarmed  and  dispersed  at  once 
in  haste,  not  to  return;  and  the  prisoners  were  saved 
from  the  threatened  vengeance.  After  a  little  time  for 
reflection,  popular  feeling  settled  in  favor  of  the  action 
of  the  officers  and  soldiery,  and  finally  in  favor  of  the 
prisoners  themselves.  They  were  not  even  brought  to 
trial,  the  grand  jury  unanimously  refusing  to  bring  a  bill 
of  indictment  against  them;  and  there  is  little  doubt  that 
the  infamous  charge  was  part  of  a  scheme  to  dispossess 
them  of  the  land-warrants  which  they  had  honestly 
earned  by  hard  and  dangerous  service.  Public  opinion 
was  turned  so  strongly  against  their  persecutors,  indeed, 
that  they  found  it  advisable  to  disappear  from  the  com- 
munity, to  escape  possible  lynching  themselves. 

Number  of  new  buildings  this  year,  one  thousand 
three  hundred  and  five. 


The  number  of  names  upon  the  directory  this  year  is 
twenty-one  thousand  five  hundred  and  forty-five,  exceed- 
ing the  number  upon  the  directory  of  1846  by  six  thou- 
sand nine  hundred  and  forty-five.  The  addition  was 
made  this  year  of  Fulton,  a  tolerably  large  and  densely 



populated  suburb,  equal  to  about  one-third  of  the  former 
dimensions  of  the  city.  The  Burnet  house  was  erected 
this  year  by  a  joint  stock  company,  and  was  then  ac- 
counted the  finest  hotel  building  in  the  country.  Many 
distinguished  persons  were  its  guests,  in  the  earlier  as 
well  as  the  later  days.  The  room  once  occupied  by 
Jenny  Lind  still  bears  her  name. 

In  November  or  December  came  the  famous  Lady 
Emmeline  Stuart  Wortley.  She  staid  but  one  day  in 
Cincinnati,  on  account  of  the  crowded  hotels,  and  made 
few  remarks  upon  the  place  in  the  book  she  afterwards 
published.  She  noted  it  as  a  "very  handsome  city,  in  a 
remarkably  fine  situation;"  has  a  good  word  for  the  Ger- 
man immigrants;  has  her  attention  attracted  by  "the 
floating  wharves,  which  are  rendered  necessary  by  the 
continued  and  rapid  fluctuations  of  the  river."  She  gives 
the  town  a  malicious  little  fling  at  the  close : 

It  may  be  confidently  stated  that  Cincinnati,  the  pride  of  the  banks 
of  "La  Belle  Riviere,"  is  in  fact  what  its  name,  "Porkopolis,"  implies 
— the  Empire  city  of  pigs,  as  well  as  of  the  west;  but  it  is  fortunate  that 
they  condescendingly  allow  human  beings  to  share  the  truly  magnifi- 
cent location  with  them. 

On  the  first  of  May,  one  train  per  day,  each  way,  be- 
gan to  run  over  the  Little  Miami  railroad  to  Springfield. 
On  the  sixth  occurred  the  murder  of  O-  Brasher  by 
Jesse  Jones;  and  on  the  tenth  the  death  of  Colonel 
Charles  H.  Brough,  a  prominent  lawyer  of  the  city,  and 
soldier  of  the  Mexican  war. 

July  20th  was  made  memorable  by  the  poisoning  of 
the  Simmons  family,  and  November  30th  by  the  at- 
tempted destruction  in  the  same  way  of  the  Forrest  fam- 
ily, by  the  notorious  poisoner,  Nancy  Farrer,  in  whose 
trial  the  young  lawyer,  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  late  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  bore  a  distinguished  part. 
She  finally  escaped  the  meshes  of  the  law,  on  the  plea  of 
insanity,  and  was  sent  to  the  Lick  Run  asylum. 

Mr.  E.  D.  Mansfield,  in  his  Memoirs  of  Dr.  Drake, 
submits  the  following  valuable  remarks  and  statistics  con- 
cerning the  fatality  and  social  characteristics  of  the  chol- 
era in  Cincinnati  this  year : 

It  commenced  at  the  middle  of  April,  but  did  not  entirely  cease  until 
the  return  of  frosts;  but  the  intensity  of  the  pestilence  may  be  dated 
from  the  middle  of  June  to  the  middle  of  August.  In  other  words,  it 
increased  and  declined  with  the  heat.  Except  in  the  first  season,  1832, 
this  has  been  its  uniform  characteristic  in  every  year  of  its  appearance. 
It  was  so  in  1833,  '34,  '39,  '49,  '50,  '51,  and  '52.  In  the  latter  seasons  it 
was  very  light.  In  September,  1849,  the  Board  of  Health  in  Cincinnati 
returned  the  following  number  of  deaths,  between  the  first  of  May  and 
the  first  of  September — four  months : 

Deaths  by  cholera 4, 1 14 

Deaths  by  other  diseases 2,345 

Aggregate 6,459 

If  we  add  to  this  the  aggregate  number  of  deaths  in  the  last  two 
weeks  of  April,  and  from  the  first  of  September  to  the  fifteenth  of  Oc- 
tober, during  which  the  number  of  deaths  exceeded  the  average,  we 
shall  have  for  six  months  at  least  seven  thousand,  of  which  four  thou- 
sand six  hundred  were  from  cholera.  The  mortality  of  the  other  six 
months,  at  the  aggregate  rate,  was  only  one  thousand  five  hundred.  ■ 
We  have,  then,  for  1849,  a  total  mortality  of  eight  thousand  five  hun- 
dred, which  (the  population  of  the  city  being  one  hundred  and  sixteen 
thousand)  made  a  ratio  of  one  in  fourteen. 

If  we  examine  this  mortality  socially,  we  shall  arrive  at  some  extraor- 
dinary results.  The  division  of  the  cemeteries  at  Cincinnati,  by  na- 
tionalities and  religions,  is  so  complete  that  it  is  easily  determined  how 
many  of  Americans  and  how  many  Protestants  died  of  cholera.    Tak- 

ing the  number  given  above,  of  those  who  died  between  the  first  of  May 
and  the  first  of  September,  we  have  this  result  : 

German,  Irish,  and  Hebrews,  died  of  cholera  in  four  months 2,896 

Americans,  English,  Scotch,  and  Welsh,    "  1,218 

We  see  thus  that  the  deaths  among  the  Germans  and 
Irish  are  within  a  fraction  of  being  fourfold  that  of  the  Americans  and 
double  that  of  the  entire  population  proportionally.  A  more  minute 
and  detailed  investigation  of  this  matter  would,  perhaps,  prove  that  the 
proportion  of  mortality  was  even  more  than  this  against  the  foreign 

At  some  time  during  the  forties,  probably,  but  in  some 
year  or  years  which  we  are  unable  to  designate  with  cer- 
tainty, a  series  of  letters  was  written  from  a  house  now 
within  the  precincts  of  the  city,  which,  as  collected  and 
published  by  the  celebrated  English  authoress,  Mary 
Howitt,  under  the  title  of  our  Cousins  in  Ohio,  form 
one  of  the  most  pleasant  little  books  in  the  Cin- 
cinnati literature.  Names  in  them  are  carefully  con- 
cealed, and  even  Cincinnati  is  not  once  mentioned ;  but 
the  local  coloring  is  in  places  unmistakable.  "Red 
creek,"  for  example,  is  undoubtedly  Mill  creek,  and 
Big  Bluff  creek,  very  likely,  was  Lick  run;  and  Stony 
creek  Bold-face,  which  enters  the  river  at  Sedamsville. 
The  cedar  grove  mentioned  as  "the  cedars,"  where  lived 
a  sister  of  Mary  Howitt  and  from  which  the  letters  were 
written,  is  now  occupied  by  the  Young  Ladies'  Academy 
of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  a  Roman  Catholic  institution, 
conducted  by  the  Sisters  of  Charity,  beyond  Price's 
hill,  on  the  Warsaw  turnpike,  in  the  extreme  western 
part  of  the  city.  It  was  formerly  the  property  of  a  Mr. 
Alderson.  We  present  some  entertaining  extracts  from 
the  book  in  question : 

The  wooden  bridge  over  the  Red  creek  was  now  repaired.  This  was 
but  a  temporary  bridge,  the  great  stone  bridge  having  been  swept 
away  the  former  summer,  in  a  thunder-storm  ;  and  this  was  the  third 
that  our  friends  had  seen  over  Red  creek  since  they  came  into  the 
country.  When  first  they  came,  it  was  crossed  by  an  old,  covered, 
wooden  bridge  ;  and  this  was  burned  down  one  night  by  a  man  whose 
horses'  feet  stuck  fast  in  a  hole  of  the  planking,  which  made  him  so  an- 
gry that  he  vowed  never  again  to  be  stopped  by  the  same  cause,  and 
therefore  he  set  fire  to  the  bridge  before  he  left  the  place.  In  the  course 
of  the  summer  a  new  bridge  was  again  to  be  erected. 

This  Red  creek  was  a  small  tributary  of  the  Ohio.  It  was  a  very 
beautiful  stream,  and  its  serpentine  course  could  be  traced  at  the  cedars, 
although  its  waters  were  unseen,  by  the  white  trunks  and  branches  of 
the  buttonwood  trees  which  grew  upon  its  banks.  It  was  famous  in 
Indian  tradition,  and  the  children  often  sang  to  themselves,  in  a  low, 
chanting  strain,  one  of  its  legends,  which  an  American  poet  had  beau- 
tifully sung  in  modern  verse. 

This  day  proved  altogether  an  eventful  one.  Uncle  Cornelius  [Col- 
onel Sedam?]  told  them  about  the  landing  of  three  hundred  and  ninety- 
five  emancipated  slaves  which  he  had  witnessed  [in  Cincinnati].  They 
arrived  in  the  steamer  at  about  eight  o'clock  that  morning.  They  were 
a  motley  company  of  men,  women,  and  children,  old  and  young,  but 
all  decently  dressed,  and  bringing  with  them  their  wagons  and  house- 
hold stuff  and  considerable  property — some  people  said  to  the  value  of 
ten  thousand  pounds.  The  history  of  their  emancipation  was  interest- 
ing. It  had  been  a  struggle  of  nine  years'  continuance ;  but  to  the 
honor  of  the  south,  the  law  had  decided  in  their  favor,  and  they  were 
on  their  way  to  Mercer  county,  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  which  was  chiefly 
settled  by  free  colored  people,  and  where  a  tract  of  land  had  been  pur- 
chased for  them. 

These  poor  people  had  been  the  property  of  one  John  Randolph,  a. 
wealthy  planter  of  Roanoke,  Virginia.  During  his  lifetime  he  had  been 
a  strenuous  upholder  of  slavery ;  yet,  even  then,  it  was  said  that  his  con- 
science often  rebelled  against  him,  and,  but  for  custom  and  the  fear 



of  ridicule,  and  perhaps  of  persecution  also,  he  would  have  liberated 
his  slaves.  He  did,  however,  all  that  he  believed  it  possible  for  him  to 
do;  he  provided  in  his  will  for  their  liberation  after  his  death,  and  left  a 
handsome  provision  for  their  transportation  to  a  free  State  and  for  their 
maintenance  there. 

But  this,  it  is  said,  did  not' satisfy  his  conscience  on  his  dying  bed. 
Being  then  unable  to  speak,  he  called  for  a  pencil  and  paper,  and  wrote 
upon  it  the  word,  "Remorse."  He  felt,  it  is  probable,  in  those  last 
moments  that  even  the  act  of  kindness  which  he  had  prepared  to  do 
after  his  death  could  not  atone  to  the  Almighty  for  a  lifelong  practice 
of  oppression,  against  the  sinfulness  of  which  his  own  soul  had  even 
thus  testified. 

He  died,  and  after  a  long  nine  years'  struggle  the  slaves  were  freed 
by  law;  and  thus  they  now  were  on  their  way  to  what  they  hoped  would 
be  a  home  of  freedom  and  peace.  Uncle  Cornelius  said  that  the  prin- 
cipal street  of  the  city  presented  a  singular  sight,  and  one  which  they 
who  saw  would  not  soon  forget.  First  came  in  the  procession  a  crowd 
of  negroes — men,  women,  and  children,  all  dressed  in  coarse,  cotton 
garments,  but  having  the  appearance  of  people  who,  by  their  dress, 
were  in  comfortable  circumstances.  They  were  on  their  way  from  the 
river,  up  which  the  steamer  had  brought  them,  to  the  canal,  where 
they  were  again  to  embark  for  their  new  location.  Behind  them  came 
their  baggage-wagons,  which  formed  a  very  long  and  singular  array; 
and  altogether  it  was  the  most  extraordinary  company  of  emigrants 
which  had  ever  been  seen  in  those  parts.  Many  of  the  women  had 
very  young  babies  in  their  arms ;  there  were  also  some  very  old  people 
amongst  them,  and  the  one  who  brought  up  the  rear  was  a  very  striding 
figure.  He  was  the  oldest  and  noblest-looking  colored  man  that  Uncle 
Cornelius  had  ever  seen;  he  walked  slowly  with  a.  long  cane,  and  had 
something  grand  and  patriarchal  in'his  aspect  and  manner.  Probably 
he  might  be  one  of  those  who  had  been  brought  up  with  his  afterwards 
celebrated  master,  and,  perhaps,  when  remorse  wrung  his  death-bed 
soul,  he  might  be  remembered  by  him  as  one  to  whom  a  lifelong  injus- 
tice had  been  done. 

Willie,  one  day,  at  the  beginning  of  the  month,  rode  with  his  father 
some  miles  up  the  country,  to  Stony  Creek  valley,  to  see  the  wagon 
loaded  with  charcoal,  for  which  purpose  it  had  been  sent  beforehand. 
Charcoal  was  used  to  burn  in  a  small  stove  with  coal  or  wood,  in  the 
cold  mornings  and  evenings,  to  warm  and  cheer  the  rooms;  and  a  store 
of  it  was  therefore  laid  in. 

Stony  Creek  valley  was  one  of  the  most  secluded  valleys  in  the 
neighborhood;  the  road  which  ran  along  it  passed  through  pleasant 
woods,  and  now  and  then  crossed  the  rocky  bed  of  the  stream.  The 
Valley  itself  was  famous  for  lime  and  charcoal-burning;  it  was  but  little 
cleared  of  wood,  and  the  houses,  .-which  were  mostly  log-cabins,  were 
inhabited  by  Germans,  principally  charcoal-burners.  There  was  a  pleas- 
ant kind  of  poetical,  out-of-the- world  character  about  the  whole  place; 
and  the  curling  smoke  which  rose  up  so  dreamily  into  the  sunny  sky, 
from  the  rude  charcoal  and  lime  kilns,  added  greatly  to  its  effect. 



The  census  of  this  year  was  taken  under  inauspicious 
conditions,  on  account  of  the  return  of  the  cholera  from 
its  visitation  of  1 84o7jNevertheless  the  figures  obtained, 
one  hundred  and  fifteen  thousand  four  hundred  and 
thirty-eight,  were  very  large  as  contrasted  with  the  forty- 
six  thousand  three  hundred  and  thirty-eight  of  ten  years 
before,  showing  an  increase  in  the  decade  of  sixty-nine 
thousand  one  hundred,  or  very  nearly  two  hundred  and 
fifty  per  cent. — an  average  of  almost  seven  thousand 
newcomers  every  year.  The  new  buildings  this  year 
numbered  one  thousand  four  hundred  and  eighteen,  and 
the  total  number  of  buildings  was  sixteen  thousand  two 
hundred  and  eighty-six.     The  new  ones  included  five 

stone,  nine  hundred  and  thirty-nine  brick,  and  four  hun- 
dred and  sixty-four  frame  structures.  Brick  houses  had 
advanced  in  number  beyond  all  others,  and  were  now 
three-fifths  of  all  in  Cincinnati.  Among  new  public 
edifices  were  the  German  Protestant  Orphan  asylum,  the 
Widow's  home,  sundry  school-houses  and  engine  houses, 
the  Episcopal  church  on  Sycamore  street,  and  St.  John's, 
at  the  corner  of  Seventh  and  Plum,  the  First  and  Seventh 
Presbyterian  churches,  and  two  hotels.  The  City  hall 
and  new  court  house  were  projected,  the  public  offices 
being  still  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Fourth  and  Vine 
streets.  Fourteen  macadamized  roads  now  entered  the 
city,  with  an  aggregate  length  of  five  hundred  and  four- 
teen miles;  two  canals,  together  with  their  extensions, 
reaching  out  five  hundred  and  sixty  miles,  and  twenty- 
one  railways,  were  in  the  immediate  Cincinnati  connec- 
tions, in  all  measuring  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
thirteen  miles,  with  five  hundred  and  eighty-six  miles 
more  in  progress  and  one  thousand  and  six  undertaken. 
The  churches  of  the  city  numbered  ninety-one,  with  four 

Mr.  Charles  Cist,  writing  for  his  decennial  volume 
(Cincinnati  in  1851)  of  the  next  year,  has  the  following 
paragraph  concerning  the  heterogeneous  character  of  the 
city's  population.  Although  written  thirty  years  ago,  it 
is  well  worth  quotation  now: 

The  population  of  the  city  presents  many  varieties  of  physiology. 
The  original  settlers  were  from  various  States  of  the  Union;  and  the 
armies  of  Harmar,  St.  Clair  and  Wayne,  during  the  Indian  wars,  left 
behind  them  a  still  greater  variety  of  persons.  The  subsequent  immi- 
gration, though  largely  from  the  Middle  and  northern  Atlantic  States, 
has  been,  in  part,  from  the  more  southern.  In  latter  years  it  has  been 
composed,  still  more  than  from  either,  of  Europeans.  The  most 
numerous  of  these  are  Germans,  next  Irish;  then  English,  Scotch,  and 
Welsh.  Very  few  French,  Italians,  or  Spaniards  have  sought  it  out. 
Lastly,  its  African  population,  chiefly  emancipated  slaves  and  their 
offspring,  from  Kentucky  and  Virginia,  is  large;  and  although  inter- 
marriages with  the  whites  are  unknown,  the  streets  show  as  many  mu- 
latto, griffe,  and  quadroon  complexions  as  those  of  New  Orleans. 
Thusrjthe  varieties  of  national  physiology  are  very  great. 

yThis  was  a  cholera  year  in  Cincinnati,  one  terribly  de- 
structive to  human  life,  and  resulting  in  a  panic,  which 
at  one  time  almost  depopulated  the  city.  The  number 
of  deaths  reached  the  high  figure  of  four  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  thirty-two — more  than  four  per  cent,  of  the 
entire  population.  J  The  census  was  taken  this  year,  and 
Mr.  Cist  says,  in  nis  Cincinnati  in  185 1  :  "The  popula- 
tion returns  were  further  reduced,  from  the  still  greater 
numbers  put  to  flight  by  the  approach  and  arrival  of  that 
pestilence.  For  weeks  every  vehicle  of  conveyance  was 
filled  with  these  fugitives,  who,  in  most  cases,  did  not 
return  in  time  to  be  included  in  the  enumeration  of  in- 
habitants." He  thought  that,  but  for  this  drawback,  the 
census  would  have  made  a  return  for-the  city  of  not  less 
than  one  hundred  and  thirty  thousand  inhabitants.  The 
actual  figures  obtained  were,  as  we  have  seen,  one  hun- 
dred and  fifteen  thousand  four  hundred  and  thirty-eight 
— an  increase  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  per  cent,  in  ten 
years,  against  an  increase  of  ninety  per  cent,  from  1830 
to  1840.  No  other  city  in  the  United  States  exhibited  a 
ratio  of  increase  so  large,  nor  was  there  any  other  whose 
absolute  increase  was  so  great,  except  only  Philadelphia 
and  New  York 



February  2d,  Mr.  John  C.  Avery,  one  of  the  earlier 
sheriffs  of  the  county,  died  at  his  home  in  Cincinnati. 

May  3d,  the  well  known  hotel  keepers,  Messrs.  Cole- 
man &  Reilly,  having  become  lessees  of  the  new  Burnet 
house,  gave  a  grand  ball  by  way  of  house-warming. 

June  18th,  officer  Peter  Davison,  of  the  police  force, 
was  murdered  by  John  C.  Walker. 

On  the  first  of  September  the  house  of  refuge  was 
opened  for  the  reception  of  inmates. 

The  Little  Miami  railroad  depot,  at  the  corner  of 
Front  and  Kilgour  streets,  was  erected  this  year. 


The  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science,  then  an  infant  in  years,  but  a  strong  and  vigor- 
ous one,  met  in  the  Queen  City  this  year.  At  the  close 
of  the  session,  in  seconding  a  resolution  of  thanks  to  the 
good  people  of  the  place  tor  their  hospitalities  and  court- 
esies, Professor  Henry,  of  the  Smithsonian  Institute,  very 
handsomely  said : 

He  had  heard  much  of  the  Great  West,  much  of  the  Queen  City,  and 
had  come  to  put  his  anticipations  to  the  test.  He  expected  to  see  a 
boundless,  magnificent  forest  world,  with  the  scattered  clearings,  and 
log  cabins,  and  energetic  New-England-descended  inhabitants ;  he 
thought  to  find  Cincinnati  a  thriving  frontier  town,  exhibiting  views  of 
neat  wood  houses,  with  white  fronts,  ' '  green  doors,  and  brass  knock- 
ers ;"  but  instead  of  this,  he  found  himself  in  a  city  of  palaces,  reared 
as  if  by  magic,  and  rivaling  in  appearance  any  city  of  the  Eastern 
States  or  of  Europe.  But  it  was  not  things  of  mere  stone,  brick,  and 
mortar,  which  pleased  him  most  in  the  Queen  of  the  West.  Imperial 
Rome  had  her  palaces  and  noble  structures,  but  in  her  proudest  days 
she  boasted  not  of  a  Mechanics'  Institute,  an  Academy  of  Natural 
Sciences,  a  Mercantile  Library  Association,  or  a  Young  Mens'  Lyceum 
of  Natural  History.  These  are  the  pride  of  Cincinnati,  these  her  noblest 
works.  Grateful  as  we  ought  to  be,  and  are,  for  the  kindness  and 
courtesy  shown  us  as  members  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Ad- 
vancement of  Science,  we  are  more  thankful  to  the  Cincinnatians  for 
having  founded  her  literary  and  scientific  associations,  and  for  liberally 
opening  her  treasuries  of  knowledge  to  the  world. 

Among  the  many  visits  to  the  city  in  1851,  was  that  of 
Lord  Morpeth,  the  Right  Honorable  the  Earl  of  Carlisle, 
whose  tour  through  this  country  made  a  great  stir  in 
social,  political,  and  other  circles.  In  the  lectures  pro- 
nounced and  printed  after  his  return  home,  he  said  the 
following  of  the  Queen  City : 

I  again  turned  my  face  to  the  west,  and  passed  Cincinnati,  which, 
together  with  all  that  I  saw  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  seemed  to  me  the  part 
of  the  Union  where,  if  obliged  to  make  the  choice,  I  should  like  best  to 
fix  my  abode.  It  has  a  great  share  of  the  civilization  and  appliances  of 
the  old-settled  States  of  the  east,  with  the  richer  soil,  the  softer  climate, 
the  fresher  spring  of  life,  which  distinguish  the  west.  It  had,  besides, 
to  me  the  great  attraction  of  being  the  first  free  State  which  I  reached 
on  my  return  from  the  region  of  slavery  ;  and  the  contrast  in  the  ap- 
pearance of  prosperity  and  progress  is  just  what  a  friend  of  freedom 
would  always  wish  it  to  be.  One  of  my  visitors  at  Cincinnati  told  me 
he  remembered  when  the  town  only  contained  a  few  log  cabins  ;  when 
I  was  there  it  had  fifty  thousand  [!]  inhabitants.  I  shall  not  easily  for- 
get an  evening  yiew  from  a  neighboring  hill,  over  loamy  cornfields, 
woody  knolls,  and  even  some  vineyards,  just  where  the  Miami  river  dis- 
charges its  gentle  stream  into  the  ample  Ohio. 

The  city  this  year  had  a  population  of  one  hundred 
and  thirty-two  thousand  three  hundred  thirty-three,  an 
increase  of  nearly  seventeen  thousand  upon  the  census 
of  the  year  before. 

May  23d,  Horatio  Wells,  of  the  Cincinnati  type  foun- 
dry, was  accidentally  shot. 


The  population  of  the  city  had  now  mounted  to  one 
hundred  and  forty-five  thousand  five  hundred  and  sixty- 
three,  an  increase  of  thirteen  thousand  two  hundred  and 
thirty-three,  or  nearly  twelve  per  cent,  upon  that  of  the 
previous  year. 

May  4th,  the  eighteenth  anniversary  of  the  Young 
Men's  Mercantile  Library  association  was  observed  with 
much  eclat.  A  poem  was  recited  by  Thomas  Buchanan 
Read,  and  the  Hon.  J.  T.  Morehead  delivered  an  address 
upon  the  Growth  of  Commerce  in  the  West. 

The  same  day  was  characterized  by  a  widely  different 
transaction — the  murder  of  William  Church  by  Henry 
Le  Count,  for  which  the  assassin  suffered  the  extreme 
penalty  of  the  law  on  the  twenty-sixth  of  the  ensuing 
December.  This  was  the  first  private  execution  under 
the  statute  requiring  privacy,  and  was  in  the  jail-yard, 
about  which  surged  an  immense  multitude,  while  there 
were  many  onlookers  from  the  windows  which  com- 
manded a  view  of  the  scene. 

This  was  the  year  of  Kossuth's  tour  in  the  United 
States,  in  the  course  of  which  he  visited  Cincinnati. 
Francis  Pulszky,  his  compatriot  and  fellow-traveller, 
makes  the  following  notes  of  the  visit,  in  the  book  of 
Sketches  of  American  Society  published  by  himself  when 
the  tour  was  over.     Says  Pulszky: 

I  preceded  Kossuth  thither,  in  order  to  deprecate  on  his  part  all  costly 
processions,  pageantry  and  banquets;  and  as  he  was  exhausted  already 
by  speeches,  I  wished  to  arrange  matters  so  that  he  should  onlv  once 
address  the  multitude,  and  once  those  who  had  formed  themselves  into 
associations  of  friends  of  Hungary. 

But  as  soon  as  I  was  introduced  to  the  committee  of  arrangements, 
I  saw  that  my  diplomacy  must  fail.  Thirty  gentlemen  belonged  to  that 
body,  and  the  great  question  was  just  under  discussion  whether,  be- 
sides the  mayor  of  the  city,  it  should  be  the  chairman  of  the  city  coun- 
cil, or  the  chairman  of  the  committee  of  arrangements,  who  was  to 
occupy  the  carriage  with  the  '  city's  guest '  at  the  festive  entry.  I  do 
not  remember  how  this  grave  concern  was  settled;  but,  of  course,  it 
was  impossible  under  such  circumstances  to  carry  the  proposal  that  no 
procession  should  be  held.  Besides,  every  coterie  claimed  a  separate 
speech;  and  the  result  was  that  Kossuth  had  to  address  'the  Big  peo- 
ple' of  Cincinnati  at  a  banquet,  and  others  again  at  'Nixon's  hall,' 
and  then  the  ladies  and  the  Northern  Germans,  and  the  Southern  Ger- 
mans, and  the  fashionable  public  at  large,  and  the  lower  classes  at 
large,  and  likewise  the  inhabitants  of  Covington,  the  suburbs  of  Cin- 
cinnati on  the  Kentucky  side. 

But  this  was  not  the  only  consequence  of  the  want  of  homogeneity 
in  the  population  of  Cincinnati.  Kossuth  several  times  requested  the 
members  of  the  committee  to  allow  that  he  should  himself  bear  his 
own  expenses,  and  that  the  appropriation  made  for  his  entertainment 
by  the  city  council,  which  had  invited  him,  should  be  given  to  the 
Hungarian  fund,  The  committeemen  declined  to  comply  with  his  de- 
sire; it  seemed  to  them  mean  to  do  it.  We  left  Cincinnati;  and  Mr. 
Coleman,  the  lessee  of  the  Burnet  Honse— the  splendid  hotel  in  which 
we  had  been  accommodated— presented  his  bill  to  the  city  council. 

Some  other  remarks  of  Pulszky's  are  in  better  temper : 

American  grandiloquence  is  too  well-known.  We  can  scarcely  sup- 
press a  smile,  when  every  westerner  whom  we  meet,  assures  us  in  the 
first  moment  of  our  acquaintance,  that  America  is  a  great  country. 
But  when  we  see  Cincinnati,  with  its  one  hundred  and  thirty  thousand 
inhabitants,  its  extensive  commerce  and  navigation;  the  canal  connect- 
ing the  Ghi  with  Lake  Erie;  the  railways  radiating  in  every  direction 
from  this  common  centre;  its  schools  and  colleges;  its  astronomical 
observatory;  its  ninety-two  churches  and  chapels;  its  ten  daily  papers, 
and  its  numerous  beneficent  institutions;  and  when  we  remember  that 
in  1788  this  city  was  laid  out  in  the  wilderness,  we  must  excuse  the 
boast  of  the  American.  He  has  full  right  to  pride  himself  on  his  nation 
and  on  its  energies.    After  the  difficulties  he  has  surmounted,  and  with 



the  self-confidence  they  have  inspired  in  him,  he  does  not  know  the 
limit  which  could  stop  his  progress. 


Estimated  population,  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  thou- 
sand; other  figures  report  it  more  specifically  at  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-one  thousand  one  hundred  and  eighty-six 
— a  large  increase  in  either  case. 

The  city  building,  between  Plum  and  Qentral  avenue, 
on  Eighth  street,  was  erected  this  year,  two  hundred  and 
five  feet  long  and  fifty-two  feet  wide.—  The  ground  and 
park-  in  front  cost  sixty  thousand  dollars,  the  building 
about  twenty-seven  thousand  dollars.  It  is  still  occupied 
by  the  city  offices,  though  long  since  insufficient  and  un- 
fit for  their  purposes.  The  park  comprises  about  one 
and  a  quarter  acres. 

On  the  ninth  of  December  a  remarkable  criminal 
trial,  known  in  the  bar  traditions  as  the  "  Kissane  forgery 
case,"  came  up  for  hearing  and  determination. 

Cincinnati  had  at  least  one  distinguished  visitor  this 
year,  in  William  Chambers,  the  renowned  Edinburgh  au- 
thor and  publisher.  In  the  inevitable  book  that  fol- 
lowed he  remarked  of  Cincinnati,  among  other  things : 

Public  education  being  enjoined  and  liberally  provided  for  by  the 
laws  of  Ohio,  the  stranger  who  takes  any  interest  in  such  matters  will 
find  in  Cincinnati  numerous  schools  worthy  of  his  notice,  in  which  in- 
struction of  the  best  quality  is  imparted  without  charge  to  all  pupils 
indiscriminately.  Where  free  education  exists  in  England,  it  is  a 
charity;  here  it  is  a  right.  The  natural  fruit  of  a  system  so  exceed- 
ingly bounteous  is  an  educated  population,  possessing  tastes  and  as- 
pirations which  seek  a  solacement  in  literature  from  the  materialities  of 
every-day  life.  I  do  not  know  that  I  ever  saw  a  town  of  its  size  so  well 
provided  as  Cincinnati  with  publishers,  libraries  and  reading-rooms. 
The  Young  Men's  Mercantile  Library  association  has  a  most  imposing 
suite  of  apartments  fitted  up  as  a  library  and  reading-room — the  num- 
ber of  books  amounting  to  fourteen  thousand  volumes,  and  the  reading 
room  showing  a  display  of  desks,  on  which  are  placed  nearly  a  hundred 
newspapers.  Cincinnati  is,  I  believe,  also  favorably  known  for  its  cul- 
tivation of  the  fine  arts;  and  its  exhibition  of  pictures,  at  any  rate,_ shows 
that  its  inhabitants  do  not  employ  all  their  time  in  mere  money-making. 
In  the  cathedral  of  St.  Peter  there  are  some  valuable  paintings  by  Eu- 
ropean artists;  one,  by  Murillo,  having  been  a  gift  from  Cardinal  Fesch. 


May  5  th,  the  new  superior  court  was  organized,  with 
Bellamy  Storer,  Oliver  M.  Spencer,  and  W.  Y.  Gholson, 
as  judges. 

May  26th  a  citizen  named  Arrison  was  murdered  by 
means  of  an  infernal  machine. 

July  27th  is  the  date  of  a  notable  event  in  the  organ- 
ization of  the  fire  department  of  the  city — the  public  trial 
of  the  steam  fire  engine  Citizen's  Gift,  built  in  Cincinnati 
and  paid  for  by  a  popular  subscription. 

The  population  is  set  down  this  year  at  one  hundred 
and  seventy  thousand  and  fifty  seven. 


Population  one  hundred  and  seventy-two  thousand 
three  hundred  and  seventy.  Growth  is  slower,  and  the 
rate  of  increase  now  falls  off  year  by  year. 

On  Washington's  birthday  a  grand  "dramatic  festival" 
or  performance  is  given  at  the  National  theatre,  on  Syca- 
more street,  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor.  A  number  of 
well  known  citizens  take  part  as  amateurs;  among  them 
Charles  Anderson,  Judge  Flinn,  William  H.  Lytle,  Wil- 

liam B.  Cassily,  and  Martin  B.  Coombs.  Four  thousand 
dollars  are  realized  from  the  receipts. 

April  5th  there  is  a  sharp  fight  "over  the  Rhine"  be- 
tween the  Know  Nothings  and  the  Germans.  On  the 
tenth — city  election  day — there  is  a  mob  in  the  Elev- 
enth ward,  which  destroys  a  ballot-box  and  scatters  the 

June  14th,  an  accident  occurs  in  the  course  of  excava- 
tion of  the  Walnut  Hills  railway  tunnel,  which  kills  five 

August  28th,  occurs  the  opening  of  the  Cincinnati, 
Wilmington  &  Zanesville  railroad. 


The  estimate  of  population  for  this  year,  which  is  also 
continued  for  the  next,  is  one  hundred  and  seventy-four 
thousand.  If  this  statement  be  correct,  or  approximate 
correctness,  the  town  was  virtually  at  a  stand-still  for  one 

February  2d,  a  vote  was  given  by  the  citizens,  author- 
izing the  loan  of  the  city's  credit  to  the  amount  of  six 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  to  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  rail- 

April  4th,  Police  Lieutenant  Parker  loses  his  life  at  the 
hands  of  an  assassin. 

May  20th,  the  Daily  Times  publishes  the  names  of  fif- 
teen residents  of  Cincinnati,  then  still  surviving,  who  had 
lived  in  the  city  fifty  years  or  more,  and  were  all  more 
than  seventy  years  old ;  thirteen  others  had  lived  here 
thirty  to  fifty  years;  forty-three  were  sixty  to  seventy  years 
old,  and  had  lived  here  over  thirty  years ;  and  thirty-four 
more,  not  so  old,  had  lived  in  Cincinnati  more  than  that 
period.  The  pioneers  were  largely'of  hardy,  long-lived 
stock.  A  number  of  additional  names  were  sent  in  by  a 
correspondent  the  next  day. 


May  29th,  the  city  council  passes  an  ordinance  prohib- 
itory of  the  sale  of  liquor  on  Sunday,  by  a  vote  of  twenty- 
six  to  seven.  On  the  twenty-eighth,  Jacob  W.  Piatt  dies. 
On  the  thirtieth,  there  is  great  excitement  over  a  fugitive 
slave  case,  in  the  course  of  which  the  United  States  mar- 
shal is  stabbed,  but  not  killed. 

June  24th,  grand  railroad  excursions  start  for  St.  Louis, 
New  York,  and  Boston,  to  celebrate  the  opening  of  the 
Ohio  &  Mississippi  and  the  Marietta  &  Cincinnati  rail- 

July  2,  a  very  destructive  fire  occurs,  laying  in  ashes 
Resor's  stave  factory,  Johnston  &  Meader's  furniture 
factory,  and  other  establishments,  with  a  total  loss  of 
two  hundred  thousand  dollars.  On  the  twenty-second 
occurs  the  Loefner  murder  and  suicide,  in  which  Nicho- 
las T.  Horton  also  loses  his  life  by  the  hand  of  violence. 

A  great  coal  famine  prevailed  at  one.  time  this  year; 
and  fuel  of  no  other  kind  being  available  in  sufficient 
quantity  to  afford  relief,  the  price  of  coal  rose  to  seventy- 
five  and  eighty  cents  a  bushel.  All  classes,  except  the 
coal  dealers,  were  much  embarrassed  by  it,  and  the  poor 
suffered  terribly,  in  some  cases  actually  burning  furniture, 
partitions,  fences,  and  whatever  else  was  at  hand  that 
was   combustible.     In  this  exigency  considerable  pres- 


sure  was  brought  to  bear  upon  the  city  council  to  vote 
relief — a  measure  headed  by  Hon.  Benjamin  Eggleston, 
then  chairman  of  the  finance  committee  of  the  council. 
After  much  opposition  a  vote  of  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  was  obtained,  not  as  a  gift,  but  as  a  fund  for  use 
in  lifting  the  blockade.  A  meeting  of  presidents  of  all 
the  railways  leading  into  Cincinnati  was  held  and  ar- 
rangements consummated  for  the  exclusive  use  of  their 
freight  trains  for  a  few  days  in  the  transportation  of  coal. 
This  soon  afforded  relief.  Deliveries  at  first  were  limited 
to  three  bushels,  at  twenty-five  cents  per  bushel,  which 
represented  actual  cost;  and  were  increased  as  larger 
supplies  were  received.  When  accounts  were  finally 
adjusted  the  balance  against  the  city  was  very  small, 
while  a  vast  amount  of  good  had  been  done. 

A  similar  event  occurred  in  1863;  but  in  this  case  an 
absolute  grant  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  was 
made,  which  was  paid  out  weekly  to  the  needy  in  small 
sums,  chiefly  to  the  families  of  soldiers  in  the  army. 


An  official  census,  taken  this  year,  gives  the  city  an  enu- 
meration of  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  sixty-eight.  The  original  Pike's  Opera 
House  is  erected,  to  the  great  delight  of  the  citizens. 
The  report  of  the  Superintendent  of  the  Merchant's  Ex- 
change says :  "The  most  splendid  opera  house  in  the 
whole  country  has  been  built.  Whole  squares  have  been 
so  changed  by  replacing  the  old  buildings  by  new  as  not  to 
be  recognized,  new  streets  have  been  opened,  and  the  city 
rapidly  extended  over  the  available  space  on  the  west." 

February  29th,  Captain  J.  B.  Summons,  a  prominent 
citizen,  exchanges  time  for  eternity. 

April  13th,  John  Mitchell's  chair  factory  is  burned,  and 
William  Gaither  accidentally,  killed.  On  the  twenty- 
second,  Pryor  P.  Lee,  engineer  at  the  Cincinnati  Type 
Foundry,  was  badly  hurt  by  the  explosion  of  an  infernal 
machine.  A  gas  explosion  also  occurred  this  year  in  the 
basement  of  the  Radical  Methodist  Church  on  Sixth 
street,  and  a  number  were  severely  injured. 

May  9th,  Gregory  is  murdered  by  Kendall. 

October  21st,  Augustus  Ward  murders  John  Mortimer. 

The  city  had  a  visit  this  year  from  the  famous  English 
poet,  Charles  Mackay.  He  devoted  to  Cincinnati  a 
pleasant  letter  of  some  length,  but  it  is  hardly  so  interest- 
ing to  read  as  some  of  the  older  accounts  of  travelers. 


The  last  of  Mr.  Cist's  valuable  volumes  was  published 
this  year,  under  the  title  of  Cincinnati  in  1859.  We  ob- 
tain from  it  much  of  the  information  which  follows.  He 
estimates  the  local  population  at  two  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  thousand,  which  must  have  included  all  the  suburbs, 
since  an  enumeration  before  us,  purporting  to  be  official, 
places  the  number  of  inhabitants  at  only  one  hundred  and 
seventy-eight  thousand  three  hundred  and  fifteen.  The 
colored  population  had  been  reduced  from  a  ratio  in 
1840  of  one  in  twenty  to  one  in  thirty-seven.  The  centre 
of  population  in  the  United  States  had  approached  nearer 
to  Cincinnati,  the  exact  centre  being  a  little  below  Ma- 

The  city  now  had  a  river  front  of  about  six  miles,  with 
an  average  depth  to  the  north  corporation  line  of  one 
and  one-fifth  miles.  Its  area  was  four  thousand  five 
hundred  and  twenty-one  acres,  of  which  about  one-quar- 
ter, or  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  acres  in 
the  north  part,  was  not  subdivided  into  city  lots.  This, 
however,  was  more  than  made  good  by  the  suburbs  on 
the  east,  west,  and  north,  which  were  almost  as  com- 
pactly built  as  the  city  itself.  The  number  of  brick 
buildings,  but  twenty-two  per  cent,  of  the  whole  in  18 15, 
was  now  eighty  per  cent.  It  was  thought  that  there  was 
no  city  in  the  world,  equal  or  greater  in  population,  in 
which  there  was  so  large  a  share  of  resident  property- 
holders.  A  marked  improvement  in  the  style  of  public 
buildings  was  noted.  Among  the  more  recently  built 
were  Pike's  Opera  House,  then  considered  the  finest 
public  building  built  by  private  resources  in  the  world, 
the  Central  Presbyterian  church,  and  the  Masonic 
temple.  1  he  Carlisle  building  and  Shillito's  former  store 
are  also  mentioned  in  terms  of  praise;  also  the  compara- 
tively new  post  office  and  custom  house  at  the  corner  of 
Vine  and  Fourth  streets,, and  the  Marine  hospital  on  the 
corner  of  Lock  and  Six'jji."-  _,  ;  "t 

The  vine  culture  had"begn  greatly  extended  within 
twenty  miles  of  the  city,  two  thousand  acres  being  covered 
with  vineyards,  and  four  hundred-  thousand  gallons  of 
wine  made  per  year.  Cincinnati 'fe'ad  become,  probably, 
the  most  extensive  manufacturing  eity  in  the  country. 
The  capital  and  yearly  expenses  invested  in  manufactures 
and  mechanical  operations  were  estimated  at  ninety 
million  dollars,  with  a  profit  of  thirty-three  and  one-third 
per  cent.,  or  thirty  million  dollars.  Forty-five  thousand 
persons  were  engaged  in  this  department  of  industry, 
while  five  thousand  six  hundred  were  in  trade  and  com- 
merce, handling  values  of  eighty  million  dollars,  upon 
which  ten  millions  were  realized,  or  a  profit  of  twelve  and 
one-half  per  cent.  The  value  of  manufactured  products 
for  the  year  was  one  hundred  and  twelve  million,  two 
hundred  and  fifty-four  thousand  four  hundred  dollars, 
against  fifty-four  million,  five  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  . 
one  hundred  and  thirty-four  dollars  in  1851,  and  seven- 
teen million,  seven  hundred  and  eighty  thousand  and 
thirty-three  dollars  ten  years  before.  The  average  value 
of  raw  materials  was  but  fifty  per  cent,  of  the  entire  pro- 
duct. The  imports  of  the  year  were  expected  to  reach 
eighty-five  millions,  and  exports  ninety  millions,  giving  a 
"balance  of  trade"  in  favor  of  Cincinnati  of  five  millions. 
The  railway  lines  running  into  the  city  now  were  the 
Little  Miami,  the  Marietta  &  Cincinnati,  the  Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton  &  Dayton,  the  Cincinnati  &  Indiana,  and 
the  Ohio  &  Mississippi.  The  place  was  in  full  connec- 
tion with  three  thousand  two  hundred  and  thirty-two 
miles  of  railroad,  and  four  thousand  seven  hundred  and 
eighty-nine  miles  of  connecting  lines  were  under  way. 
Near  Cincinnati  the  Dayton  &  State  Line  and  the  Cin- 
cinnati &  Indiana  Junction  were  in  preparation. 

The  city  had  two  banks,  one  savings  bank,  eight  pri- 
vate banks,  and  one  emigrant  and  remittance  office.' 
Insurance  had  been  largely  developed,  and  there  were 
sixteen  local  companies  and  forty-three  foreign  compa- 



nies  represented.  The  higher  interests  of  the  community 
had  kept  pace  with  the  material  in  their  march.  In  jour- 
nalism, there  were  nine  daily  newspapers,  twenty-two 
weeklies,  six  semi-monthlies,  thirteen  monthlies,  and  two 
annuals — a  very  fine  exhibit  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  cen- 
tury ago.  Much  had  been  done  for  science,  literature, 
and  art.  The  Ohio  Mechanics'  institute  had  nine  hun- 
dred and  fifty  .members,  and  was  handsomely  lodged  in 
its  building  on  the  corner  of  Vine  and  Sixth.  The  Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural  society's  fairs,  then  held  every  spring 
and  fall,  were  very  popular,  and  the  society  was  doing  a 
good  work  in  its  province.  A  great  deal  of  excellent 
work  in  astronomy  was  being  done  by  Professor  Mitchel 
and  his  pupils  at  the  observatory.  The  Young  Men's 
Mercantile  Library  association  had  three  thousand  and 
seventy  members,  and  a  collection  of  nearly  twenty  thou- 
sand volumes,  with  an  annual  circulation  of  forty-five 
thousand.  The  feeling  toward  fine  art  had  been  im- 
proved; and  Mr.  William  Wiswell,  at  No.  70  West  Fourth 
street,  was  devoting  the  whole  lower  floor  of  his  building 
to  a  free  art  gallery,  which  had  become  a  familiar  resort, 
especially  of  evenings. 

Education  was  also  far  advanced.  The  public  schools 
employed  two  hundred  and  seventy-eight  teachers,  which 
was  twice  as  many  as  in  1850,  and  four  times  as  many  as 
in  1840.  There  was  sixteen  fine  school  buildings,  hold- 
ing about  nine  hundred  pupils  apiece;  and  instruction 
was  also  given  at  public  expense  in  the  city  infirmary  and 
the  orphan  asylum.  The  Woodward  high  school  had  six 
teachers  and  one  hundred  and  seventy-six  pupils;  the 
Hughes  high  school  as  many  teachers  and  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty-nine  pupils.  The  lower  schools  in- 
cluded twenty  district,  four  intermediate,  and  six  night 
district  schools.  There  was  also  one  night  high  school 
and  one  normal  school.  The  expense  of  all  for  1858-was 
one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  thousand  six  hundred  and 
five  dollars.  The  Roman  Catholic  parochial  schools  had 
seventy-eight  teachers  and  seven  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  pupils;  private  schools  and  academies  over  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  teachers  and  four  thousand  students. 
The  most  prominent  of  these  were  the  Wesleyan  Female 
college,  the  Cincinnati  Female  seminary,  the  Mount  Au- 
burn Young  Ladies'  institute,  Herron's  seminary  for 
boys,  the  English  and  Classical  school,  the  Law  school 
in  Cincinnati  college,  St.  Xavier's  college,  six  medical 
colleges,  and  Bartlett's  Commercial  college. 

May  6th,  the  local  bar  loses  one  of  its  prominent  mem- 
bers, W.  R.  Morris,  esq.,  by  death. 

May  16th,  Johnson  &  Meader's  furniture  factory  burns 
again,  with  ten  other  buildings. 

August  20th,  the  Dayton  and  Michigan  railroad  is 
opened,  giving  Cincinnati  new  connections  with  Toledo 
and  Detroit. 

September  29th,  the  "Little  Giant"  from  Illinois,  Hon. 
Stephen  A.  Douglas,  then  in  training  for  a  nomination  to 
the  Presidency  the  next  year,  visits  the  city  and  is  warmly 
received  by  his  friends  and  admirers. 



The  former  half  of  this  was  filled  with  the  prologue, 
the  acts,  and  the  epilogue  of  the  great  drama  of  civil  war. 
The  events  of  every  one  of  its  years,  in  Cincinnati  and 
Hamilton  county,  that  are  worthy  of  public  record,  re- 
late almost  solely  to  this;  and  we  have  but  a  meagre  rec- 
ord besides  for  this  decade.  Special  chapters  will  be 
given,  directly  after  these  brief  notes,  to  the  part  which 
Cincinnati  played  in  the  enactment  of  the  mighty  tragedy. 


The  United  States  census  enumerated  the  total  popu- 
lation of  the  city  as  one  hundred  and  sixty-one  thousand 
and  forty-four.  The  population  by  wards,  as  in  other 
years,  will  be  found  in  a  table  below. 

This  was  the  year  of  the  visit  of  the  Prince  of  Wales  and 
his  illustrious  party  to  Cincinnati,  in  the  course  of  their  tour 
through  the  United  States.  They  came  on  the  special 
invitation  of  Mayor  Bishop,  and  were  of  course  elegantly 
entertained  while  here. 

In  January  came  to  the  Queen  City  the  excursion  of 
the  legislatures  of  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  upon  the 
occasion  of  the  completion  of  the  Louisville  &  Nashville 
railroad,  which  soon  afterwards  was  to  prove  so  service- 
able to  the  cause  of  the  Union,  in  the  transportation  of 
men  and  the  material  of  war.  The  Solons  went  on  to 
Columbus,  by  way  of  Xenia,  returned  to  this  city  by  way 
of  Dayton,  and  thence  to  their  homes. 

On  the  third  of  March  a  lamentable  accident  occurred 
at  the  new  St.  Xavier's  church,  on  Sycamore  street,  in 
the  falling  of  an  extensive  wall,  burying  no  less  than  six- 
teen persons  in  its  ruins — a  degree  of  fatality  almost,  if 
not  quite,  unequaled  in  the  history  of  similar  accidents. 

April  18th,  the  Young  Men's  Mercantile  Library  asso- 
ciation completed  its  twenty-fifth  year,  and  celebrated  a 
"Silver  Festival"  in  consequence. 

May  2d,  a  great  hurricane  sweeps  over  and  through 
Cincinnati,  unroofing  buildings  and  inflicting  many  other 
but  mostly  petty  losses. 

On  the  twenty -fourth  of  that  month,  the  street  railroads 
were  relieved  by  the  council  of  the  per  capita  tax  which 
had  theretofore  been  imposed. 


Three  hundred  and  thirty-six  new  buildings  were  put 
up  this  year — three  hundred  and  nine  of  brick  and  stone, 
and  twenty-seven  of  wood. 

January  9th,  officers  Long  and  Hallam,  of  the  police 
force,  were  killed  by  the  Lohrers,  father  and  son.  On 
the  twenty-fifth  Patrick  McHugh  was  hanged  for  the  mur- 
der of  his  wife. 

In  February  President-elect  Lincoln  passed  through 
Cincinnati  on  his  way  to  Washington  to  be  inaugurated. 
Mayor  Bishop  made .  a  reception  speech,  to  which  Mr. 
Lincoln  replied  in  terms  suited  to  the  momentous  crisis 
then  impending. 

April  13th,  comes  the  news  of  the  bombardment  of 
Fort  Sumter,  awakening  intense  indignation  and  the  de- 
sire for  speedy  and  adequate  punishment  of  the  South  for 



its  aggressions.  Camp  Harrison  is  soon  opened  for  the 
reception  of  volunteers,  on  the  race-ground  near  Cummins- 
ville.  On  the  eighteenth,  the  conflict  having  fully  opened, 
the  city  council  votes  two  hundred  thousand  dollars  to 
the  war  fund. 

May  ist,  a  committee  of  public  safety  for  the  city  was 
appointed.  On  the  seventeenth,  General  Robert  Ander- 
son, returning  from  his  luckless  post  at  Sumter,  was  given 
an  enthusiastic  public  reception  for  his  meritorious  con- 
duct there. 

June  20th,  the  Indiana  regiments  passing  through  Cin- 
cinnati were  fed  at  the  Fifth  street  market  house. 

August  2d,  occurred  the  first  reception  to  the  returning 
volunteers  of  the  three  months  regiments.  There  was, 
less  joy  and  enthusiasm  on  the  twenty-ninth,  when  the 
body  of  Major  General  Lyon,  killed  in  the  battle  of  Wil- 
son's creek,  near  Springfield,  Missouri,  was  received  with 
military  honors. 

September  27th,  an  uneasy  feeling  having  prevailed  for 
some  time  in  regard  to  possible  danger  from  the  direction 
of  Kentucky,  measures  were  taken,  but  not  carried  to 
completion,  to  fortify  the  city. 

October  ist,  came  the  first  sad  sight  of  the  arrival  of 
wounded  soldiers  from  the  front  of  battle. 


January  24th  marked  the  greatest  height  of.  another 
tremendous  freshet  in  the  Ohio,  which  reached  within Ta 
few  feet  of  the  high-water  mark  of  1832. 

February  17th,  was  celebrated  the  glorious  victory  of 
Fort  Donelson. 

March  10th,  death  of  the  well  known  poet,  one  of 
the  most  notable  ever  resident  in  Cincinnati,  W.  W.  Fos- 
dick.  On  the  20th  a  soldiers'  home  is  opened  in  the 
Trollopean  Bazaar.  On  the  25th  a  disturbance  occurs 
at  Pike's  opera  house,  in  consequence  of  a  lecture  there 
on  public  affairs  by  Mr.  Wendell  Phillips. 

July  1 8th,  a  state  of  alarm  prevails  in  the  city  in  con- 
sequence of  rebel  movements  in  Kentucky.  A  raid  by 
John  Morgan  upon  the  city  is  expected,  and  preparations 
are  made  for  defence.  On  the  second  a  great  war  meet- 
ing had  occurred  at  the  Fifth  street  market  place. 

August  nth,  citizens  and  soldiers  attend  in  large  num- 
bers the  funeral  of  Colonel  Robert  L.  McCook,  murdered 
by  guerrillas  while  riding  sick  in  an  ambulance  in  advance 
of  his  troops,  in  southern  Tennessee.  A  bust  of  heroic 
size  was  afterwards  set  up  to  his  memory  in  Washington 

September  2d,  genuine  and  well-based  alarm  again  pre- 
vails in  consequence  of  the  apparent  advance  on  Cincin- 
nati of  a  rebel  force  in  Kentucky,  under  Generals  Kirby 
Smith  and  Heath.  On  the  fourth  martial  law  is  pro- 
claimed in  the  city,  and  before  the  next  day  has  gone 
the  city  is  full  of  volunteers.  Ample  preparations  are 
made  here  and  back  of  Covington  for  resistance.  The 
famous  "squirrel  hunters'"  campaign  follows.  By  the 
fourteenth  the  alarm  is  mainly  over,  and  the  militia  are 
ordered  home  by  the  Governor. 

An  enumeration  of  population  this  year,  founded 
upon  the  school  census,  the  Directory,  or  some  other  ba- 

sis of  estimates,  yields  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  eighty- 
four  thousand  five  hundred  and  seventeen. 


Population  this  year,  by  official  estimate,  one  hundred 
and  eighty-six  thousand  three  hundred  and  twenty-nine. 

New  Year's  Day  the  great  sanitary  fair,  for  the  benefit 
of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers,  was  opened,  and  culmi- 
nated in  a  magnificent  success.  Its  operations  will  be 
detailed  at  some  length  in  the  next  chapter. 

In  January  died  Mrs.  Mary  Barr,  who  had  been  a  res- 
ident of  the  city  since  1809 — fifty-four  years. 

April  4th,  the  order  for  the  re-organization  of  the  State 
militia,  under  the  name  of  the  Ohio  National  Guard,  was 

May  5th,  the  place  of  amusement  known  as  the  Palace 
Varieties  was  burned.  On  the  fifteenth  of  the  same 
month,  the  operations  of  the  first  draft  for  the  army  be- 
gan in  Cincinnati. 

The  John  Morgan  raid  through  Hamilton  county  and 
southern  Ohio  generally,  occurs  in  early  July,  and  creates 
great  excitement  in  Cincinnati.  It  is  made  the  subject 
of  a  chapter  in  part  I  of  this  work. 

The  Plum  street  railway  depot — four  hundred  feet  by 
sixty-four — was  erected  this  year. 


This  year  the  present  Cincinnati,  Hamilton,  &  Dayton 
depot — four  hundred  by  sixty — was  put  up  at  the  corner 
of  Fifth  and  Hoadly  streets,  reaching  through  to  Sixth. 

Very  little  of  stirring  interest  happened  this  year, 
apart  from  the  events  of  the  war.  The  principal  scenes 
of  conflict  were  now  far  away — in  northern  Georgia  and 
by  the  rivers  of  Virginia — and  it  was  a  comparatively 
quiet  year  for  Cincinnati. 

The  estimate  of  population  for  the  year  is  one  hun- 
dred and  ninety-three  thousand,  seven  hundred  and 


The  estimate  is  increased  this  year  to  a  round  two 
hundred  thousand — probably  too  great,  as  all  the  esti- 
mates and  professed  enumerations  thereafter,  until  the 
official  census  of  1870,  which  shows  the  incorrectness  of 
Ihe  figures  for  a  number  of  previous  years. 

A  liberal  system  of  public  improvements  was  devised 
and  entered  upon  by  the  city  authorities  after  the  close 
of  the  war,  to  remedy  defects  and  neglects  which  were 
inevitable  during  the  continuance  of  the  great  struggle. 
It  included  the  present  magnificent  and  costly  structures 
occupied  by  the  Cincinnati  Hospital,  the  Workhouse, 
and  the  House  of  Refuge. 


Estimate  of  population,  two  hundred  and  ten  thou- 
sand, eight  hundred  and  sixty-six. 

January  27th,  the  police  and  fire  alarm  telegraph,  for 
which  a  persistent  pressure  had  been  kept  up  for  years, 
was  completed  and  successfully  put  in  operation. 

March  2  2d,  the  superb  opera  house  erected  by  Samuel 
N.  Pike  was  destroyed  by  fire.  It  had  two  thousand  sit- 
tings, and  on  the  occasion  of  Christine  Nilsson's  first 

4^^^  cf.cfcrli^Cr 



appearance  in  the  city,  had  held  three  thousand  and 
three  hundred  people.  Its  destruction  recalled  the  lines 
of  Mr.  T.  Buchanan  Read,  the  poet-artist,  to  Mr.  Pike: 

Who  builds  a  noble  temple  unto  Art, 
And  rears  it  grandly  from  the  head  and  heart, 
Hath  done  a  noble  service,  and  his  name 
Shall  live  upon  the  golden  roll  of  Fame. 

April  3d,  deceased  Mr.  M.  D.  Potter,  the  senior  pro- 
prietor of  the  Commercial. 

June  8th,  a  successful  swindle  was  perpetrated  upon 
the  Third  National  bank,  whereby  it  lost  the  sum  of 
four  thousand  five  hundred  dollars. 

July  nth,  another  calamity  happens  to  the  music  and 
amusement-loving  people  of  Cincinnati,  in  the  burning 
of  the  Academy  of  Music  building. 

The  cholera  visits  the  city  again  this  year,  and  with 
terribly  destructive  effect.  The  total  number  of  deaths 
from  this  cause  here  was  two  thousand  and  twenty-eight 
— one  in  every  ninety-five  and  seventy-four  hundredths 
population,  or  ten  and  forty-four  hundredths  in  every 
thousand.  On  the  thirteenth  of  August  there  are  eighty- 
six  deaths  by  cholera. 

August  21st,  the  splendid  Jewish  temple,  K.  K.  Benai 
Jeshurun,  at  the  corner  of  Eighth  and  Plum  streets,  was 

December  1st  the  great  Suspension  Bridge  is  at  last 
opened  to  foot  travel. 


New  Year's  day  had  a  very  satisfactory  celebration  for 
the  people  of  Cincinnati  and  the  Kentucky  suburbs,  in 
the  full  opening  of  the  suspension  bridge  to  all  kinds  of 
carriage  as  well  as  foot  travel. 

April  4th,  three  criminals,  George  Goetz,  Alexander 
Aulgus,  and  Samuel  Carr,  are  hanged  for  the  murder  of 
James  Hughes. 

Estimate  of  population  for  the  year,  two  hundred  and 
twenty  thousand  five  hundred.  This,  and  the  two  esti- 
mates which  follow  in  this  decade,  are  greater  than  the 
official  footings  of  1870.  The  new  buildings  of  the  year 
counted  up  one  thousand  three  hundred  and  seventy- 


Estimate  of  the  population,  two  hundred  and  thirty- 
five  thousand.  The  bonded  debt  of  the  city  was  now 
four  million  five  hundred  and  seven  thousand  dollars, 
having  increased  one  million  forty-seven  thousand  five 
hundred  dollars  within  a  year,  during  about  which  time 
had  been  erected  the  workhouse  and  the  hospital,  the 
greater  part  of  the  Eggleston  Avenue  sewer  had  been 
laid,  and  a  material  increase  in  the  facilities  afforded  by 
the  water-works  had  been  made.  The  hospital  alone, 
which  was  occupied  this  year,  cost  seven  hundred  and 
fifty  thousand  dollars.  The  aggregate  estimated  value  of 
property  in  the  city  was  eleven  million  three  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

June  1 8th,  a  great  thunder-storm  occurred,  during 
which  several  houses  in  the  city  were  struck  by  lightning, 
and  one  burned. 

On  the  ninth  of  July  the  Varieties  theatre  was  the  vic- 
tim of  the  fire-fiend. 

November  4th,  a  public  building,  devoted  to  a  very 
different  purpose,  the  Widows'  Home,  was  also  burned. 


The  estimated  population  for  this  year  was  put  in  round 
numbers  at  a  quarter  of  a  million — too  great,  probably, 
by  nearly  forty  thousand.     The  city  now,  according  to 
Mr.  George  E.  Stevens's  book  on  Cincinnati,  from  which 
we  condense  the  following  statements,  was  the  largest  and 
wealthiest  inland  city  in  America.     Although  but  eighty 
years  old,  it  had  reached  a  population  as  great  as  Phila- 
delphia had  after  one  hundred  and  sixty  years'  settle- 
ment, and  as  New  York  had  in  1833.     It  was  "moving 
steadily  and  compactly  forward  to  a  magnificent  future." 
It  "is  destined  to  become  the  focus  and  mart  for  the 
grandest  circle  of  manufacturing  thrift  on  this  continent, 
the  Edinburgh  of  a  new  Scotland,  the 
Boston  of  a   new  New  England,   the   Paris  of  a  new 
France."      Mill  creek  was  still  the  western  boundary,  but 
the  river  front  was  nearly  ten  miles  long,  and  the  north 
line  of  the  city  was  more  than  two  miles  from  low-water 
mark.     The  front  margin  of  the  lower  plateau,  originally 
a  steep  bank,  had  been  wholly  graded  down  to  a  gentle 
declivity,  and  much  of  the  surface  drainage  of  the  city 
passed  directly  into  the  river.     The  wholesale  business 
was  chiefly  on  Main,  Walnut,  Vine,  Second,  and  Pearl 
streets;    the  retail  trade  on  Fourth,  Fifth,  and  Central 
avenue.     The  great  staples  of  the  Cincinnati  markets — 
iron,  cotton,  tobacco,  sugar,  etc. — were  mainly  on  Front, 
Water,  and  Second  streets.     Pearl  street  was  largely  oc- 
cupied by  dry  goods,  notions,  clothing,  and  boot  and 
shoe  stores.     Third  was  then,  as  now,  the  Wall  street  of 
Cincinnati,  containing  many  of  the  banks,  insurance  and 
law  offices,  etc.     The  city  had  four  magnificent  retail 
shopping  establishments.     Some  superb  new  buildings 
had  gone  up,  including  those  we  have  named,  and  also 
the  St.  Paul's  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  at  the  corner 
of  Seventh  and  Smith  streets.     There  were  in  all  one 
hundred  and  nineteen  churches.     The  Tyler-Davidson 
fountain  was  in  progress.     The  Garden  of  Eden  park  had 
been  surveyed,  and  a  force  was  occupied  in  grading  it. 
Large  part  of  the  work  on  the  great  reservoir  in  the  park 
for  the  water-works,  had  been  done.     A  satisfactory  in- 
crease had  been  observed  in  the  numerous  branches  of 
productive  industry  followed  in  the  city.     The  total  esti- 
mated value  of  products  for  the  year  was  fifty  million  dol- 
lars.    About  twenty-five  thousand  children  were  in  the 
public  schools,  and  twelve  thousand  more  in  private  and 
parochial  schools  and  seminaries  of  learning,  among  which 
were  now  two  theological  seminaries.     The  death  rate 
per  year  was  only  eighteen  and  five  one-hundredths  in 
one  thousand  of  population;    and  from  the  single  cause 
of  consumption  only  nine  and  forty-eight  one-hundredths 
per  cent,  of  the  deaths  occurred,  against  fourteen  and 
two  one-hundredths  in  New  York  city,  and  fifteen  and 
thirty-eight  one-hundredths   in   Philadelphia.      The   fire 
department  was  regarded  in  efficiency  as  above  any  other 
on  the  face  of  the  earth,  and  the  previous  year  there  had 
been  a  remarkable  exemption  from  destructive  fires  in 



The  first  seven  months  of  1869  were  comparatively  de- 
void of  interesting  events.  August  was  characterized  by 
several,  however.  On  the  third  was  opened,  in  the  new 
Sinton  building,  near  the  Burnet  House,  the  Exposition 
of  Textile  Fabrics,  which  pioneered  the  magnificent  series 
of  industrial  expositions  that  have  since  followed.  A 
pretty  full  history  of  this  notable  success,  and  the  annual 
fairs  succeeding,  will  be  found  in  another  chapter.  On 
the  thirty-first  of  the  month,  a  party  of  fifty-three  Cin- 
cinnatians,  about  one-third  of  them  ladies,  and. including 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Buchanan  and  many  other  promi- 
nent residents,  started  on  an  excursion  to  California,  by 
way  of  the  Indianapolis,  Cincinnati  &  Lafayette,  Toledo, 
Wabash  &  Western,  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph,  St.  Joseph 
&  Council  Bluffs,  Union  Pacific,  and  Central  Pacific 
railroads.  The  project  was  started  among  the  members 
of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  the  number  going  limited 
to  sixty,  and  the  expense  of  round-trip  tickets  to  three 
hundred  dollars  each.  Most  of  the  party  returned  in  a 
body  October  8th,  after  an  extremely  agreeable  tour.  A 
neat  little  book  was  afterwards  made  of  the  letters  con- 
tributed by  a  correspondent  with  the  party  to  the  Cin- 
cinnati Commercial. 

On  the  twentieth  of  October  the  College  building,  on 
Walnut  street,  was  again  desolated  by  fire.  The  Mer- 
cantile Library  suffered  much  by  the  flames,  water,  and 
hasty  removal,  and  other  institutions  in  the  structure  sus- 
tained serious  loss. 

This  year  occurred  the  celebrated  struggle  over  the 
Bible  reading  practised  in  the  public  schools.  It  began 
at  a  regular  meeting  of  the  School  Board  September  6th, 
in  a  proposition  for  the  union  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
schools  with  the  public  schools,  and  an  amendment 
offered  to  prohibit  the  oral  reading  of  religious  books,  in- 
cluding the  Bible,  before  the  pupils  of  the  schools.  The 
subsequent  transactions  are  detailed  in  our  special  chap- 
ter on  Education. 



The  Queen  City  found  herself,  with  all  her  great  ad- 
vantages of  situation  for  commercial  and  other  purposes, 
peculiarly  and  quite  unhappily  placed  at  the  outset  of  the 
great  war  of  the  Rebellion.  Her  growth  had  been  largely 
the  result  of  Southern  trade;  her  business  connections 
with  the  South,  by  river  and  rail,  were  extensive  and  val- 
uable; while  her  social  connections,  through  the  large 
immigration  from  some  of  the  slave  States  to  Cincinnati, 
in  all  periods  of  her  history,  through  the  intermarriage 
of  many  Cincinnatians  with  Southern  families,  and 
through  interchanges  of  visits  and  courtesies,  were  ex- 
ceedingly numerous  and  powerful.  Mr.  Parton  says,  in 
his  little  aitid-  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly  (February,  1863), 
on  the  "Siege  of  Cincinnati,"  that  many  leading  families 
in  the  city  were  in  sympathy  with  the  Rebellion,   and 

that  there  were  few  which  did  not  have  at  least  one  mem- 
ber in  its  armies.  But,  he  adds,  "the  great  mass  of  the 
people  knew  not  a  moment  of  hesitation,  and  a  tide  of 
patriotic  feeling  set  in  which  silenced,  expelled,  or  con- 
verted the  adherents  of  the  Rebellion."  The  old  busi- 
ness relations  with  the  South  were  speedily  broken  up, 
and  the  city  soon  began  to  reap  a  great  pecuniary  harvest 
by  the  supply  of  gunboats  and  military  stores  in  immense 
quantity,  and  by  the  various  labors  incident  to  the  estab- 
lishment and  maintenance  of  camps  and  the  movement 
of  troops. 

Cincinnati,  by  her  local  situation,  had  also  much  cause 
for  fear.  It  was  by  far  the  largest  and  richest  city  of  a 
northern  State  upon  the  border  of  a  slave  State.  By  its 
wealth,  and  the  value  of  the  contents  of  its  banks,  its 
warehouses,  and  manufactories,  to  the  Confederacy,  as 
well  as  by  its  steadfast  and  abounding  loyalty,  its  -zeal 
and  activity  in  support  of  the  Union  cause,  the  vengeance 
to  be  wreaked  and  the  prestige  to  be  gained  by  its  fall,  it 
offered  a  standing  and  very  great  temptation  to  the  Con- 
federate arms  for  capture  and  plunder.  The  most  nota- 
ble facts  of  its  war  history  are  the  menace  delivered  from 
the  southward  by  the  rebel  generals  in  the  summer  of 
1862,  and  that  from  the  westward  and  northward  by  John 
Morgan  a  year  later.  Happily,  it  was  delivered  from  all 
its  dangers  to  the  end;  but  the  peril  was  none  the  less 
real  and  palpable  during  nearly  every  year,  and  in  many- 
months  of  the  war.  It  was  keenly  felt  at  the  dread  be- 
ginning; and  when,  in  April,  1861,  at  the  recommenda- 
tion of  Captain  George  B.  McClellan,  then  the  young 
president  of  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  railroad,  his  friend  and 
former  comrade,  Captain  Nathaniel  Pope,  of  the  regular 
army,  proceeded  to  Columbus  to  give  military  advice  to 
Governor  Dennison,  he  had  little  to  suggest  except  the 
purchase  of  some  big  columbiads  for  the  defence  of 
Cincinnati,  to  be  mounted  upon  the  hills  on  the  Ohio 
side,  since  nothing  of  the  kind  could  be  done  in  Ken- 
tucky, which  was  then  assuming  a  position  of  armed  neu- 
trality. The  Governor,  with  some  reasonable  doubts, 
signed  the  order  for  the  guns,  and  they  were  bought; 
but  history  is  silent  as  to  the  further  part  they  played  in 
the  suppression  of  the  Rebellion. 

The  position  of  Kentucky  was  of  eminent  importance 
to  the  safety  of  Cincinnati,  and  for  some  time  excited 
great  uneasiness,  which  was  measurably  relieved  by  the 
assurance  of  Judge  Thomas  M.  Key,  of  the  Ohio  State 
Senate,  who  had  been  sent  to  interview  Governor  Ma- 
goffin, that  the  Kentucky  executive  dwelt  particularly 
upon  "his  firm  purpose  to  permit  nothing  to  be  done 
that  could  be  viewed  as  menacing  the  city  of  Cincinnati." 
The  people  of  the  city,  however,  were  by  no  means  dis- 
posed, in  consequence  of  this  assurance,  to  grant  any 
concessions  to  treason.  Mr.  Reid  says,  in  his  "Ohio  in 
the  War": 

The  first  note  of  war  from  the  east  threw  Cincinnati  into  a  spasm  of 
alarm.  Her  great  warehouses,  her  foundries  and  machine  shops,  her 
rich  moneyed  institutions,  were  all  a  tempting  prize  to  the  confederates, 
to  whom  Kentucky  was  believed  to  be  drifting.  Should  Kentucky  go, 
only  the  Ohio  river  would  remain  between  the  great  city  and  the  needy 
enemy,  and  there  were  absolutely  no  provisions  for  defense. 

The  first  alarm  expended  itself,  as  has  already  been  seen,  in  the  pur- 



chase  of  huge  columbiads,  with  which  it  was  probably  intended  that 
Walnut  Hills  should  be  fortified.  There  next  sprang  up  a  feverish 
spirit  of  active  patriotism  that  soon  led  to  complications.  For  the  citi- 
zens, not  being  accustomed  to  draw  nice  distinctions  or  in  a  temper  to 
permit  anything  whereby  their  danger  might  be  increased,  could  see 
little  difference  between  the  neutral  treason  of  Kentucky  to  the  Govern- 
ment and  the  more  open  treason  of  the  seceded  States.  They  accord- 
ingly insisted  that  shipments  of  produce,  and  especially  shipments  of 
arms,  ammunition,  or  other  articles  contraband  of  war,  to  Kentucky 
should  instantly  cease. 

The  citizens  of  Louisville,  taking  alarm  at  this  threatened  blow  at 
their  very  existence,  sent  up  a  large  delegation  to  protest  against  the 
stoppage  of  shipments  from  Ohio.  They  were  received  in  the  council 
chamber  of  the  city  hall,  on  the  morning  of  April  23d.  The  city 
mayor,  Mr.  Hatch,  announced  the  object  of  their  meeting,  and  called 
upon  Mr.  Rufus  King  to  state  the  position  of  the  city  and  State  au- 
thorities. Mr.  King  dwelt  upon  the  friendship  of  Ohio  for  Kentucky 
in  the  old  strain,  and  closed  by  reading  a  letter  which  the  mayor  had 
procured  from  Governor  Dennison,  of  which  the  essential  part  was  as 
follows : 

"My  views  of  the  subject  suggested  in  your  message  are  these:  So 
long  as  any  State  remains  in  the  Union,  with  professions  of  attachment 
to  it,  we  cannot  discriminate  between  that  State  and  our  own.  In  the 
contest  we  must  be  clearly  in  the  right  in  every  act,  and  I  think  it  bet- 
ter that  we  should  risk  something  than  that  we  should,  in  the  slightest 
degree,  be  chargeable  with  anything  tending  to  create  a  rupture  with 
any  State  which  has  not  declared  itself  already  out  of  the  Union.  To 
seize  arms  going  to  a  State  v.  hich  has  not  actually  seceded,  could  give 
a  pretext  for  the  assertion  that  we  had  inaugurated  hostile  conduct, 
and  might  be  used  to  create  a  popular  feeling  in  favor  of  secession  where 
it  would  not  exist,  and  end  in  border  warfare,  which  all  good  citizens 
must  deprecate.  Until  there  is  such  circumstantial  evidence  as  to  cre- 
ate a  moral  certainty  of  an  immediate  intention  to  use  arms  against  us, 
I  would  not  be  willing  to  order  their  seizure;  much' less  would  I  be  wil- 
ling to  interfere  with  the  transportation  of  provisions." 

"Now,"  said  Mr.  King,  "  this  is  a  text  to  which  every  citizen  of  Ohio 
must  subscribe,  coming  as  it  does  from  the  head  of  the  State.  I  do 
not  feel  the  least  hesitation  in  saying  that  it  expresses  the  feeling  of  the 
people  of  Ohio. " 

But  the  people  of  Ohio  did  not  subscribe  to  it.  Even  in  the  meeting 
Judge  Bellamy  Storer,  though  very  guarded  in  his  expressions,  inti- 
mated, in  the  course  of  his  stirring  speech,  the  dissatisfaction  with  the 
attitude  of  Kentucky.  "This  is  no  time,''  he  said,  "for  soft  words. 
We  feel,  as  you  have  a  right  to  feel,  that  you  have  a  governor  who  can- 
not be  depended  upon  in  this  crisis.  But  it  is  on  the  men  of  Kentucky 
that  we  rely.  All  we  want  to  know  is  whether  you  are  for  the  Union, 
without  reservation.  Brethren  of  Kentucky !  The  men  of  the  North 
have  been  your  friends,  and  they  still  desire  to  be.  But  I  will  speak 
plainly.  There  have  been  idle  taunts  thrown  out  that  they  are  cowardly 
and  timid.  The  North  submits;  the  North  obeys;  but  beware!  There 
is  a  point  which  cannot  be  passed.  While  we  rejoice  in  your  friendship, 
while  we  glory  in  your  bravery,  we  would  have  you  understand  that  we 
are  your  equals  as  well  as  your  friends. '' 

To  all  this  the  only  response  of  the  Kentuckians,  through  their 
spokesman,  Judge  Bullock,  was  ' '  that  Kentucky  wished  to  take  no  part 
in  the  unhappy  struggle;  that  she  wished  to  be  a  mediator,  and  meant 
to  retain  friendly  relations  with  all  her  sister  States.  But  he  was  greatly 
gratified  with  Governor  Dennison 's  letter." 

The  citizens  of  Cincinnati  were  not.  Four  days  later,  when  their  in- 
dignation had  come  to  take  shape,  they  held  a  large  meeting,  whereat 
excited  speeches  were  made  and  resolutions  passed  deprecating  the 
letter,  calling  upon  the  governor  to  retract  it,  declaring  that  it  was  too 
late  to  draw  nice  distinctions  between  open  rebellion  and  armed  neu- 
trality against  the  Union,  and  that  armed  neutrality  was  rebellion  to  the 
Government.  At  the  close  an  additional  resolution  was  offered,  which 
passed  amid  a  whirlwind  of  applause : 

' '  Resolved,  That  any  men,  or  set  of  men,  in  Cincinnati  or  elsewhere, 
who  knowingly  sell  or  ship  one  ounce  of  flour  or  pound  of  provisions,  or 
any  arms  or  articles  which  are  contraband  of  war,  to  any  person  or  any 
State  which  has  not  declared  its  firm  determination  to  sustain  the  Gov- 
ernment in  the  present  crisis,  is  a  traitor,  and  deserves  the  doom  of  a 

So  clear  and  unshrinking  was  the  first  voice  from  the  great  conserva- 
tive city  of  the  southern  border,  whose  prosperity  was  supposed  to  de- 
pend on  the  southern  trade.  They  had  reckoned  idly,  it  seemed,  who 
had  counted  on  hesitation  here.  From  the  first  day  that  the  war  was 
opened,  the  people  of  Cincinnati  were  as  vehement  in  their  determina- 

tion that  it  should  be  relentlessly  prosecuted  to  victory,  as  the  people  of 

They  immediately  began  the  organization  of  home  guards,  armed 
and  drilled  vigorously,  took  oaths  to  serve  the  Government  when  they 
were  called  upon,  and  devoted  themselves  to  the  suppression  of  any 
contraband  trade  with  the  southern  States.  The  steamboats  were 
watched;  the  railroad  depots  were  searched;  and,  wherever  a  suspi- 
cious box  or  bale  was  discovered,  it  was  ordered  back  to  the  ware- 

After  a  time  the  general  government  undertook  to  prevent  any  ship- 
ments into  Kentucky,  save  such  as  should  be  required  by  the  normal 
demands  of  her  own  population.  A  system  of  shipment-permits  was 
established  under  the  supervision  of  the  collector  of  the  port,  and  pass- 
engers on  the  ferry-boats  into  Covington  were  even  searched  to  see  if 
they  were  carrying  over  pistols  or  other  articles  contraband  of  war;  but, 
in  spite  of  all  efforts,  Kentucky  long  continued  to  be  the  convenient 
source  and  medium  for  supplies  to  the  Southwestern  Seceded  States. 

The  day  after  the  Cincinnati  meeting  denouncing  his  course  relative 
to  Kentucky,  Governor  Dennison,  stimulated  perhaps  by  this  censure, 
but  in  accordance  with  a  policy  already  formed,  issued  orders  to  the 
presidents  of  all  railroads  in  Ohio  to  have  everything  passing  over  their 
roads  in  the  direction  of  Virginia  or  any  other  seceded  State,  whether 
as  ordinary  freight  or  express  matter,  examined,  and  if  contraband  of 
war,  immediately  stopped  and  reported  to  him.  The  order  may  not 
have  had  legal  sanction ;  but  in  the  excited  state  of  the  public  mind  it 
was  accepted  by  all  concerned  as  ample  authority.  The  next  day 
similar  instructions  were  sent  to  all.  express  companies. 

On  the  other  hand,  Cincinnati  began  active  efforts  to 
supply  the  northern  armies — not  only  with  competent 
officers  and  brave  men,  but  with  clothing,  food  and 
munitions  of  war.  Some  of  the  earliest  contracts  for 
uniforms  for  the  State  regiments  were  taken  in  the  city, 
and  Miles  Greenwood  very  soon  began  at  his  foundries 
the  manufacture  of  field-guns  for  twelve  batteries  ordered 
by  the  State,  as  also  the  rifling  of  old  muskets,  convert- 
ing them  into  what  became  known  as  "the  Greenwood 
rifle,"  and  was  in  time  highly  esteemed  by  the  troops. 

At  once  upon  the  sounding  of  the  tocsin  at  Sumter, 
Cincinnati  began  her  generous  offers  to  and  sacrifices  for 
the  Union.  The  Guthrie  Grays  and  the  Rover  Guards 
were  among  the  first  militia  companies  of  the  State 
whose  services  were  tendered  to  the  governor.  The  lat- 
ter, with  the  Zouave  Guards  and  the  Lafayette  Guards, 
both  also  of  Cincinnati,  became,  respectively,  companies 
A,  D  and  E,  in  the  original  organization  of  the  Second 
Ohio  infantry ;  and  the  former  was  made  the  nucleus  of 
the  Sixth  regiment  of  volunteer  infantry.  Colonel  Lewis 
Wilson,  who  had  promptly  resigned  the  high  office  of 
chief  of  police  in  Cincinnati,  to  offer  his  services  to  the 
government,  was  made  commandant  of  the  Second. 
General  Thomas  L.  Young,  since  governor  of  the  State 
and  member  of  congress,  foreseeing  the  trouble  that  was 
coming,  offered  his  aid  to  General  Scott  in  organizing  the 
volunteer  forces,  twenty-five  days  before  the  rebels  fired 
on  Sumter;  and  is  thus  claimed  to  have  been  the  first 
volunteer  from  Hamilton  county,  and  very  likely  from  the 
State,  unless  the  lamented  President  Andrews,  of  Kenyon 
college,  is  to  be  excepted.  Other  early  offers  from  pat- 
riotic men  in  various  public  and  private  stations, 
were  made  by  thousands;  and  the  entire  demand  made 
by  the  Federal  government  upon  the  State  of  Ohio,  in 
the  first  call  for  troops  (two  regiments),  could  have  been 
answered  in  this  city  alone,  as  it  was  by  the  State  at 
large,  within  twenty-four  hours.  Enlistments  in  Cincin- 
nati were  hearty  and  general  from  all  classes.  The  con- 
tingent  of    many   thousands  furnished   to  the  Federal 



armies  by  Hamilton  county  was  almost  wholly  Cincin- 
nati's contingent.  The  earlier  Kentucky  regiments,  fur- 
nished in  pursuance  of  Governor  Dennison's  noble  utter- 
ance after  the  insolent  and  treasonable  refusal  of  Governor 
Magoffin,  "If  Kentucky  will  not  fill  her  quota,  Ohio  will 
fill  it  for  her,"  were  largely  filled  by  Cincinnati  men. 
One  of  the  local  regiments,  the  Thirty-ninth,  furnished 
the  largest  number  of  re-enlisted  "veterans,"  five  hundred 
and  thirty-four,  of  any  Ohio  regiment  or  other  command 
of  any  arm  of  the  service.  The  first  Major  General  of 
the  Ohio  militia  (McClellan),  and  one  (Joshua  H.  Bates) 
of  the  three  brigadiers  appointed  by  the  governor  at 
once  after  the  outbreak  of  the  rebellion,  were  of  the 
Queen  City.  A  remarkable  number  of  the  most  distin- 
guished of  the  Union  generals  were  from  Cincinnati — 
Major  Generals  McClellan,  Rosecrans,  Mitchel  and 
Godfrey  Weitzel;*  Brevet  Major  Generals  R.  B.  Hayes, 
August  Willich,  Henry  B.  Banning,  Manning  F.  Force 
and  Kenner  Garrard;  Brigadier  Generals  Robert  L.  Mc- 
Cook,  William  H.  Lytle,*  A.  Sanders  Piatt,*  Eliakim  P. 
Scammon,  Nathaniel  McLean,  Melancthon  S.  Wade  and 
John  P.  Slough ;  and  Brevet  Brigadier  Generals  Andrew 
Hickenlooper,  Benjamin  C.  Ludlow,  Israel  Garrard,* 
William  H.  Baldwin,  Henry  V.  N.  Boynton,  Charles  E. 
Brown,*  Henry  L.  Burnet,  Henry  M.  Cist,*  Stephen  J. 
McGroarty,  Granville  Moody,  August  Moor,  Reuben  D. 
Mussey,  George  W.  Neff,  Edward  F.  Noyes,  Augustus  C. 
Parry,  Durbin  Ward  and  Thomas  L.  Young.  A  number 
of  the  more  eminent  commanders  of  Ohio  regiments,  of 
the  lamented  dead  of  the  war,  were  also  Cincinnatians — 
as  the  young  Colonel  Minor  Milliken,  Colonels  John  F. 
Patrick,  Frederick  C.  Jones,  William  G.  Jones  and  John  T. 
Toland.  The  first  governor  of  Ohio  during  the  rebellion, 
William  Dennison,  is  a  native  of  Cincinnati ;  and  another 
of  the  war  governors,  the  redoubtable  John  Brough,  was 
for  a  time  a  lawyer  and  editor  in  the  citv.  Hon.  Salmon 
P.  Chase,  the  great  secretary  of  the  treasury,  whose  ad- 
ministration of  the  National  finances  during  the  long 
struggle  was  so  efficient  that  a  leader  of  the  rebellion  said 
at  its  close:  "It  was  not  your  generals  that  defeated  us; 
it  was  your  treasury" — was  long  a  resident  of  Cincinnati, 
and  went  to  Washington  from  this  city.  A  host  of  other 
Cincinnatians,  in  various  civil  and  military  capacities, 
served  with  usefulness  and  honor  in  the  terrible  crisis. 
Especially  useful  to  the  government  were  the  medical 
men  of  Cincinnati.  The  first  surgeon-general  of  the 
State  appointed  by  Governor  Dennison  at  the  outbreak 
of  the  war,  on  the  recommendation  of  McClellan,  was 
Dr.  George  H.  Shumard,  of  the  city,  though  long  absent 
from  it,  engaged  in^  geological  surveys  and  otherwise. 
One  of  the  State  board  of  examiners,  before  whom  all 
candidates  for  appointment  as  surgeon  or  assistant  surgeon 
in  Ohio  commands  were  compelled  to  pass,  was  Dr.  John 
A.  Murphy,  of  Cincinnati.  More  than  half  the  entire 
number  of  "United  States  Volunteer  Surgeons,"  who 
entered  the  service  independently  of  special  commands, 
and  whose  addresses  are  given  in  "Ohio  in  the  War," 
were  Cincinnati  men.  One  of  these,  Dr.  William  H. 
Mussey,  ultimately  became  one  of  the  board  of  medical 

*  Natives  of  Cincinnati. 

inspectors — small  in  number,  but  important  and  influ- 
ential in  their  duties — who  stood  next  to  the  surgeon- 
general  and  his  assistant  as  the  ranking  medical  officers 
of  the  army.  Another,  Dr.  William  Clendenin,  became 
assistant  medical  director  of  the  army  of  the  Cumber- 
land. Another,  Dr.  Robert  Fletcher,  won  much  distinc- 
tion as  medical  purveyor  at  Nashville  for  the  great  armies 
operating  in  Tennessee  and  Georgia.  Some  of  the  regi- 
mental surgeons  became  scarcely  less  distinguished;  as 
Dr.  James,  of  the  Fourth  Ohio  cavalry,  who  rose  to  be 
the  chief  medical  officer  of  the  entire  cavalry  of  the 

Within  a  time  astonishingly  short,  after  the  outbreak 
of  the  war,  Camp  Harrison  was  established,  upon  the 
trotting  park  in  the  outskirts  of  Cumminsville,  and  troops 
began  pouring  in  thither.  General  William  H.  Lytle,  by 
whom  it  was  selected,  was  appointed  commander  of  the 
Camp.  The  Guthrie  Grey  regiment,  ready  by  the  after- 
noon of  April  20th,  and  several  other  companies,  were  the 
first  to  rendezvous  there.  Colonel  Geffroy,  of  the  Gib- 
son House,  set  to  work  in  town  among  the  ladies  of  the 
East  End,  and  soon  enlisted  a  large  number  of  them  in 
the  patriotic  work  of  collecting  materials  and  making  up 
underwear  for  the  soldiers  in  the  parlors  of  his  hotel, 
while  the  ladies  of  the  West  End  were  soon  engaged  in 
similar  work  at  a  private  residence.  The  Cincinnati  Aid 
association  was  organized  by  the  citizens  at  large,  to  help 
support  the  families  of  soldiers  in  the  field;  and  the 
Daughters  of  Temperance  also  organized  an  aid  society 
of  their  own. 

A  general  meeting  of  Irish  citizens  was  held  at  Mozart's 
hall  April  20th,  at  which  many  volunteeted,  and  a  reso- 
lution was  passed  to  raise  an  Irish  regiment,  several 
wealthy  men  present  offering  to  give  a  thousand  dollars 
each  for  the  purpose.  It  was  raised,  and  became  the 
Tenth  Ohio  infantry.  Ex-Mayor  R.  M.  Moore  raised 
one  company  of  it.  McCook's  German  regiment  was 
raised  with  great  promptitude,  elected  its  field  officers  on 
the  night  of  the  twenty-third,  and  went  to  camp  the  next 
day,  after  a  triumphal  march  through  the  city.  The  Sto- 
rer  Rifles  were  the  first  company  to  get  arms.  It  was 
splendidly  equipped  with  Sharp's  rifles,  the  private  prop- 
erty of  the  men.  Many  home  companies  were  recruited 
for  drill  and  organization,  one  or  two  in  every  ward;  and 
by  the  nineteenth  of  April  it  was  estimated  that  at  least 
ten  thousand  were  preparing  for  military  service.  On 
that  day  the  news  of  the  attack  at  Baltimore  on  Feder- 
al troops  was  received,  and  the  Germans  recruiting  for 
Cook's  regiment  paraded  the  streets  amid  great  enthusi- 
asm. Len  Harris,  afterwards  a  colonel  and  mayor  of 
the  city,  recruited  ninety  men  the  first  day  after  the  war 
opened.  The  printers  of  the  city  raised  a  company 
among  themselves.  The  Lafayette  Guards,  ordered  to 
Columbus,  took  upon  the  cars  two  hundred  and  seven 
men,  although  eighty-seven  men  was  then  the  maximum 
of  a  company.  The  loyal  enthusiasm  for  enlistment  and 
preparation  for  war  was  unbounded.  The  city  authori- 
ties voted  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars  from  the  sinking 
fund  for  the  purposes  of  the  opening  conflict,  and  the 



people  saw  to  it  that  the  American  flag  was  hung  from 
every  flagstaff  and  window  where  it  ought  to  be  floating, 
at  one  time  compelling  the  officer  in  charge  at  the  Cus- 
tom house  to  fling  it  to  the  breeze,  and  several  times 
obliging  masters  of  steamers  to  raise  aloft  the  banner  of 
of  beauty  and  of  glory.  After  one  or  two  vessels 
from  above  had  gone  by  without  landing,  evidently  with 
arms  and  munitions  of  war  for  the  South,  a  committe  of 
safety  was  appointed  to  see  that  no  more  such  articles 
passed  the  city.  Messrs.  Rufus  King,  Miles  Greenwood, 
William  Cameron,  Joseph  Torrence,  J.  C.  Butler,  and 
Henry  Handy  composed  the  committee.  Their  efforts 
were  cordially,  though  always  judiciously,  seconded  by 
an  excited  populace,  which  was  sometimes  on  the  point 
of  mobbing  suspected  steamers  or  recusant  captains.  An- 
other committee — Colonel  A.  E.  Jones,  C.  F.  Wilstach, 
and  Frederick  Meyer — was  also  appointed  to  act  in  con- 
junction with  the  city  authorities  in  stopping  the  ship- 
ment of  supplies  to  the  rebels;  and  still  another  commit- 
tee of  safety,  consisting  of  one  person  from  each  ward 
and  neighboring  township,  to  act  as  occasion  might  de- 
mand in  concert  with  the  military  and  municipal  author- 
ities. Joint  meetings  of  Cincinnati,  Newport,  and 
Covington  patriots  were  held — the  first  of  them  April 
18th;  and  no  pains  or  cost  was  spared  to  get  ready  for 
the  coming  conflict. 

The  sanitary  condition  of  the  troops  sent  to  the  field, 
and  compelled  to  live  under  conditions  widely  different 
from  those  to  which  they  had  been  accustomed,  early- at- 
tracted the  attention  of  philanthropic  and  patriotic  Cin- 
cinnatians,  and  called  for  organized  effort.  The  "Cincin- 
nati Branch  of  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission,'' 
one  of  the  most  efficient  societies  of  the  kind  formed  in 
the  north,  was  the  first  of  their  deliberations.  Its  story 
has  been  simply  and  pleasantly  told  in  brief  in  a  volume 
narrating  the  "History  of  the  Great  Western  Sanitary 
Fair,"  published  in  Cincinnati  after  the  culmination  of 

that  success. 

Soon  after  the  surrender  of  Fort  Sumter,  the  President  and  the  Sec- 
retary of  War  were  induced  by  certain  gentlemen  to  issue  an  order  au- 
thorizing them  and  their  associates  to  co-operate  with  the  Government 
in  the  relief  of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers,  and  to  prosecute  such  inqui- 
ries of  a  sanitary  character  as  might  further  the  same  end.  Under  this 
authority  these  parties  organized  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commis- 
sion, and  have  since  elected  to  that  body  a  few  others  not  originally  act- 
ing with  them.  They  also  construed  their  powers  as  enabling  them  to 
create  a  class  of  associate  members,  several  hundred  in  number,  resid- 
ing respectively  in  almost  every  loyal  State  and  territory.  The  duties 
of  these  associates,  and  the  extent  to  which  they  share  the  power  com- 
mitted to  the  original  members  have  never  been  precisely  defined. 

Appointments  were  made  as  early  as  May,  1861,  of  several  such  as- 
sociate members,  resident  in  Cincinnati;  but  no  organization  of  a  branch 
commission  was  effected  until  the  succeeding  fall. 

Through  the  instrumentality  of  Dr.  W.  H.  Mussey,  the  use  of  the 
United  States  marine  hospital,  an  unfurnished  building  originally  in- 
tended for  western  boatmen,  was  procured  from  Secretary  Chase,  a  ' 
board  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  organized  for  its  management,  and  the 
house  furnished  by  the  donations  of  citizens,  and  opened  for  the  recep- 
tion of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers  in  May,  1861.  This  institution  was 
carried  on  without  cost  to  the  Government,  all  necessary  services  of 
surgeons  and  nurses,  and  all  supplies,  having  been  supplied  gratuitously 
until  August,  1861,  when  the  success  of  the  enterprise  induced  the  Gov- 
ernment to  adopt  it,  and  it  was  taken  charge  of  by  the  Medical  Director 
of  the  Department.* 

*  Mrs.  Cadwell  became  its  matron.  Her  name  is  a  sacred  one  with 
thousands  of  soldiers  throughout  the  west. 

The  western  secretary  of  the  Sanitary  Commission  having  given  no- 
tice to  the  associate  members  resident  in  Cincinnati  of  their  appoint- 
ments, the  Cincinnati  branch  was  formally  organized,  at  a  meeting  at 
the  residence  of  Dr.  W.  H.  Mussey,  November  27,  1861.  Robert  W. 
Burnet  was  elected  president,  George  Hoadly,  vice-president,  Charles 
R.  Fosdick,  corresponding  secretary,  and  Henry  Pierce,  treasurer. 

The  body  thus  created  was  left  almost  wholly  without  instruction  or 
specification  of  powers.  It  had  no  other  charge  than  to  do  the  best  it 
could  with  what  it  could  get.  It  was  permitted  to  work  out  its  own 
fate  by  the  light  of  the  patriotism  and  intelligence  of  its  members.  If 
any  authority  was  claimed  over  it,  or  power  to  direct  or  limit  its  action, 
it  was  not  known  to  the  members  for  nearly  two  years  from  the  date  of 
its  organization. 

The  steps  actually  taken,  however,  were  from  time  to  time  communi- 
cated to  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission  at  Washington,  and  by 
them  approved.  Delegates  more  than  once  attended  the  sessions  of 
that  body,  and  were  allowed  to  participate  in  its  action.  The  Branch 
were  requested  to  print,  as  one  of  the  series  (No.  44)  of  the  publications 
of  the  Commission,  their  report  of  their  doings  to  date  of  March  1, 
1862  ;  and  two  thousand  five  hundred  copies  of  the  edition  were  sent  to 
Washington  for  distribution  from  that  point. 

Previous  to  the  organization  of  this  Branch,  an  address  had  been  is- 
sued by  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission  to  the  loyal  women  of 
America,  in  which  the  name  of  Dr.  Mussey  was  mentioned  as  a  proper 
party  to  whom  supplies  might  be  sent.  A  small  stock  had  been  received 
by  him,  which  was  transferred  to  the  Branch,  and  circulars  were  at  once 
prepared  and  issued  appealing  to  the  means  of  such  useful  action  as 
might  seem  open.  A  Central  Ladies'  Aid  Society  in  Cincinnati,  for 
Cincinnati  and  vicinity,  was  organized,*  and  the  cS-operation  of  more 
than  forty  societies  of  ladies  in  Hamilton  county  thus  secured.  This 
society,  it  is  proper  to  add,  continued  its  beneficial  connection  with  the 
Branch  in  vigorous  activity,  furnishing  large  quantities  of  supplies  of 
every  description,  for  nearly  two  years,  and  until  the  dispiriting  effect 
of  the  change  hereafter  to  be  noticed,  in  the  relations  of  the  branch  to 
the  work  of  distribution,  paralyzed  its  efforts,  and  resulted  finally  in  a 
practical  transfer  of  the  labors  of  the  ladies  to  other  fields  of  no  less 
patriotic  service. 

The  camps  and  hospitals  near  Cincinnati  were  subjected  to  inspec- 
tion, and  all  necessary  relief  was  furnished.  Concert  of  action  was  es- 
tablished with  the  Volunteer  Aid  Committee,  appointed  at  a  public 
meeting  of  citizens  in  October,  1861,  of  whom  Messrs.  C.  F.  Wilstach, 
E.  C.  Baldwin,  and  M.  E,  Reeves,  were  elected  members  of  the  Branch. 
Their  rooms,  kindly  furnished  free  of  expense  by  the  School  Board,  be- 
came its  office  and  depot ;  and  finally,  in  the  spring  of  1862,  a  complete 
transfer  was  made  of  all  the  stock  in  the  hands  of  that  committee  to  the 
Cincinnati  Branch,  and  the  former  body  was  merged  in  this. 

Under  the  stimulus  of  constant  appeals  to  the  public,  and  by  wise  use 
of  the  means  received,  the  confidence  of  the  community  having  been 
gained,  large  quantities  of  hospital  and  camp  supplies,  and  some  money, 
were  received,  and  the  members  entered  with  zeal  upon  the  duty  of  dis- 
tribution. The  force  which  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission 
then  had  in  the  West,  consisted  of  the  Western  Secretary  and  a  few  in- 
spectors, who  were  engaged  in  travelling  from  camp  to  camp,  without 
any  fixed  quarters.  The  body  was  not  prepared,  and  did  not  profess  to 
to  undertake  this  duty. 

A  serious  question  soon  presented  itself  to  the  mind  of  every  active 
member  of  the  Branch  whether  to  prosecute  the  work  of  distribution 
mainly  through  paid  agents,  or  by  means  of  voluntary  service.  At 
times  there  had  been  differences  of  opinion  upon  the  subject,  and  some 
of  the  members  have  had  occasion,  with  enlarged  experience,  to  revise 
their  views.  The  result  of  this  experience  is  to  confirm  the  judgment 
that  the  use  of  paid  agents  by  such  an  organization,  in  such  crises,  is, 
except  to  a  limited  extent,  inexpedient.  It  has  been  clearly  proved  that 
voluntary  service  can  be  had  to  a  sufficient  extent;  and  such  service 
connects  the  army  and  the  people  by.  a  constantly  renewing  chain  of 
gratuitous,  valuable,  and  tender  labors,  which  many  who  cannot  serve 
in  the  field  esteem  it  a  privilege  to  be  permitted  to  perform  in  the  sick 
room  and  the  hospital. 

The  members  of  this  Branch  felt  at  liberty  to  pledge  publicly,  in 
their  appeals  for  contributions,  that  the  work  of  distribution  should  be 
done  under  their  personal  supervision,  subject  of  course  to  the  control 
of  the  proper  medical  officers  of  the  army;  and,  until  late  in  the  au- 
tumn of  1862,  they  faithfully  kept  this  pledge,  and  were  able  to  effect, 
as  they  all  believed,  a  maximum  of  benefit  with  a  minimum  of  com- 
plaint.    Fault-finding  never  ceases  while  the  seasons  change;  but  the 

*Of  which  Mrs.  George  Carlisle  was  president,  and  Mrs.  Judge 
Hoadly  secretary.     All  its  members  were  devoted  workers. 



finding  of  fault  with  the  gratuitous  services  of  men  well  known  in  a 
community  have  no  power  to  injure. 

While  their  labors  were  prosecuted  under  this  plan,  nearly  every 
member  of  the  branch  was  brought  into  personal  contact  with  the  work 
of  distribution.  They  were  present  on  the  battle-field  of  Shiloh.  They 
were  first  at  Perryville  and  Fort  Donelson,  at  which  place  they  inaug- 
urated the  system  of  hospital  steamers.  They  called  to  their  aid  suc- 
cessfully the  services  of  the  most  eminent  surgeons  and  physicians,  and 
the  first  citizens  of  Cincinnati.  They  gained  the  confidence  of  the 
legislature  of  Ohio,  which  made  them  an  appropriation  of  three  thou- 
sand dollars;  and  of  the  city  council  of  Cincinnati,  who  paid  them  in 
like  manner  the  sum  of  two  thousand  dollars;  and  of  the  secretary  of 
war  and  the  quartermaster  general,  who  placed  at  their  control,  at 
Government  expense,  a  steamer,  which  for  months  navigated  the 
western  waters  in  the  transportation  of  supplies  and  the  sick  and 
wounded.  They  fitted  out,  in  whole  or  in  part,  thirty-two  such  steam- 
ers, some  running  under  their  own  management,  others  under  that  of 
the  governor  of  Ohio,  the  mayor  of  Cincinnati,  the  United  States 
sanitary  commission  and  the  war  department. 

The  relief  furnished  at  Fort  Donelson  by  this  Branch  constituted  a 
marked  and  at  the  same  time  a  novel  instance  of  their  mode  of  manage- 
ment, which  may  properly  receive  more  specific  mention  here,  as  it 
elicited  high  praise  from  the  Western  Secretary,  and  the  compliment  of 
a  vote  of  encouragement  from  the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission. 
In  this  case  a  handsome  sum  was  at  once  raised  by  subscription  among 
the  citizens,  and  the  steamer  Allen  Collier  was  chartered,  loaded  with 
hospital  supplies  and  medicines,  placed  under  the  charge  of  five  mem- 
bers of  the  Branch,  with  ten  volunteer  surgeons  and  thirty-six  nurses, 
and- dispatched  to  the  Cumberland  River.  At  Louisville  the  Western 
Sanitary  accepted  an  invitation  to  join  the  party.  It  was  also  found 
practicable  to  accommodate  on  board  one  delegate  from  the  Columbus 
and  another  from  the  Indianapolis  Branch  Commission,  with  a  farther 
stock  of  supplies  from  the  latter.  The  steamer  reached  Donelson  in  ad- 
vance of  any  uther  relief  agency.  Great  destitution  was  found  to  exist — 
on  the  field  no  chloroform  at  all,  and  but  little  morphia,  and  on  the 
floating  hospital  Fanny  Bullitt,  occupied  by  three  hundred  wounded, 
only  two  ounces  of  cerate,  no  meat  for  soup,  no  wood  for  cooking,  and 
the  only  bread  hard  bread — not  a  spoon  or  a  candlestick.  Sufferings 
corresponded.  Happily  the  Collier  bore  an  ample  stock,  and,  with 
other  parties  on  a  like  errand,  who  soon  arrived,  the  surgeons'  task  was 
speedily  made  lighter,  and  his  patients  gained  in  comfort.  The  Collier 
returned  after  a  short  delay,  bringing  a  load  of  wounded  to  occupy  hos- 
pitals at  Cincinnati,  which  this  Branch  had  meanwhile,  under  the  au- 
thority of  General  Halleck  and  with  the  aid  of  that  efficient  and  noble 
officer,  Dr.  John  Moore,  then  Post  Surgeon  at  Cincinnati,  procured 
and  furnished. 

This  was  but  the  beginning  of  very  arduous  and  extensive  services, 
personally  and  gratuitously  rendered  by  members  of  this  Branch.  They 
traveled  thousands  of  miles  on  hospital  steamers,  on  their  errands  of 
mercy,  and  spent  weeks  and  months  in  laborious  service  on  battle-fields 
and  in  camps  and  hospitals.  They  aided  the  Government  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  eight  hospitals  in  Cincinnati  and  Covington,  and  suggested 
and  assisted  the  work  of  preparing  Camp  Dennison,  seventeen  miles 
distant,  as  a  general  hospital  for  the  reception  of  thousands  of  patients. 
They  bought  furniture,  became  responsible  for  rent  and  the  pay  of 
nurses,  provided  material  for  the  supply-table,  hired  physicians,  and  in 
numberless  ways  secured  that  full  and  careful  attention  to  the  care  and 
comfort  of  the  soldiers  which,  from  inexperience,  want  of  means,  or  the 
fear  of  responsibility,  would  otherwise,  during  the  first  and  second  years 
of  the  war,  have  been  wanting. 

During  the  period  to  which  allusion  has  been  made,  the  United 
States  Sanitary  Commission  had  few  resources,  and  those  mostly  em- 
ployed in  proper  service  at  the  East,  where  the  members  principally  re- 
side. This  Branch  was  called  on  to  aid  that  body,  and,  to  the  extent 
of  its  means,  responded.  At  one  time  (early  in  1862)  it  was  supposed 
impossible  to  sustain  that  organization,  except  by  a  monthly  contribu- 
tion from  each  of  the  several  branches,  continued  for  six  months;  and 
this  Branch  was  assessed  to  pay  to  that  end  the  sum  of  two  hundred 
and  fifty  dollars  per  month  for  the  time  specified,  which  call  was  met 
by  an  advance  of  the  entire  sum  required,  viz. :  two  thousand  three 
hundred  and  seventy-five  dollars.  This  sum,  small  as  it  now  seems  in 
comparison  with  the  enormous  contributions  of  a  later  date,  was  then 
considered  no  mean  subsidy  by  either  of  the  parties  to  it. 

In  May,  1862,  the  Soldiers'  Home  of  the  Branch  was  established,  an 
institution  which,  since  its  opening,  has  entertained  with  a  degree  of 
comfort  scarcely  surpassed  by  the  best  hotels  in  the  city,  over  eighty 
thousand  soldiers,  furnishing  them  threehundred  and  seventy-two  thou- 

sand meals.  It  has  recently  been  furnished  with  one  hundred  new  iron 
bedsteads,  at  a  cost  of  five  hundred  dollars.  The  establishment  and 
maintenance  of  the  home  the  members  of  the  Cincinnati  branch  look 
upon  as  one  of  their  most  valuable  works,  second  in  importance  only  to 
the  relief  furnished  by  the  "sanitary  steamers"  dispatched  promptly  to 
the  battle-fields,  with  surgeons,  nurses  and  stores,  and  with  beds  to 
bring  away  the  wounded  and  the  sick;  and  they  may,  perhaps,  be  per- 
mitted with  some  pride  to  point  to  these  two  important  systems  6T  relief 
inaugurated  by  them.  The  necessity  for  the  last  mentioned  method  of 
relief  has  nearly  passed  away ;  we  hope  it  may  soon  pass  away  entirely, 
never  to  return.  The  home  long  stood,  under  the  efficient  superintend- 
ence of  G.  W.  D.  Andrews,  offering  food  and  rest  to  the  hungry  and 
wayworn  soldier,  and  reminding  us  of  the  kind  hearts  and  loyal  hands 
whose  patriotic  contributions  and  patient  toil,  supplementing  the  aid 
furnished  by  the  Government  through  the  quartermaster  and  commis- 
sary departments  of  the  army,  enabled  them  to  establish  it.  To  this 
aid  of  a  generous  and  benign  government,  dispensed  with  kindness  and 
alacrity  by  the  officers  who  have  been  at  the  heads  of  these  departments 
in  this  city,  this  institution  is  indebted,  in  great  measure,  for  its  exist- 
ence and  usefulness. 

The  importance  of  perpetuating  the  names  of  all  soldiers  whose  lives 
had  been  or  might  be  sacrificed  in  the  defense  of  our  Government,  being 
an  anxious  concern  of  many  of  the  members  of  our  commission,  and  re- 
garded by  them  as  of  so  much  importance,  they  early  resolved  that,  so 
far  as  they  could  control  the  matter,  not  only  should  this  be  done,  but 
that  their  last  resting  place  should -be  in  a  beautiful  city  of  the  dead, 
Spring  Grove  cemetery.  An  early  interview  was  had  with  the  trustees, 
who  promptly  responded  to  the  wishes  of  the  commission,  and  gratuit- 
ously donated  for  that  purpose  a  conspicuous  lot,  near  the  charming 
lake,  of  a  circular  shape,  and  in  size  sufficient  to  contain  three  hundred 
bodies.  In  addition  thereto,  this  generous  association  have  interred, 
free  of  expense  for  interment,  all  the  soldiers  buried  there.  This  lot 
having  become  occupied,  the  commission  arranged  for  another  of 
similar  size  and  shape  nearly,  for  the  sum  of  one  thousand  five  hundred 
dollars.  The  subject  of  the  payment  of  the  same  having  been  pre- 
sented to  the  legislature  of  Ohio,  the  members  unanimously  agreed 
that,  as  a  large  proportion  of  those  who  were  to  occupy  this  ground  as 
their  last  home  were  the  sons  of  Ohio,  it  was  the  proper  duty  of  the 
State  to  contribute  thereto.  In  accordance  therewith,  an  appropriation 
of  three  thousand  dollars  was  made  for  the  purpose,  subject  to  the  ap- 
proval of  His  Excellency,  Governor  Tod.  A  third  circle,  of  the  same 
size  and  shape, '  adjacent  to  the  others,  was  therefore  secured  at  the 
same  price.  The  propriety  of  this  expenditure  was  approved  of  by  the 
governor,  after  careful  examination  of  the  ground  and  its  value.  Two 
of  these  lots  have  been  filled,  and  the  third  is  in  readiness  for  occupancy, 
should  it  become  necessary.  A  record  is  carefully  made  on  the  books 
of  the  cemetery  of  the  name,  age,  company  and  regiment,  of  each  sol- 
dier interred  there,  that  relatives,  friends  and  strangers  may  know,  in  all 
time  to  come,  that  we  for  whom  their  lives  were  given  were  not  un- 
mindful of  the  sacrifice  they  had  made,  and  that  we  properly  appreciate 
the  obligations  we  are  under  to  them,  for  their  efforts  in  aiding  to  se- 
cure to  us  and  future  generations  the  blessings  of  a  redeemed  and  re- 
generated country. 

In  view  of  the  work  of  this  branch  from  the  commencement,  we  can 
not  but  express  our  heartfelt  gratitude  to  that  kind  Providence  which 
has  so  signally  blessed  its  efforts,  and  made  the  commission  instru- 
mental in  the  distribution  of  the  large  amount  of  donations  which  have 
been  poured  into  their  hands  by  full  and  free  hearts  for  the  benefit  of 
sufferers  who  are  bravely  defending  our  country  and  our  homes. 

It  will  be  seen  that  one  and  a  half  per  cent,  of  the  cash  receipts  from 
the  commencement  will  cover  all  expenses  for  clerk-hire,  labor,  freight, 
drayage,  and  other  incidental  matters;  and  this  comparatively  small 
expense  is,  in  great  measure,  owing  to  the  extreme  liberality — which 
should  here  be  gratefully  acknowledged — of  the  free  use  of  the  tele- 
graph wires,  and  the  free  carriage  of  hundreds  of  tons  of  stores  by  the 
several  express  companies,  railroads  and  steamboats. 

With  all  this  liberality,  our  supplies  would  long  since  have  been  ex- 
hausted by  the  constantly  increasing  requirements  of  our  soldiers,  had 
not  the  sagacity  and  enterprise  of  a  number  of  energetic  and  patriotic 
gentlemen  suggested  the  idea  of  and  inaugurated  the  great  western 
sanitary  fair  of  this  city,  the  wonderful  result  of  which  realized  to  the 
commission  over  a  quarter  of  a  million  of  dollars. 

A  very  large  amount  of  money  and  sanitary  stores  was  handled  by 
this  branch  of  the  commission.  From  the  date  of  its  organization  to 
August  11,  1864— long  before  its  final  work  was  done— a  total  of  three 
hundred  and  thirteen  thousand,  nine  hundred  and  twenty-six  dollars 
and  thirty  cents  had  come  into  its  treasury,  of  which  there  was  still  on 



hand,  in  government  securities  and  cash  in  the  bank,  the  handsome 
remainder  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  thousand,  nine  hundred  and 
five  dollars  and  fifteen  cents.  Nearly  three  hundred  different  articles 
had  been  purchased  or  received  as  donations — some  of  them  in  great 
quantity — and  used  in  the  soldiers'  home  or  local  hospitals,  or  for- 
warded to  the  troops.  Among  these  "sanitary  stores''  were  checker- 
boards, solitaire  boards,  puzzles,  "pretzels,"  and  some  other  things,  of 
which  people  would  hardly  think  in  this  connection,  but  which  were 
undoubtedly  found  useful  in  aiding  the  prevention  or  cure  of  disease. 
The  total  value  of  the  sanitary  supplies  distributed  by  the  branch  to  the 
close  of  1863 — about  the  middle  of  the  war — was  not  far  from  a  mil- 
lion of  dollais. 

The  Great  Western  Sanitary  Fair,  to  which  reference  is 
made  in  the  foregoing  sketch,  had  its  origin  in  an  impulse 
received  from  the  success  of  a  similar  fair  held  in  Chica- 
go in  October,  1863.  As  a  result  of  consultations  be- 
tween gentlemen  of  the  Sanitary  Commission  and  the 
National  Union  association,  of  some  agitation  through 
the  newspapers,  and  several  meetings,  a  very  extensive 
and  efficient  scheme  for  such  an  exposition  was  set  on 
foot.     Mr.  Reid  says: 

Presently  the  whole  city  was  alive  with  the  enthusiasm  of  a  common 
generous  effort.  Those  who  best  know  the  usually  staid  and  undemon- 
strative Queen  City  unite  in  the  testimony  that  she  was  never  before  so 
stirred  through  all  the  strata  of  her  society,  never  before  so  warm  and 
glowing,  for  any  cause  or  on  any  occasion.  Churches,  citizens'  associa- 
tions, business  men,  mechanics,  took  hold  of  the  work.  Committees 
were  appointed,  embracing  the  leading  men  and  the  best  workers  in 
every  walk  of  life  throughout  the  city;  meetings  of  ladies  weie  held; 
circulars  were  distributed ;  public  appeals  filled  the  newspapers. " 

General  Rosecrans,  who  had  been  temporarily  retired 
from  service  in  the  field,  but  had  lost  none  of  his  popu- 
larity at  home,  was  secured  as  president  of  the  fair;  and 
his  appointment  and  active  efforts  contributed  largely  to 
its  success.  The  fair  was  opened  by  an  address  from 
him  on  the  morning  of  December  21st,  and  continued 
through  the  holidays.  So  extensive  were  the  prepara- 
tions that  five  different  halls  and  buildings — two  of  them 
expressly  erected  for  the  purpose,  in  the  Fifth  and  Sixth 
street  market  spaces — were  needed.  Mozart  and  Green- 
wood halls,  and  the  Palace  Garden,  were  the  permanent 
buildings  occupied.  It  was  a  splendid  exhibit  and  bazaar, 
and  led,  with  the  public  readings,  lectures,  and  other  en- 
tertainments gratuitously  at  the  Mozart  hall  in  aid  of  the 
movement,  to  "such  a  lavish  expenditure  of  money  as 
the  city  had  never  before  dreamed  of."  The  cash  re- 
ceipts of  the  enterprise  were  about  two  hundred  and 
sixty  thousand  dollars,  of  which  only  eight  and  one-fifth 
per  cent,  was  absorbed  in  expenses,  and  the  magnificent 
sum  of  two  hundred  and  thirty-five  thousand  four  hun- 
dred and  six  dollars  and  sixty-two  cents  was  poured  into 
the  treasury  of  the  Branch.  This  was  a  larger  sum,  in 
proportion  to  population,  than  was  realized  from  any 
other  fair  of  the  kind,  except  in  Pittsburgh  and  St.  Louis, 
which  came  later  and  had  superior  advantages. 

Mr.  Reid  says  of  the  operations  of  this  Branch : 

The  largest  and  most  noted  organization  in  Ohio  for  the  relief  of  sol- 
diers was,  of  course,  the  "Cincinnati  Branch  of  the  United  States  San- 
itary Commission."  This  body,  throughout  its  history,  pursued  a  policy 
little  calculated  to  advance  its  own  fame — admirably  adapted  to  ad- 
vance the  interests  of  the  soldiers  for  whom  it  labored.  It  had  but  one 
salaried  officer,  and  it  gave  him  but  a  meagre  support  for  the  devotion 
of  his  whole  time.  It  spent  no  large  funds  in  preserving  statistics  and 
multiplying  reports  of  its  good  works.  It  entered  into  no  elaborate 
scientific  investigations  concerning  the  best  sanitary  conditions  for  large 
armies.     It  left  no  bulky  volumes  of  tracts,  discussions,  statistics,  eulo- 

gies, and  defences — indeed,  it  scarcely  left  a  report  that  might  satisfac- 
torily exhibit  the  barest  outline  of  its  work.  But  it  collected  and  used 
great  sums  of  money  and  supplies  for  the  soldiers.  First  of  any  con- 
siderable bodies  in  the  United  States,  it  sent  relief  to  battle-fields  on  a 
scale  commensurate  with  the  wants  of  the  wounded.  It  was  the  first 
to  equip  hospital  boats,  and  it  led  in  the  faithful,  patient  work  among 
the  armies,  particularly  in  the  west,  throughout  the  war.  Its  guardian- 
ship of  the  funds  committed  to  its  care  was  held  a  sacred  trust  for  the 
relief  of  needy  soldiers.  The  incidental  expenses  were  kept  down  to 
the  lowest  possible  figure,  and  were  all  defrayed  out  of  the  interest  of 
moneys  in  its  hands  before  they  were  needed  in  the  field — so  that  every 
dollar  that  was  committed  to  it  went,  at  some  time  or  other,  directly  to 
a  soldier  in  some  needed  form.  In  short,  it  was  business  skill  and 
Christian  integrity  in  charge  of  the  people's  contributions  for  their  men 
in  the  ranks.  .  .  .  The  Cincinnati  Branch  of  the  Sanitary 
Commission  continued  to  devote  its  moneys  sacredly  to  the  precise  pur- 
pose for  which  they  were  contributed.  At  the  close  of  the  war  many 
thousand  dollars  were  in  the  treasury.  These  it  kept  invested  in  United 
States  bonds,  using  the  interest  and  drawing  on  the  principal  from  time 
to  time,  as  it  was  needed  for  the  relief  of  destitute  soldiers,  and  specially 
for  their  transportation  to  their  homes,  in  cases  where  other  provision 
was  not  made  for  them.  Three  years  after  the  close  of  the  war,  it  still 
had  a  remnant  of  the  sacred  sum,  and  was  still  charging  itself  as  care- 
fully as  ever  with  its  disbursement. 

Another  most  efficient  organization,  for  which  Cincin- 
nati became  distinguished  during  the  war,  was  the  local 
branch  of  the  United  States  Christian  commission.  The 
religious  elements  in  the  city  had  been  stirred  profoundly, 
and  excited  to  the  most  ardent  patriotism,  by  the  out- 
break of  the  war.  Some  of  the  earliest  volunteers  for 
military  service  had  been  of  the  city  clergy,  of  whom  at 
least  one,  the  Rev.  Granville  Moody,  achieved  great  dis- 
tinction and  a  brigadier's  commission,  and  most  of  the 
Cincinnati  pulpits  gave  forth  no  uncertain  sound  in  aid 
of  the  Union  cause.  On  the  third  of  June,  in  the  first 
year  of  the  war,  the  association  of  Evangelical  ministers 
in  the  city  adopted  the  following  energetic  and  whole- 
hearted deliverance: 

Deeply  grateful  to  Almighty  God,  our  Heavenly  Father,  for  his  past 
mercies  to  this  nation,  and  particularly  noting  at  this  time  His  gracious 
goodness  in  leading  our  fathers  to  establish  and  preserve  for  us  a  Con- 
stitutional Government  unequalled  among  the  Governments  of  the 
earth  in  guarding  the  rights  and  promoting  the  entire  welfare  of  a  great 
people — we,  the  Evangelical  ministry  of  Cincinnati,  have  been  led  by  a 
constrained  sense  of  accountability  to  Him,  the  author  of  all  our  good, 
and  by  unfeigned  love  for  our  country,  to  adopt  the  following  state- 

We  are  compelled  to  regard  the  Rebellion  which  now  afflicts  our  land 
and  jeopardizes  some  of  the  most  precious  hopes  of  mankind,  as  the 
result  of  a  long-contemplated  and  widespread  conspiracy  against  the 
principles  of  liberty,  justice,  mercy,  and  righteousness  proclaimed  in 
the  word  of  God,  sustained  by  our  constitutional  Government,  and 
lying  at  the  foundation  of  all  public  and  private  welfare.  In  the  pres- 
ent conflict,  therefore,  our  Government  stands  before  us  as  representing 
the  cause  of  God  and  man  against  a  rebellion  threatening  the  nation 
with  ruin,  in  order  to  perpetuate  and  speed  a  system  of  unrighteous  op- 
pression. In  this  emergency,  as  ministers  of  God,  we  cannot  hesitate 
to  support,  by  every  legitimate  method,  the  Government  in  maintain- 
ing its  authority  unimpaired  throughout  the  whole  country  and  over 
this  whole  people. 

Among  other  demonstrations  of  loyalty,  Archbishop 
Purcell  had  the  flag  of  the  Union  raised  over  St.  Peter's 
cathedral  in  Cincinnati  and  the  churches  elsewhere  in 
his  diocese,  and  throughout  the  war  cast  his  immense  in- 
fluence among  his  people  steadily  for  the  Federal  cause. 
After  a  time  the  Cincinnati  branch  of  the  United  States 
Christian  commission  was  organized,  and  did  a  noble 
work.  It  received  and  disbursed  the  sum  (including 
eight  thousand  one  hundred  and  forty-four  dollars  from 
the  Cleveland  branch)  of  one  hundred  and  seventeen 



thousand  and  thirty-three  dollars,  besides  stores  to  the 
value  of  two  hundred  and  eighty-nine  thousand  six  hun- 
dred and  two  dollars,  and  publications  worth  three  thou- 
sand and  twenty-four  dollars.  The  final  statement  of  the 
operations  of  the  branch  says:  "From  the  opening  of 
the  office  at  No.  57  Vine  street,  until  it  closed,  an  unin- 
terrupted stream  of  money  and  stores  poured  in  upon  us 
from  the  patriotic  men  and  women  of  the  west,  and  espe- 
cially of  the  State  of  Ohio.  Soldiers'  aid  societies,  and 
ladies'  Christian  commissions  by  scores  and  hundreds, 
kept  us  supplied  with  the  means  to  minister  largely  to 
the  comfort  and  temporal  wants  of  our  noble  boys  in 
blue."  Mr.  A.  E.  Chamberlain,  of  the  firm  of  A.  E. 
Chamberlain  &  Co.,  served  continuously  and  faithfully 
as  president  of  the  branch,  and  gave  office  and  store  room 
without  charge.  Mr.  H.  Thane  Miller  was  vice-presi- 
dent; Rev.  J.  F,  Marlay,  secretary;  Rev.  B.  W.  Chidlaw, 
general  agent;  and  the  committee  included  some  of  the 
best-known  Christian  workers  and  residents  of  the  city. 

The  chief  events  of  the  war,  as  most  closely  related"  to 
Cincinnati — the  siege  of  the  city  and  the  Morgan  raid- 
are  narrated  in  other  chapters.  We  give  here  only  that 
portion  of  the  orders  issued  by  General  Cox,  under  di- 
rection of  General  Burnside,  during  the  raid  of  Morgan, 
which  more  particularly  concerned  the  city: 

Headquarters,  District  of  Ohio,  V 
Cincinnati,  July  13,  1863.    .) 

I.  For  the  more  perfect  organization  of  militia  of  the  city  of  Cin- 
cinnati, the  city  is  divided  into  four  districts,  as  follows :  First  district, 
consisting  of  the  First,  Third,  Fourth,  and  Seventeenth-  wards,  under 
command  of  Brigadier  General  S.  D.  Sturgis  ;  headquarters,  Broadway 
hotel.  Second  district,  consisting  of  Second,  Fifth,  Sixth,  and  Four- 
teenth wards,  under  command  of  Major  Malcolm  McDowell ;  head^ 
quarters,  Burnet  house.  Third  district,  consisting  of  Seventh,  Ninth, 
Tenth,  and  Eleventh  wards,  under  command  of  Brigadier  General  Jacob 
Ammen  ;  headquarters,  orphan  asylum.  Fourth  district,  consisting-  of 
the  Eighth,  Twelfth,  Fifteenth,  and  Sixteenth  wards,  under  command 
of  Colonel  Granville  Moody  ;  headquarters,  Finley  Methodist  Episcopal 
chapel,  on  Clinton,  near  Cutter  street. 

II.  The  independent  volunteer  companies  will  report  to  Colonel 
Stanley  Matthews  ;  headquarters  at  Walnut  street  house. 

By  command  of  Brigadier  General  J.  D.  Cox. 

G.  M.  Bascom, 
Assistant  Adjutant  General. 



In  the  early  days  of  1862,  a  new  name  was  growing  at 
once  into  popular  favor  and  popular  fear  among  the  pru- 
dent rebels  of  the  Kentucky  border.  It  was  first  heard 
of  in  the  achievement  of  carrying  off  the  artillery  be- 
longing to  the  Lexington  company  of  the  Kentucky 
State  guard  into  the  confederate  service.  Gradually  it 
came  to  be  coupled  with  daring  scouts  by  little  squads  of 
the  rebel  cavalry,  within  our  contemplative  picket -lines 

*  From  Reid's  "  Ohio  in  the  War,"  volume  I,  chapter  8,  by  permis- 
sion, with  unimportant  omissions  and  slight  changes. 

along  Green  river;  with  sudden  dashes,  like  the  burning 
of  the  Bacon  creek  bridge,  which  the  lack  of  enterprise, 
or  even  of  ordinary  vigilance,  on  the  part  of  some  of  our 
commanders,  permitted;  with  unexpected  swoops  upon 
isolated  supply-trains  or  droves  of  army  cattle;  with 
saucy  messages  about  an  intention  to  burn  the  Yankees 
of  Woodsonville  the  next  week,  and  the  like.  Then 
came  dashes  within  our  lines  about  Nashville,  night  at- 
tacks, audacious  captures  of  whole  squads  of  guards 
within  sight  of  the  camps  and  within  a  half  a  mile  of  di- 
vision headquarters;  the  seizure  of  Gallatin;  adroit  ex- 
peditions upon  telegraph  operators,  which  secured  what- 
ever news  about  the  National  armies  was  passing  over 
the  wires.  Then,  after  Mitchel  had  swept  down  into 
northern  Alabama,  followed  incursions  upon  his  rear, 
cotton-burning  exploits  under  the  very  noses  of  his 
guards,  open  pillage  of  citizens  who  had  been  encour- 
aged by  the  advance  of  the  National  armies  to  express 
their  loyalty.  These  acts  covered  a  wide  range  of  coun- 
try, and  followed  each'  other  in  quick  succession ;  but 
they  were  all  traced  to  John  Morgan's  Kentucky  cavalry, 
and  such  were  their  frequency  and  daring  that,  by  mid- 
summer of  1862,  Morgan  and  his  men  occupied  almost 
as  much  of  the  popular  attention  in  Kentucky  and  along 
the  borders  as  Beauregard  or  Lee. 

The  leader  of  this  band  was  a  native  of  Huntsville, 
Alabama,  but  from  early  boyhood  a  resident  of  Kentucky. 
He  had  grown  up  to  the  free  and  easy  life  of  a  slave- 
holding  farmer's  son,  in  the  heart  of  the  Blue  Grass  coun- 
try near  Lexington ;  had  become  a  volunteer  for  the  Mex- 
ican war  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  and  had  risen  to  a  first 
lieutenantcy;  had  passed  through  his  share  of  encoun- 
ters and  "affairs  of  honor"  about  Lexington — not  with- 
out wounds — and  had  finally  married  and  settled  down 
as  a  manufacturer  and  speculator.  He  had  lived  freely, 
gambled  freely,  shared  in  all  the  dissipations  of  the  time 
and  place,  and  still  had  retained  the  early  vigor  of  a  pow- 
erful constitution  and  a  strong  hold  upon  the  confidence 
of  the  hot-blooded  young  men  of  Lexington.  These 
followed  to  the  war;  they  were  horsemen  by  instinct, 
accustomed  to  a  dare-devil  life,  capable  of  doing  their 
own  thinking  in  emergencies,  without  waiting  for  orders, 
and  in  all  respects  the  best  material  for  an  independent 
-band'  of  partisan  rangers  the  country  has  produced. 
They  were  allied  by  family  connections  with  many  of  the 
people  of  the  Blue  Grass  region,  and  it  could  but  result 
that,  when  they  appeared  in  Kentucky — whatever  army 
might  be  near — they  found  themselves  among  friends. 

The  people  of  Ohio  had  hardly  recovered  from  the 
spasmodic  efforts  to  raise  regiments  in  a  day  for  the  sec- 
ond defence  of  the  capital,  into  which  they  had  been 
thrown  by  the  call  of  the  Government,  in  its  alarm  at 
Stonewall  Jackson's  rush  through  the  valley.  They  were 
now  rather  languidly  turning  to  the  effort  of  filling  out 
the  new  and  unexpected  call  for  seventy-four  thousand 
three-years'  men.  Few  had  as  yet  been  raised.  Here 
and  there  through  the  State  were  the  nuclei  of  form- 
ing regiments,  and  there  were  a  few  arms;  but  there  was 
no  adequate  protection  for  the  border,  and  none  dreamed 
that  any  was  necessary.     Beauregard  had  evacuated  Cor- 



■■■■■  •  .,.  ■ 



inth;  Memphis  had  fallen;  Buell  was  moving  eastward 
toward  Chattanooga;  the  troops  lately  commanded  by 
Mitchel  held  Tennessee  and  northern  Alabama ;  Kentucky 
was  mainly  in  the  hands  of  her  home  guards,  and,  under 
the  provisions  of  a  State  military  board,  was  raising  vol- 
unteers for  the  National  army.- 

Suddenly,  while  the  newspapers  were  trying  to  explain 
McClellan's  change  of  base  and  clamoring  against  BuelPs 
slow  advance  on  Chattanooga,  without  a  word  of  warning 
or  explanation,  came  the  startling  news  that  John  Mor- 
gan was  in  Kentucky !  The  dispatches  of  Friday  after- 
noon, the  eleventh  of  July,  announced  that  he  had  fallen 
upon  the  little  post  of  Tompkinsville  and  killed  or  cap- 
tured the  entire  garrison.  By  evening  it  was  known  that 
the  prisoners  were  paroled;  that  Morgan  had  advanced, 
unopposed,  to  Glasgow;  that  he  had  issued  a  proclama- 
tion calling  upon  the  Kentuckians  to  rise;  that  the  au- 
thorities deemed  it  unsafe  to  attempt  sending  through 
trains  from  Louisville  to  Nashville.  By  Saturday  after- 
noon he  was  reported  marching  on  Lexington,  and  Gen- 
eral Boyle,  the  commandant  in  Kentucky,  was  telegraph- 
ing vigorously  to  Mayor  Hatch  at  Cincinnati,  for  militia 
to  be  sent  in  that  direction. 

A  public  meeting  was  at  once  called,  and  by  nine 
o'clock  that  evening  a  concourse  of  several  thousand  cit- 
izens had  gathered  in  the  Fifth  street  market-space. 
Meantime  more  and  more  urgency  for  aid  had  been  ex- 
pressed in  successive  dispatches  from  General  Boyle.  In 
one  he  fixed  Morgan's  force  at  two  thousand,  eight  hun- 
dred ;  in  another  he  said  that  Morgan,  with  fifteen  hun- 
dred men,  had  burned  Perryville,  and  was  marching  on 
Danville;  again,  that  the  forces  at  his  command  were 
needed  to  defend  Louisville,  and  that  Cincinnati  must 
defend  Lexington !  Some  of  these  dispatches  were  read 
at  the  public  meeting,  and  speeches  were  made  by  the 
mayor,  Judge  Saffin,  and  others.  Finally,  a  committee 
was  appointed,  consisting  of  Mayor  Hatch,  Hon.  George 
E.  Pugh,  Joshua  Bates,  Thomas  J.  Gallagher,  Miles 
Greenwood,  J.  W.  Hartwell,  Peter  Gibson,  and  J.  B. 
Stallo,  to  take  such  measures  for  organized  effort  as 
might  be  possible  or  necessary.  Before  the  committee 
could  organize  came  word  that  Governor  Tod  had  or- 
dered down  such  convalescent  soldiers  as  could  be  gath- 
ered at  Camp  Dennison  and  Camp  Chase,  and  had  sent 
a  thousand  stand  of  arms.  A  little  after  midnight  two 
hundred  men,  belonging  to  the  Fifty-second  Ohio,  ar- 

On  Sunday  morning  the  city  was  thoroughly  alarmed. 
The  streets  were  thronged  at  an  early  hour,  and  by  nine 
o'clock  another  large  meeting  had  gathered  in  the  Fifth- 
street  market-space.  Speeches  were  made  by  ex-Senator 
Pugh,  Thomas  J.  Gallagher,  and  Benjamin  Eggleston. 
It  was  announced  that  a  battalion  made  up  of  the  police 
force  would  be  sent  to  Lexington  in  the  evening.  Ar- 
rangements were  made  to  organize  volunteer  companies. 
Charles  F.  Wilstach  and  Eli  C.  Baldwin  were  authorized 
to  procure  rations  for  volunteers.  The  city  council  met, 
resolved  that  it  would  pay  any  bills  incurred  by  the  com- 
mittees appointed  at  the  public  meeting,  and  appropri- 
ated five  thousand  dollars  for  immediate  wants.     Eleven 

hundred  men — parts  of  the  Eighty-fifth  and  Eighty-sixth 
Ohio,  from  Camp  Chase — arrived  in  the  afternoon  and 
went  directly  on  to  Lexington.  The  police  force,  under 
Colonel  Dudley,  their  chief,  and  an  artillery  company 
with  a  single  piece,  under  Captain  William  Glass,  of  the 
city  fire  department,  also  took  the  special  train  for  Lex- 
ington in  the  evening.  Similar  scenes  were  witnessed 
across  the  river  at  Covington  during  the  same  period. 
While  the  troops  were  mustering,  and  the  excited  people 
were  volunteering,  it  was  discovered  that  a  brother  of 
John  Morgan  was  a  guest  at  one  of  the  principal  hotels. 
He  made  no  concealment  of  his  relationship  or  of  his 
sympathy  with  the  rebel  cause,  but  produced  a  pass  from 
General  Boyle.     He  was  detained. 

Monday  brought  no  further  news  of  Morgan,  and  the 
alarm  began  to  abate.  Kentuckians  expressed  the  belief 
that  he  only  meant  to  attract  attention  by  feints  on  Lex- 
ington and  Frankfort,  while  he  should  make  his  way  to 
Bourbon  county  and  destroy  the  long  Townsend  viaduct 
near  Paris,  which  might  cripple  the  railroad '  for  weeks. 
The  Secretary  of  War  gave  permission  to  use  some  can- 
non which  Miles  Greenwood  had  been  casting  for  the 
Government,  and  Governor  Morton,  of  Indiana,  fur- 
nished ammunition  for  them,  the  Columbus  authorities 
having  declined  to  supply  it,  except  on  the  requisition  of 
a  United  States  officer  commanding  a  post.  The  tone 
of  the  press  may  be  inferred  from  the  advice  of  the 
Gazette  that  "the  bands  sent  out  to  pursue  Morgan" 
should  take  few  prisoners — "the  fewer  the  better." 
"They  are  not  worthy  of  being  treated  as  soldiers,''  it 
continued;  "they  are  freebooters,  thieves,  and  murder- 
ers, and  should  be  dealt  with  accordingly." 

For  a  day  or  two  there  followed  a  state  of  uncertainty 
as  to  Morgan's  whereabouts  or  the  real  nature  of  the 
danger.  In  answer  to  an  application  for  artillery,  the 
Secretary  of  War  telegraphed  that  Morgan  was  retreating. 
Presently  came  dispatches  from  Kentucky  that  he  was 
still  advancing.  Governor  Dennison  visited  Cincinnati 
at  the  request  of  Governor  Tod,  consulted  with  the 
"committee  of  public  safety,"  and  passed  on  to  Frank- 
fort to  look  after  the  squads  of  Ohio  troops  that  had 
been  hastily  forwarded  to  the  points  of  danger. 

The  disorderly  elements  of  the  city  took  advantage  of 
the  absence  of  so  large  a  portion  of  the  police  force  at 
Lexington.  Troubles  broke  out  between  the  Irish  and 
negroes,  in  which  the  former  were  the  aggressors;  houses 
were  fired,  and  for  a  little  time  there  were  apprehensions 
of  a  serious  riot.  Several  hundred  leading  property 
holders  met  in  alarm  at  the  Merchants'  Exchange,  and 
took  measures  for  organizing  a  force  of  one  thousand 
citizens  for  special  service  the  ensuing  night.  For  a  day 
or  two  the  excitement  was  kept  up,  but  there  were  few 
additional  outbreaks. 

While  Cincinnati  was  thus  in  confusion,  and  troops 
were  hurrying  to  the  defense  of  the  threatened  points, 
John  Morgan  was  losing  no  time  in  idle  debates.  He 
had  left  Knoxville,  East  Tennessee,  on  the  morning  of 
the  fourth  of  July;  on  the  morning  of  the  ninth  he  had 
fallen  upon  the  garrison  at  Tompkinsville;  before  one 
o'clock  the  next  morning  he  had  possession  of  Glasgow; 




by  the  eleventh  he  had  possession  of  Lebanon.  On  the 
Sunday  (thirteenth)  on  which  Cincinnati  had  been  so 
thoroughly  aroused,  he  entered  Harrodsburgh.  Then, 
feigning  on  Frankfort,  he  made  haste  toward  Lexington, 
striving  to  delay  reinforcements  by  sending  out  parties  to 
burn  bridges,  and  hoping  to  find  the  town  an  easy  cap- 
ture. Monday  morning  he  was  within  fifteen  miles  of 
Frankfort;  before  nightfall  he  was  at  Versailles,  having 
marched  between  three  and  four  hundred  miles  in  eight 

Moving  thence  to  Midway,  between  Frankfort  and 
Lexington,  he  surprised  the  telegraph  operator,  secured 
his  office  in  good  order,  took  off  the  dispatches  that 
were  flying  back  and  forth;  possessed  himself  of  the 
plans  and  preparations  of  the  Union  officers  at  Frankfort, 
Lexington,  Louisville  and  Cincinnati;  and  audaciously 
sent  dispatches  in  the  name  of  the  Midway  operator,  as- 
suring the  Lexington  authorities  that  Morgan  was  then 
driving  in  the  pickets  at  Frankfort.  Then  he  hastened 
to  Georgetown,  twelve  miles  from  Lexington,  eighteen 
from  Frankfort,  and  within  easy  striking  distance  of  any 
point  in  the  Blue  Grass  region.  Here,  with  the  union 
commanders  completely  mystified  as  to  his  whereabouts 
and  purposes,  he  coolly  halted  for  a  couple  of  days  and 
rested  his  horses.  Then,  giving  up  all  thought  of  at- 
tacking Lexington,  as  he  found  how  strongly  it  was  garri- 
soned, he  decided — as  Colonel  Duke,  his  second  in  com- 
mand, naively  tells  us  in  his  History  of  Morgan's  Cav- 
alry— "to  make  a  dash  at  Cynthiana,  on  the  Kentucky 
Central  railroad,  hoping  to  induce  the  impression  that 
he  was  aiming  at  Cincinnati,  and  at  the  same  time  thor- 
oughly bewilder  the  officers  in  command  at  Lexington 
regarding  his  real  intentions."  Thither,  therefore,  he 
went;  and  to  some  purpose.  The  town  was  garrisoned 
by  a  few  hundred  Kentucky  cavalry  and  some  home 
guards,  with  Captain  Glass'  firemen-artillery  company 
from  Cincinnati,  in  all  perhaps  five  hundred  men.  These 
were  routed  after  some  sharp  fighting  at  the  bridge  and 
in  the  streets;  the  gun  was  captured,  and  four  hundred 
and  twenty  prisoners  were  taken,  besides  abundance  of 
stores-,  arms,  and  two  or  three  hundred  horses.  At  one 
o'clock  he  was  off  for  Paris,  which  sent  out  a  deputation 
of  citizens  to  meet  him  and  surrender.  By  this  time  the 
forces  that  had  been  gathering  at  Lexington  had  moved 
against  him,  under  General  Green  Clay  Smith,  with 
nearly  double  his  strength;  but  the  next  morning  he  left 
Paris  unmolested,  and  marching  through  Winchester, 
Richmond,  Crab  Orchard,  and  Somerset,  crossed  \he 
Cumberland  again  at  his  leisure.  He  started  with  nine 
hundred  men,  and  returned  with  one  thousand  two  hun- 
dred, having  captured  and  paroled  nearly  as  many,  and 
having  destroyed  all  the  Government  arms  and  stores  in 
seventeen  towns. 

Meantime  the  partially  lulled  excitement  in  Cincinnati 
had  risen  again.  A  great  meeting  had  been  held  in 
Court  street  market-space,  at  which  Judge  Hugh  J. 
Jewett,  who  had-been  the  Democratic  candidate  for  gov- 
ernor, made  an  earnest  appeal  for  rapid  enlistments,  to 
redeem  the  pledge  of  the  government  to  assist  Kentucky, 
and  to  prevent  Morgan  from  recruiting  a  large  army  in 

that  State.  Quartermaster-General  Wright  had  followed 
in  a  similar  strain.  The  City  Council,  to  silence  doubts 
on  the  part  of  some,  had  taken  the  oath  of  allegiance  in 
a  body.  The  Chamber  of  Commerce  had  memorialized 
the  council  to  make  an  appropriation  for  bounties  to  vol- 
unteers; Colonel  Burbank  had  been  appointed  military 
governor  of  the  city,  in  response  to  a  dispatch  requesting 
it,  from  Mayor  Hatch  and  others;  and  there  had  been 
rumors  of  martial  law  and  a  provost  marshal.  The  popu- 
lar ferment  largely  took  the  shape  of  clamor  for  bounties 
as  a  means  of  stimulating  volunteers.  The  newspapers 
called  on  the  governor  to  "take  the  responsibility,''  and 
offer  twenty-five  dollars  bounty  for  every  recruit.  Public- 
spirited  citizens  made  contributions  for  such  a  purpose — 
Mr.  J.  Cleves  Short,  one  thousand  dollars,  Messrs.  Tyler 
Davidson  &  Co.,  one  thousand  two  hundred  dollars,  Mr. 
Kugler,  two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars,  Mr.  Jacob 
Elsas,  five  hundred  dollars.  Two  regiments  for  service 
in  emergencies  were  hastily  formed,  which  were  known 
as  the  Cincinnati  Reserves. 

Yet,  withal,  the  alarm  never  reached  the  height  of  the 
excitement  on  Sunday,  the  thirteenth  of  July,  when 
Morgan  was  first  reported  marching  on  Lexington.  The 
papers  said  they  should  not  be  surprised  any  morning  to 
see  his  cavalry  on  the  hills  opposite  Cincinnati;  but  the 
people  seemed  to  entertain  less  apprehension.  They 
were  soon  to  have  greater  occasion  for  fear. 

For  the  invasion  of  Morgan  was  only  a  forerunner.  It 
had  served  to  illustrate  to  the  rebel  commanders  the  ease 
with  which  their  armies  could  be  planted  in  Kentucky, 
and  had  set  before  them  a  tempting  vision  of  the  rich 
supplies  of  the  "Blue  Grass." 

July  and  August  passed  in  comparative  gloom.  Mc- 
Clellan  was  recalled  from  the  Peninsula.  Pope  was 
driven  back  from  the  Rapidan,  and  after  a  bewildering 
series  of  confused  and  bloody  engagements,  was  forced  to 
seek  refuge  under  the  defences  at  Washington.  On  the 
southwest  our  armies  seemed  torpid,  and  the  enemy  was 
advancing.  In  the  department  in  which  Ohio  was  spe- 
cially interested,  there  were  grave  delays  in  the  long- 
awaited  movement  on  Chattanooga,  and  finally  it  ap- 
peared that  Bragg  had  arrived  there  before  Buell. 

Presently  vague  rumors  of  a  new  invasion  began  to  be 
whispered,  and  at  last,  while  Bragg  and  Buell  warily 
watched  each  the  other's  maneuvers,  Kirby  Smith,  who 
had  been  posted  at  Knoxville,  broke  camp  and  marched 
straight  for  the  heart  of  Kentucky,  with  twelve  thousand 
men  and  thirty  or  forty  pieces  of  artillery.  With  the  first 
rumors  of  danger,  Indiana  and  Ohio  had  both  made 
strenuous  exertions  to  throw  forward  the  new  levies,  and 
Indiana  in  particular  had  hastily  put  in  the  field  in  Ken- 
tucky a  large  number  of  perfectly  raw  troops,  just  from 
the  camps  at  which  they  had  been  recruited. 

Through  Big  Creek  and  Roger's  Gap  Kirby  Smith 
moved  without  molestation;  passed  the  National  forces 
at  Cumberland  Gap  without  waiting  to  attempt  a  reduc- 
tion of  the  place ;  and  absolutely  pushed  on  into  Ken- 
tucky unopposed,  till,  within  fifteen  miles  of  Richmond 
and  less  than  three  times  that  distance  from  Lexington 



itself,  he  fell  upon  a  Kentucky  regiment  of  cavalry  under 
Colonel  Metcalf  and  scattered  it  in  a  single  charge.  The 
routed  cavalrymen  bore  back  to  Richmond  and  Lexing- 
ton the  first  authentic  news  of  the  rebel  advance.  The 
new  troops  were  hastily  pushed  forward  in  utter  igno- 
rance of  the  strength  of  the  enemy,  and  apparently  with- 
out any  well-defined  plans,  and  so,  as  the  victorious  in- 
vaders came  up  toward  Richmond,  they  found  this  force 
opposing  them.  Smith  seems  scarcely  to  have  halted, 
even  to  concentrate  his  command;  but,  precipitating  the 
advance  of  his  column,  upon  the  raw  line  that  confronted 
him,  scattered  it  again  at  a  charge  (August  29th).  Gen- 
eral Manson,  who  commanded  the  National  troops,  had 
been  caught  before  getting  his  men  well  in  hand}  A  little 
farther  back  he  essayed  the  formation  of  another  line,  and 
the  check  of  the  rout;  but,  while  the  broken  line  was 
steadying,  Smith  again  came  charging  up,  and  the  disor- 
derly retreat  was  speedily  renewed.  A  third  and  more 
determined  stand  was  made,  almost  in  the  suburbs  of  the 
town,  and  some  hard  fighting  ensued ;  but  the  undisci- 
plined and  ill-handled  troops  were  no  match  for  their  en- 
thusiastic assailants,  and  when  they  were  this  time  driven, 
the  rout  became  complete.  The  cavalry  fell  upon  the 
fugitives;  whole  regiments  were  captured,  and  instantly 
paroled;  those  who  escaped  fled  through  fields  and  by- 
ways and  soon  poured  into  Lexington  with  the  story  of 
the  disaster. 

Thither  now  went  hurrying  General  H.  G.  Wright,  the 
commander  of  the  department.  A  glance  at  the  condi- 
tion of  such  troops  as  this  battle  of  Richmond  had  left 
him,  showed  that  an  effort  to  hold  Lexington  would  be 
hopeless.  Before  Kirby  Smith  could  get  up  he  evacuated 
the  place,  and  was  falling  back  in  all  haste  on  Louisville, 
while  the  railroad  company  was  hurrying  its  stock  toward 
the  Cincinnati  end  of  the  road ;  the  banks  were  sending 
off  their  specie ;  Union  men  were  fleeing,  and  the  pre- 
dominant rebel  element  was  throwing  off  all  disguise. 

On  the  first  of  September  General  Kirby  Smith  entered 
Lexington  in  triumph.  Two  days  later  he  dispatched 
Heath  with  five  or  six  thousand  men  against  Covington 
and  Cincinnati ;  the  next  day  he  was  joined  by  John 
Morgan,  who  had  moved  through  Glasgow  and  Danville; 
and  the  overjoyed  people  of  the  city  thronged  the  streets 
and  shouted  from  every  door  and  window  their  welcome 
to  the  invaders.  Pollard,  the  Confederate  historian,  says 
the  bells  of  the  city  were  rung,  and  every  possible  mani- 
festation of  joy  was  made.  A  few  days  later  Buell  was 
at  Nashville,  Bragg  was  moving  into  Kentucky,  and  the 
"race  for  Louisville,"  as  it  has  sometimes  been  called,  was 
begun.  So  swift  was  the  rebel  rush  upon  Kentucky  and 
the  Ohio  border ;  so  sudden  the  revolution  in  the  aspect 
of  the  war  in  the  Southwest. 

We  have  told  the  simple  story  of  the  rebel  progress. 
It  would  need  more  vivid  colors  to  give  an  adequate 
picture  of  the  state  into  which  Cincinnati  and  the  sur- 
rounding country  were  thereby  thrown. 

News  of  the  disaster  at  Richmond  was  not  received  in 
Cincinnati  until  a  late  hour  Saturday  night,  August  30th. 
It  produced  great  excitement,  but  the  full  extent  of  its 
consequences  was  not  realized.     There  were  soldiers  in 

plenty  to  drive  back  the  invaders,  it  was  argued;  only  a 
few  experienced  officers  were  needed.  The  sanitary 
commission  hastened  its  shipments  of  stores  towards  the 
battle-field,  and  the  State  authorities  began  preparations 
for  sending  relief  to  the  wounded;  while  the  newspapers 
gave  vent  to  the  general  dissatisfaction  in  severe  criti- 
cisms on  the  management  of  the  battle,  and  in  wonders 
as  to  what  Buell  could  be  doing.  Thus  Sunday  passed. 
Monday  afternoon  rumors  began  to  fly  about  that  the 
troops  were  in  no  condition  to  make  any  sufficient  oppo- 
sition, that  Lexington  and  Frankfort  might  have  to  be 
abandoned.  Great  crowds  flocked  about  the  newspaper 
offices  and  army  headquarters  to  ask  the  particulars;  but 
all  still  thought  that  in  any  event  there  were  plenty  of 
troops  between  the  invaders  and  themselves.  By  dusk 
it  was  known  that,  instead  of  falling  back  upon  Cincin- 
nati, the  troops  were  retreating  through  Frankfort  to 
Louisville — that  between  Kirby  Smith's  flushed  regiments 
and  the  banks  and  warehouses  of  the  Queen  City  stood 
no  obstacle  more  formidable  than  a  few  unmanned  siege 
guns  back  of  Covington,  and  the  easily  crossed  Ohio 

The  shock  was  profound.  But  none  thought  of  any- 
thing, save  to  seek  what  might  be  the  most  efficient 
means  of  defence.  The  city  council  at  once  met  in  extra 
session,  pledged  the  faith  of  the  city  to  meet  any  expen- 
ses the  military  authorities  might  require  in  the  emer- 
gency ;  authorized  the  mayor  to  suspend  all  business  and 
summon  every  man,  alien  or  citizen,  who  lived  under 
the  protection  of  the  Government,  to  unite  in  military 
organizations  for  its  defence ;  assured  the  general  com- 
manding the  department  (General  Wright)  of  their  entire 
confidence,  and  requested  him  to  call  for  men  and  means 
to  any  extent  desired,  no  limit  being  proposed  save  the 
entire  capacity  of  the  community. 

While  the  municipal  authorities  were  thus  tendering 
the  whole  resources  of  the  city  of  a  quarter  of  a  million 
people,  the  commander  of  the  department  was  sending 
them  a  general.  Lewis  Wallace  was  a  dashing  young 
officer  of  volunteers,  who  had  been  among  the  first  from 
Indiana  to  enter  the  field  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war, 
and  had  risen  to  the  highest  promotion  then  attainable 
in  the  army.  He  was  notably  quick  to  take  responsibili- 
ties, full  of  energy  and  enthusiasm,  abundantly  confident 
in  his  own  resources,  capable  of  bold  plans.  When  the 
first  indications  of  danger  appeared  he  had  waived  his 
rank  and  led  one  of  the  raw  regiments  from  his  State 
into  the  field.  Then,  after  being  for  a  short  time  in 
charge  of  the  troops  about  Lexington,  he  had,  on  being 
relieved  by  General  Nelson,  returned  to  Cincinnati. 
Here  the  commander  of  the  department  seized  upon 
him  for  service  in  the  sudden  emergency,  summoning 
him  first  to  Lexington  for  consultation;  then,  when  him- 
self hastening  to  Louisville,  ordered  Wallace  back  to 
Cincinnati,  to  assume  command  and  defend  the  town, 
with  its  Kentucky  suburbs. 

He  arrived  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The  mayor 
waited  upon  him  at  once  with  notice  of  the  action  of  the 
city  council.  The  mayors  of  Newport  and  Covington 
soon  came  hurrying  over.     The  few  army  officers  on 



duty  in  the  three  towns  also  reported;  and  a  few  hours 
were  spent  in  consultation. 

Then,  at  2  a.  m.,  the  decisive  step  was  taken,  a  procla- 
mation of  martial  law  was  sent  to  the  newspapers.  Next 
morning  the  citizens  read  at  their  breakfast  tables — before 
yet  any  one  knew  that  the  rebels  were  advancing  on  Cin- 
cinnati, two  days  in  fact  before  the  advance  began — that 
all  business  must  be  suspended  at  nine  o'clock;  that  they 
must  assemble  within  an  hour  thereafter  and  await  orders 
for  work;  that  the  ferry-boats  should  cease  plying,  save 
under  military  direction;  that  for  the  present  the  city  po- 
lice should  enforce  martial  law;  that  in  all  this  the  princi- 
ple to  be  adopted  was :  "Citizens  for  labor,  soldiers  for  bat- 
tle." It  was  the  boldest  and  most  vigorous  order  in  the 
history  of  Cincinnati  or  of  the  war  along  the  border.* 

"If  the  enemy  should  not  come  after  all  this  fuss,'' 
said  one  of  the  general's  friends,  "you  will  be  ruined." 
"Very  well,"  was  the  reply;  "but  they  will  come,  or,  if 
they  do  not,  it  will  be  because  this  same  fuss  has  caused 
them  to  think  better  of  it." 

The  city  took  courage  from  the  bold  course  of  its  gen- 
eral; instead  of  a  panic  there  was  universal  congratula- 
tion. "From  the  appearance  of  our  streets,''  said  one  of 
the  newspapers  the  next  day,  in  describing  the  operations 
of  martial  law,  "  a  stranger  would  imagine  that  some  pop- 
ular holiday  was  being  celebrated.  Indeed,  were  the 
millenium  suddenly  inaugurated,  the  populace  could 
hardly  seem  better  pleased."  All  cheerfully  obeyed  the 
order,  though  there  was  not  military  force  enough  present 
to  have  enforced  it  along  a  single  street.  Every  business 
house  was  closed;  in  the  unexpectedly  scrupulous  obe- 
dience to  the  letter  of  the  proclamation,  even  the  street- 
cars stopped  running,  and  the  teachers,  closing  their 
schools,  reported  for  duty.  But  few  hacks  or  wagons 
were  to  be  seen,  save  those  On  Government  service.  Work- 
ing parties  of  citizens  had  been  ordered  to  report  to  Col- 
onel J.  V.  Guthrie;  companies  of  citizen  soldiers  to 
Major  Malcolm  McDowell.  Meetings  assembled  in  every 
ward;     great    numbers    of   military   organizations   were 

*The  following  is  the  text  of  this  remarkable  order,  which  practically 
saved  Cincinnati: 


The  undersigned,  by  order  of  Major-General  Wright,  assumes  com- 
mand of  Cincinnati,  Covington,  and  Newport. 

It  is  but  fair  to  inform  the  citizens  that  an  active,  daring,  and  power- 
ful enemy  threatens  them  with  every  consequence  of  war;  yet  the  cities 
must  be  defended,  and  their  inhabitants  must  assist  in  preparations. 
Patriotism,  duty,  honor,  self-preservation,  call  them  to  the  labor,  and  it 
must  be  performed  equally  by  all  citizens. 

First.  All  business  must  be  suspended.  At  nine  o'clock  to-day  every 
business  house  must  be  closed. 

Second.  Under  the  direction  of  the  Mayor,  the  citizens  must,  within 
an  hour  after  the  suspension  of  business  (ten  o'clock  A.  m.),  assemble 
in  convenient  public  places  ready  for  orders.  As  soon  as  possible  they 
will  then  be  assigned  to  their  work.  This  labor  ought  to  be  that  of  love, 
and  the  undersigned  trusts  and  believes  it  will  be  so.  Anyhow,  it  must 
be  done.  The  willing  shall  be  properly  credited,  the  unwilling  prompt- 
ly visited.  The  principle  adopted  is,  citizens  for  the  labor,  soldiers  for 
the  battle. 

Third.  The  ferry-boats  will  cease  plying  the  river  after  four  o'clock 
A.  m.,  until  further  orders. 

Martial  law  is  hereby  proclaimed  in  the  three  cities;  but  until  they  can 
be  relieved  by  the  military,  the  injunctions  of  this  proclamation  will  be 
executed  by  the  police.  Lewis  Wallace, 

Major  General  Commanding. 

formed;  by  noon  thousands  of  citizens  in  fully  organized . 
companies  were  industriously  drilling.  Meanwhile,  back 
of  Newport  and  Covington,  breastworks,  rifle-pits,  and 
redoubts  had  been  hastily  traced,  guns  had  been  mounted, 
pickets  thrown  out.  Toward  evening  a  sound  of  ham- 
mers and  saws  arose  from  the  landing;  by  daybreak  a 
pontoon  bridge  stretched  from  Cincinnati  to  Covington, 
and  wagons  loaded  with  lumber  for  barracks  and  material 
for  fortifications  were  passing  over. 

In  such  spirit  did  Cincinnati  herself  confront  the  sud- 
den danger.  Not  less  vigorous  was  the  action  of  the 
governor.  While  Wallace  was  writing  his  proclamation 
of  martial  law,  and  ordering  the  suspension  of  business, 
Tod  was  hurrying  down  to  the  scene  of  danger  for  con- 
sultation. Presently  he  was  telegraphing  from  Cincinnati 
to  his  adjutant-general  to  send  whatever  troops  were  ac- 
cessible without  a  moment's  delay.  "  Do  not  wait,"  he 
added,  "to  have  them  mustered  or  paid — that  can  be 
done  here — they  should  be  armed  and  furnished  ammuni- 
tion." To  his  quattermaster  he  telegraphed:  "Send  five 
thousand  stand  of  arms  for  the  militia  of  the  city,  with 
fifty  rounds  of  ammunition.  Send  also  forty  rounds  for 
fifteen  hundred  guns  (sixty-nine  calibre)."  To  the  peo- 
ple along  the  border,  through  the  press  and  the  military 
committees,  he  said : 

Our  southern  border  is  threatened  with  invasion.  I  have  therefore 
to  recommend  that  all  the  loyal  men  of  your  counties  at  once  form 
themselves  into  military  companies  and  regiments  to  beat  back  the  en- 
emy at  any  and  all  points  he  may  attempt  to  invade  our  State.  Gather 
up  all  the  arms  in  the  county,  and  furnish  yourselves  with  ammunition 
for  the  same.  The  service  will  be  of  but  few  days'  duration.  The  soil 
of  Ohio  must  not  be  invaded  by  the  enemies  of  our  glorious  Govern- 

To  Secretary  Stanton  he  telegraphed  that  he  had  no 
doubt  a  large  rebel  force  was  moving  against  Cincinnati, 
but  it  would  be  successfully  met.  The  commander  at 
Camp  Dennison  he  directed  to  guard  the  track  of  the 
Little  Miami  railroad  against  apprehended  dangers,  as 
far  up  as  Xenia. 

The  rural  districts  were  meanwhile  hastening  to  the 
rescue.  Early  in  the  day — within  an  hour  or  two  after 
the  arrival  of  the  Cincinnati  papers  with  news  of  the 
danger — Preble  and  Butler  counties  telegraphed  offers 
of  large  numbers  of  men.  Warren,  Greene,  Franklin, 
and  half  a  score  of  others,  rapidly  followed.  Before 
night  the  governor  had  sent  a  general  answer  in  this 
proclamation : 

Cincinnati,  Septembers,  1862. 
In  response  to  several  communications  tendering  companies  and 
squads  of  men  for  the  protection  of  Cincinnati,  I  announce  that  all 
such  bodies  of  men  who  are  armed  will  be  received.  They  will  repair  at 
once  to  Cincinnati,  and  report  to  General  Lew  Wallace,  who  will  com- 
plete their  further  organization.  Nonebut  armed  men  will  be  received, 
and  such  only  until  the  fifth  instant.  Railroad  companies  will  pass  all 
such  bodies  of  men  at  the  expense  of  the  State.  It  is  not  desired  that 
any  troops  residing  in  any  of  the  river  counties  leave  their  counties. 
All  such  are  requested  to  organize  and  remain  for  the  protection  of  their 
own  counties.  David  Tod,  Governor. 

Before  daybreak  the  advance  of  the  men  that  were 
thenceforward  to  be  known  in  the  history  of  the  State  as 
the  "Squirrel  Hunters,"  were  filing  through  the  streets. 
Next  morning,  throughout  the  interior,  church  and  fire- 
bells  rang;  mounted  men  galloped  through  neighbor- 
hoods to  spread  the  alarm ;  there  was  a  hasty  cleaning  of 



rifles  and  moulding  of  bullets  and  filling  of  powder-horns 
and  mustering  at  the  villages ;  and  every  city-bound  train 
ran  burdened  with  the  gathering  host. 

While  these  preparations  were  in  progress,  perhaps 
Cincinnati  might  have  been  taken  by  a  vigorous  dash  of 
Kirby  Smith's  entire  force,  and  held  long  enough  for 
pillage.  But  the  inaction  for  a  day  or  two  at  Lexington 
was  fatal  to  such  hopes.  Within  two  days  after  the  proc- 
lamation of  martial  law  the  city  was  safe  beyond  per- 
adventure.  Then,  as  men  saw  the  vast  preparations  for 
an  enemy  that  had  not  come,  they  began,  not  unnaturally, 
to  wonder  if  the  need  for  such  measures  had  been  im- 
perative. A  few  business  men  complained.  Some  Ger- 
mans began  tearing  up  a  street-railroad  track,  in  revenge 
for  the  invidious  distinction  which,  in  spite  of  the  danger, 
had  adjudged  the  street-cars  indispensable,  but  not  the 
lager-beer  shops.  The  schools  had  unintentionally  been 
closed  by  the  operation  of  the  first  sweeping  proclama- 
tion, and  fresh  orders  had  to  be  issued -to  open  them; 
bake-shops  had  been  closed,  and  the  people  seemed  in 
danger  of  getting  no  bread ;  the  drug-stores  had  been 
closed,  and  the  sick  could  get  no  medicines.  Such  over- 
sights were  speedily  corrected,  but  they  left  irritation.* 

The  Evening  Times  newspaper,  giving  voice  to  a  senti- 
ment that  undoubtedly  began  to  find  expression  among 
some  classes,  published  a  communication  which  pro- 
nounced the  whole  movement  "a  big  scare,"  and  ridiculed 
the  efforts  to  place  the  city  in  a  posture  of  defense,  t 

To  at  least  a  slight  extent  the  commander  of  the  De- 
partment would  seem  to  have  entertained  the  same  opin- 
ion. After  two  days  of  martial  law  and  mustering  for  the 
defense  of  the  city,  he  directed,  on  his  return  from  Louis- 
ville, a  relaxation  of  the  stringency  of  the  first  orders,  and 
notified  Governor  Tod  that  no  more  men  from  the  in- 
terior were  wanted.  The  next  day  he  relieved  General 
Wallace  of  the  command  in  Cincinnati  and  sent  him 
across  the  river  to  take  charge  of  the  defences;  permitted 
the  resumption  of  all  business  save  liquor  selling,  only  re- 
quiring that  it  should  be  suspended  each  afternoon  at 

*  The  following  order,  issued  by  the  mayor,  with  the  sanction  of 
General  Wallace,  obviated  the  difficulties  involved  in  the  literal  suspen- 
sion of  all  business  in  a  great  city  : 

First.  The  banks  and  bankers  of  this  city  will  be  permitted  to  open 
their  offices  from  one  to  two  P.  M. 

Second.     Bakers  are  allowed  to  pursue  their  business.    m 

Third.     Physicians  are  allowed  to  attend  their  patients. 

Fourth.  Employes  of  newspapers  are  allowed  to  pursue  their  busi- 

Fifth.     Funerals  are  permitted,  but  only  mourners  are  allowed  to 

leave  the  city. 

Sixth.  All  coffee-houses  and  places  where  intoxicating  liquors  are 
sold,  are  to  be  closed  and  kept  closed. 

Seventh.     Eating  and  drinking-houses  are  to  close  and  keep  closed. 

Eighth.     All  places  of  amusement  are  to  close  and  keep  closed. 

Ninth.  All  drug-stores  and  apothecaries  are  permitted  to  keep  open 
and  do  their  ordinary  business. 

George  Hatch,  Mayor  of  Cincinnati. 

f  Within  an  hour  or  two  after  this  publication,  General  Wallace  sup- 
pressed the  Times;  for  this  article,  as  was  generally  supposed,  although